29 Now Ahab the son of Omri became king over Israel in the thirty-eighth year of Asa king of Judah, and Ahab the son of Omri reigned over Israel in Samaria for twenty-two years. 30 Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the Lord (A)more than all who were before him.

31 And as though it had been a trivial thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, (B)he married Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the (C)Sidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshiped him. 32 So he erected an altar for Baal at (D)the house of Baal, which he built in Samaria. 33 Ahab also made (E)the [a]Asherah. So (F)Ahab did more to provoke the Lord God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel who were before him. 34 (G)In his days Hiel the Bethelite rebuilt Jericho; he laid its foundations with the loss of Abiram his firstborn, and set up its gates with the loss of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the Lord, which He spoke by Joshua the son of Nun.

Elijah Predicts Drought

17 Now Elijah the Tishbite, who was of [b](H)the settlers of Gilead, said to Ahab, “(I)As the Lord, the God of Israel lives, before whom I stand, (J)there shall certainly be neither dew nor rain during these years, except by my word.” Then the word of the Lord came to him, saying, “Go away from here and turn eastward, and hide yourself by the brook Cherith, which is [c]east of the Jordan. And it shall be that you will drink from the brook, and (K)I have commanded the ravens to provide food for you there.” So he went and did everything according to the word of the Lord, for he went and lived by the brook Cherith, which is [d]east of the Jordan. And the ravens brought him bread and meat in the morning and bread and meat in the evening, and he would drink from the brook. But it happened after a while that the brook dried up, because there was no rain in the land.

Then the word of the Lord came to him, saying, “Arise, go to (L)Zarephath, which belongs to Sidon, and stay there; behold, (M)I have commanded a widow there to provide food for you.” 10 So he arose and went to Zarephath, and when he came to the entrance of the city, behold, a widow was there gathering sticks; and (N)he called to her and said, “Please get me a little water in a [e]cup, so that I may drink.” 11 As she was going to get it, he called to her and said, “Please bring me a piece of bread in your hand.” 12 But she said, “(O)As the Lord your God lives, (P)I have no food, only a handful of flour in the [f]bowl and a little oil in the jar; and behold, I am gathering [g]a few sticks so that I may go in and prepare it for me and my son, so that we may [h]eat it and (Q)die.” 13 However, Elijah said to her, “Do not fear; go, do as you have said. Just make me a little bread loaf from [i]it first and bring it out to me, and afterward you may make one for yourself and for your son. 14 For this is what the Lord, the God of Israel says: ‘The [j]bowl of flour shall not be used up, nor shall the jar of oil become empty, until the day that the Lord provides rain on the face of the earth.’” 15 So she went and did everything in accordance with the word of Elijah, and she and he and her household ate for many days. 16 The [k]bowl of flour was not used up, nor did the jar of oil become empty, in accordance with the word of the Lord which He spoke through Elijah.

Elijah Raises the Widow’s Son

17 Now it happened after these things that the son of the woman, the mistress of the house, became sick; and his [l]condition became very grave, until at the end [m]he was no longer breathing. 18 So she said to Elijah, “[n](R)Why is my business any of yours, you (S)man of God? Yet you have come to me to bring my wrongdoing to remembrance, and to put my son to death!” 19 But he said to her, “Give me your son.” Then he took him from her [o]arms and carried him up to the upstairs room where he was living, and laid him on his own bed. 20 And he called to the Lord and said, “Lord, my God, have You also brought catastrophe upon the widow with whom I am [p]staying, by causing her son to die?” 21 (T)Then he stretched himself out over the boy three times, and called to the Lord and said, “Lord, my God, please, let this boy’s life return [q]to him.” 22 And the Lord listened to the voice of Elijah, (U)and the life of the boy returned [r]to him and he revived. 23 Elijah then took the boy and brought him down from the upstairs room into the house and gave him to his mother; and Elijah said, “See, your son is alive.” 24 Then the woman said to Elijah, “(V)Now I know that you are a man of God, and that the word of the Lord in your mouth is truth.”

