Unbelief and Its Consequences

18 For (A)the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of people who (B)suppress the truth [a]in unrighteousness, 19 because (C)that which is known about God is evident [b]within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For (D)since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, that is, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, (E)being understood by what has been made, so that they are without excuse. 21 For even though they knew God, they did not [c]honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became (F)futile in their reasonings, and their senseless hearts were darkened. 22 (G)Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23 and they (H)exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible mankind, of birds, four-footed animals, and [d]crawling creatures.

24 Therefore (I)God gave them up to vile impurity in the lusts of their hearts, so that their bodies would be (J)dishonored among them. 25 For they exchanged the truth of God for [e](K)falsehood, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, (L)who is blessed [f]forever. Amen.

26 For this reason (M)God gave them over to (N)degrading passions; for their women exchanged natural relations for that which is contrary to nature, 27 and likewise the men, too, abandoned natural relations [g]with women and burned in their desire toward one another, (O)males with males committing [h]shameful acts and receiving in [i]their own persons the due penalty of their error.

28 And just as they did not see fit [j]to acknowledge God, (P)God gave them up to a depraved mind, to do those things that are not proper, 29 people having been filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, and evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, and malice; they are (Q)gossips, 30 slanderers, [k](R)haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, (S)disobedient to parents, 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, (T)unfeeling, and unmerciful; 32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of (U)death, they not only do the same, but also (V)approve of those who practice them.

The Impartiality of God

Therefore you have (W)no excuse, [l]you foolish person, (X)everyone of you who passes judgment; for [m]in that matter in which (Y)you judge someone else, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things. And we know that the judgment of God [n]rightly falls upon those who practice such things. But do you suppose this, [o](Z)you foolish person who passes judgment on those who practice such things, and yet does them as well, that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you think lightly of (AA)the riches of His (AB)kindness and [p](AC)restraint and (AD)patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance? But [q]because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart (AE)you are storing up wrath for yourself (AF)on the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, (AG)who will repay each person according to his deeds: to those who by (AH)perseverance in doing good seek (AI)glory, honor, and (AJ)immortality, He will give (AK)eternal life; but to those who are (AL)self-serving and (AM)do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, He will give wrath and indignation. There will be (AN)tribulation and distress [r]for every soul of mankind who does evil, [s]for the Jew (AO)first and also [t]for the Greek, 10 but (AP)glory, honor, and peace to everyone who does what is good, to the Jew (AQ)first and also to the Greek. 11 For (AR)there is no partiality with God.

12 For all who have sinned [u](AS)without the Law will also perish [v]without the Law, and all who have sinned [w]under the Law will be judged [x]by the Law; 13 for it is (AT)not the hearers [y]of the Law who are [z]righteous before God, but the doers [aa]of the Law who will be justified. 14 For when Gentiles who do not have [ab]the Law [ac](AU)instinctively perform the requirements of the Law, these, though not having [ad]the Law, are a law to themselves, 15 in that they show (AV)the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them, 16 on the day when, (AW)according to my gospel, (AX)God will judge the secrets of mankind through Christ Jesus.

The Jews under the Law

17 But if you call yourself a [ae]Jew and (AY)rely [af]upon the Law and boast in God, 18 and know His will and [ag](AZ)distinguish the things that matter, being instructed from the Law, 19 and are confident that you yourself are a guide to people who are blind, a light to those in darkness, 20 a [ah]corrector of the foolish, a teacher of [ai]the immature, possessing in the Law (BA)the embodiment of knowledge and of the truth— 21 you, therefore, (BB)who teach someone else, do you not teach yourself? You who [aj]preach that one is not to steal, do you steal? 22 You who say that one is not to commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who loathe idols, do you (BC)rob temples? 23 You who (BD)boast [ak]in the Law, through your breaking the Law, do you dishonor God? 24 For “(BE)the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles (BF)because of you,” just as it is written.

25 For indeed circumcision is of value if you (BG)practice [al]the Law; but if you are a violator [am]of the Law, (BH)your circumcision has turned into uncircumcision. 26 (BI)So if (BJ)the [an]uncircumcised man (BK)keeps the requirements of the Law, will his uncircumcision not be regarded as circumcision? 27 And (BL)he who is physically uncircumcised, if he keeps the Law, will he not (BM)judge you who [ao]though having the letter of the Law and circumcision are a violator [ap]of the Law? 28 For (BN)he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. 29 But (BO)he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and (BP)circumcision is of the heart, by the (BQ)Spirit, not by the letter; (BR)and his praise is not from people, but from God.