Obadiah Meets Elijah

18 Now it happened (W)after many days that the word of the Lord came to Elijah in the third year, saying, “Go, present yourself to Ahab, and (X)I will provide rain on the face of the earth.” So Elijah went to present himself to Ahab. Now the famine was severe in Samaria. Ahab summoned Obadiah, (Y)who was in charge of the household. (Now Obadiah [s](Z)feared the Lord greatly; for (AA)when Jezebel killed the prophets of the Lord, Obadiah took a hundred prophets and hid them by fifties in a cave, and (AB)provided them with bread and water.) Then Ahab said to Obadiah, “Go through the land to all the springs of water and to all the river valleys; perhaps we will find grass and keep the horses and mules alive, and not have to kill some of the cattle.” So they divided the land between them to [t]survey it; Ahab went one way by himself, and Obadiah went another way by himself.

Now as Obadiah was on the way, behold, Elijah met him, (AC)and he recognized him and fell on his face and said, “Is it you, Elijah my master?” And he said to him, “It is I. Go, say to your master, ‘Behold, Elijah is here.’” But he said, “What [u]sin have I committed, that you are handing your servant over to Ahab, to put me to death? 10 (AD)As surely as the Lord your God lives, there is no nation or kingdom to which my master has not sent word to search for you; and whenever they say, ‘He is not here,’ he makes the kingdom or nation swear that they could not find you. 11 Yet now you are saying, ‘Go, say to your master, “Behold, Elijah is here!”’ 12 And it will come about when I leave you (AE)that the Spirit of the Lord will carry you to where I do not know; so when I come and inform Ahab and he cannot find you, he will kill me, though I, your servant, have [v]feared the Lord from my youth. 13 (AF)Has it not been reported to my master what I did when Jezebel killed the prophets of the Lord, that I hid a hundred [w]prophets of the Lord by fifties in a cave, and provided them with bread and water? 14 Yet now you are saying, ‘Go, say to your master, “Behold, Elijah is here”’; he will then kill me!” 15 Then Elijah said, “(AG)As surely as the Lord of armies lives, before whom I stand, I will certainly present myself to him today.” 16 So Obadiah went to meet Ahab and informed him; then Ahab went to meet Elijah.

17 When Ahab saw Elijah, (AH)Ahab said to him, “Is this you, the cause of disaster to Israel?” 18 He said, “I have not brought disaster to Israel, but you and your father’s house have, because (AI)you have abandoned the commandments of the Lord and (AJ)you have followed the Baals. 19 Now then, send orders and gather to me all Israel at (AK)Mount Carmel, (AL)together with 450 prophets of Baal and four hundred prophets of [x](AM)the Asherah, who eat at Jezebel’s table.”

God or Baal on Mount Carmel

20 So Ahab sent orders among all the sons of Israel and brought the prophets together at Mount Carmel. 21 Then Elijah approached all the people and said, “(AN)How long are you going to [y]struggle with the two choices? (AO)If the Lord is God, follow Him; but if Baal, follow him.” But the people did not answer him so much as a word. 22 Then Elijah said to the people, “I (AP)alone am left as a prophet of the Lord, while Baal’s prophets are (AQ)450 men. 23 Now have them give us two oxen; and have them choose the one ox for themselves and cut it up, and place it on the wood, but put no fire under it; and I will prepare the other ox and lay it on the wood, and I will not put a fire under it. 24 Then you call on the name of your god, and I will call on the name of the Lord; and (AR)the God who answers by fire, He is God.” And all the people replied, “[z]That is a good idea.”

25 So Elijah said to the prophets of Baal, “Choose the one ox for yourselves and prepare it first, since there are many of you, and call on the name of your god, but put no fire under the ox.” 26 Then they took the ox which [aa]was given them and they prepared it, and they called on the name of Baal from morning until noon, saying, “O Baal, answer us!” But there was (AS)no voice and no one answered. And they [ab]limped about the altar which [ac]they had made. 27 And at noon Elijah ridiculed them and said, “Call out with a loud voice, since he is a god; undoubtedly he is attending to business, or is on the way, or is on a journey. Perhaps he is asleep, and will awaken.” 28 So they cried out with a loud voice, and (AT)cut themselves according to their custom with swords and lances until blood gushed out on them. 29 When midday was past, they raved (AU)until the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice; but there was no voice, no one answered, and [ad]no one paid attention.

30 Then Elijah said to all the people, “Come forward to me.” So all the people came forward to him. And (AV)he repaired the altar of the Lord which had been torn down. 31 Then Elijah took twelve stones, corresponding to the number of the tribes of the sons of Jacob, to whom the word of the Lord had come, saying, “(AW)Israel shall be your name.” 32 And with the stones he built an altar in (AX)the name of the Lord; and he made a trench around the altar, large enough to hold two [ae]measures of seed. 33 (AY)Then he laid out the wood, and he cut the ox in pieces and placed it on the wood. 34 And he said, “Fill four large jars with water and pour it on the burnt offering and on the wood.” And he said, “Do it a second time,” so they did it a second time. Then he said, “Do it a third time,” so they did it a third time. 35 The water flowed around the altar, and he also filled the trench with water.

Elijah’s Prayer

36 Then (AZ)at the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, Elijah the prophet approached and said, “(BA)Lord, God of Abraham, Isaac, and Israel, today let it be known that (BB)You are God in Israel and that I am Your servant, and that (BC)I have done all these things at Your word. 37 Answer me, Lord, answer me, so that this people may know that You, Lord, are God, and that You have turned their heart back.” 38 Then the (BD)fire of the Lord fell and consumed the burnt offering and the wood, and the stones and the dust; and it licked up the water that was in the trench. 39 When all the people saw this, they fell on their faces; and they said, “(BE)The Lord, He is God; the Lord, He is God!” 40 Then Elijah said to them, “Seize the prophets of Baal; do not let one of them escape.” So they seized them; and Elijah brought them down to (BF)the brook Kishon, (BG)and slaughtered them there.

41 Now Elijah said to Ahab, “Go up, eat and drink; for there is the sound of the roar of a heavy shower.” 42 So Ahab went up to eat and drink. But Elijah went up to the top of (BH)Carmel; and he (BI)bent down to the earth and put his face between his knees. 43 And he said to his servant, “Go up now, look toward the sea.” So he went up and looked, but he said, “There is nothing.” Yet Elijah said, “Go back” seven times. 44 And when he returned the seventh time, he said, “Behold, (BJ)a cloud as small as a person’s hand is coming up from the sea.” And Elijah said, “Go up, say to Ahab, ‘Harness your chariot horses and go down, so that the heavy shower does not stop you.’” 45 Meanwhile the sky became dark with clouds and wind came up, and there was a heavy shower. And Ahab rode and went to (BK)Jezreel. 46 Then (BL)the hand of the Lord was on Elijah, and (BM)he [af]belted his cloak around his waist and [ag]outran Ahab [ah]to Jezreel.

Elijah Flees from Jezebel

19 Now Ahab told Jezebel everything that Elijah had done, and [ai](BN)how he had killed all the prophets with the sword. Then Jezebel sent a messenger to Elijah, saying, “(BO)So may the gods do to me and more so, if by about this time tomorrow I do not make your [aj]life like the [ak]life of one of them.” And he [al]was afraid, and got up and ran for his [am]life and came to (BP)Beersheba, which belongs to Judah; and he left his servant there. But he himself went a day’s journey into the wilderness, and came and sat down under a broom tree; and (BQ)he asked for himself to die, and said, “Enough! Now, Lord, take my [an]life, for I am no better than my fathers.” Then he lay down and fell asleep under a broom tree; but behold, there was (BR)an angel touching him, and he said to him, “Arise, eat!” And he looked, and behold, there was at his head a round loaf of bread baked on hot coals, and a pitcher of water. So he ate and drank, and lay down again. But the angel of the Lord came back a second time and touched him, and said, “Arise, eat; because the journey is too long for you.” So he arose and ate and drank, and he journeyed in the strength of that food for (BS)forty days and forty nights to (BT)Horeb, the mountain of God.