All the World Guilty

Then what [aq]advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the benefit of circumcision? Great in every respect. First, that (BS)they were entrusted with the (BT)actual words of God. What then? If (BU)some [ar]did not believe, their [as]unbelief will not nullify the faithfulness of God, will it? [at](BV)Far from it! Rather, God must prove to be true, though every person be found (BW)a liar, as it is written:

(BX)So that You are justified in Your words,
And prevail [au]when You are judged.”

But if our unrighteousness [av](BY)demonstrates the righteousness of God, (BZ)what shall we say? The God who inflicts wrath is not unrighteous, is He? ((CA)I am speaking from a human viewpoint.) (CB)Far from it! For otherwise, how will (CC)God judge the world? But if through my lie (CD)the truth of God abounded to His glory, (CE)why am I also still being judged as a sinner? And why not say (just as we are slanderously reported and as some claim that we say), “(CF)Let’s do evil that good may come of it”? [aw]Their condemnation is deserved.

What then? [ax](CG)Are we better than they? Not at all; for we have already charged that both (CH)Jews and (CI)Greeks are (CJ)all under sin; 10 as it is written:

(CK)There is no righteous person, not even one;
11 There is no one who understands,
There is no one who seeks out God;
12 They have all turned aside, together they have become [ay]corrupt;
There is no one who does good,
There is not even one.”
13 (CL)Their throat is an open grave,
With their tongues they keep deceiving,”
(CM)The venom of [az]asps is under their lips”;
14 (CN)Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness”;
15 (CO)Their feet are swift to shed blood,
16 Destruction and misery are in their paths,
17 And they have not known the way of peace.”
18 (CP)There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

19 Now we know that whatever the (CQ)Law says, it speaks to (CR)those who are [ba]under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and (CS)all the world may become accountable to God; 20 because (CT)by the works [bb]of the Law [bc]none of mankind will be justified in His sight; for [bd](CU)through the Law comes [be]knowledge of sin.


  1. Romans 1:18 Or by
  2. Romans 1:19 Or among
  3. Romans 1:21 Lit glorify
  4. Romans 1:23 Or reptiles
  5. Romans 1:25 Lit the lie
  6. Romans 1:25 Lit unto the ages
  7. Romans 1:27 Lit of the female
  8. Romans 1:27 Lit shamelessness
  9. Romans 1:27 Lit themselves
  10. Romans 1:28 Lit to have God in knowledge
  11. Romans 1:30 Or hateful to God
  12. Romans 2:1 Lit O
  13. Romans 2:1 Or when you judge
  14. Romans 2:2 Lit is according to truth against
  15. Romans 2:3 Lit O
  16. Romans 2:4 I.e., from inflicting punishment
  17. Romans 2:5 Or in accordance with
  18. Romans 2:9 Lit upon
  19. Romans 2:9 Lit of the
  20. Romans 2:9 Lit of the
  21. Romans 2:12 Or without law
  22. Romans 2:12 Or without law
  23. Romans 2:12 Or under law
  24. Romans 2:12 Or by law
  25. Romans 2:13 Or of law
  26. Romans 2:13 Or just
  27. Romans 2:13 Or of law
  28. Romans 2:14 Or law
  29. Romans 2:14 Lit by nature
  30. Romans 2:14 Or law
  31. Romans 2:17 Or Judean
  32. Romans 2:17 Or upon law
  33. Romans 2:18 Or approve
  34. Romans 2:20 Or instructor
  35. Romans 2:20 Lit infants
  36. Romans 2:21 Or proclaim
  37. Romans 2:23 Or in law
  38. Romans 2:25 Or law
  39. Romans 2:25 Or of law
  40. Romans 2:26 Lit uncircumcision
  41. Romans 2:27 Lit through the letter
  42. Romans 2:27 Or of law
  43. Romans 3:1 Lit is the advantage of the Jew
  44. Romans 3:3 Or were unfaithful
  45. Romans 3:3 Or unfaithfulness
  46. Romans 3:4 Lit May it never happen! And so throughout the ch
  47. Romans 3:4 Or in Your judging
  48. Romans 3:5 I.e., by requiring His judgment
  49. Romans 3:8 Lit Whose
  50. Romans 3:9 Or Are we worse
  51. Romans 3:12 Or depraved
  52. Romans 3:13 I.e., venomous snakes
  53. Romans 3:19 Lit in
  54. Romans 3:20 Or of law
  55. Romans 3:20 Lit no flesh
  56. Romans 3:20 Or through law
  57. Romans 3:20 Or recognition

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