Elijah at Horeb

Then he came there to a cave and spent the night there; and behold, (BU)the word of the Lord came to him, and He said to him, “What are you doing here, Elijah?” 10 And he said, “(BV)I have been very zealous for the Lord, the God of armies; for the sons of Israel have abandoned Your covenant, (BW)torn down Your altars, and killed Your prophets with the sword. And (BX)I alone am left; and they have sought to take my life.”

11 So He said, “(BY)Go out and stand on the mountain before the Lord.” And behold, the Lord was passing by! And (BZ)a great and powerful wind was tearing out the mountains and breaking the rocks in pieces before the Lord; but the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind there was an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. 12 And after the earthquake, a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire; and after the fire, (CA)a sound of a gentle blowing. 13 When Elijah heard it, (CB)he wrapped his face in his cloak and went out and stood in the entrance of the cave. And behold, (CC)a voice came to him and said, “What are you doing here, Elijah?” 14 Then he said, “(CD)I have been very zealous for the Lord, the God of armies; for the sons of Israel have abandoned Your covenant, torn down Your altars, and killed Your prophets with the sword. And I alone am left; and they have sought to take my life.”

15 The Lord said to him, “Go, return on your way to the wilderness of Damascus; and when you have arrived, (CE)you shall anoint Hazael king over Aram. 16 You shall also anoint (CF)Jehu the son of Nimshi king over Israel; and you shall anoint (CG)Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah as prophet in your place. 17 And it shall come about that the (CH)one who escapes from the sword of Hazael, Jehu (CI)shall put to death, and the one who escapes from the sword of Jehu, Elisha shall put to death. 18 (CJ)Yet I will leave seven thousand in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal and every mouth that has not (CK)kissed him.”

19 So he departed from there and found Elisha the son of Shaphat while he was plowing, with twelve yoke of oxen in front of him, and he with the twelfth. And Elijah came over to him and threw (CL)his cloak on him. 20 Then he left the oxen behind and ran after Elijah, and said, “Please (CM)let me kiss my father and my mother, then I will follow you.” And he said to him, “Go back, for [ao]what have I done to you?” 21 So he returned from following him, and took the pair of oxen and sacrificed them, and (CN)cooked their meat with the implements of the oxen, and gave it to the people and they ate. Then he got up and followed Elijah and served him.

War with Aram

20 Now (CO)Ben-hadad, king of Aram, gathered all his army, (CP)and there were thirty-two kings with him, and horses and chariots. And he went up and (CQ)besieged Samaria, and fought against it. Then he sent messengers to the city to Ahab, king of Israel, and said to him, “This is what Ben-hadad says: ‘Your silver and your gold are mine; your most beautiful wives and children are also mine.’” And the king of Israel replied, “As [ap]you say, my lord, O king; I am yours, as well as all that I have.” Then the messengers returned and said, “Ben-hadad says [aq]this: ‘I did indeed send word to you, saying, “You shall give me your silver, your gold, your wives, and your children”; but about this time tomorrow I will send my servants to you, and they will search your house and the houses of your servants; and they will take in their hands everything that is pleasing to your eyes, and take it all away.’”

Then the king of Israel summoned all the elders of the land and said, “Please be aware and (CR)see that this man is looking for trouble; for he sent me his demand for my wives, my children, my silver, and my gold, and I did not refuse him.” Then all the elders and all the people said to him, “Do not listen nor consent.” So he said to the messengers of Ben-hadad, “Tell my lord the king, ‘Everything that you sent as a demand to your servant at the first, I will do; but this thing I cannot do.’” Then the messengers departed, and brought him word again. 10 Ben-hadad sent word to him and said, “May (CS)the gods do so to me and more so, [ar]if the dust of Samaria will be enough for handfuls for all the people who [as]follow me.” 11 Then the king of Israel replied, “Tell him, ‘(CT)He who straps on his weapons had better not boast like one who takes them off.’” 12 And when Ben-hadad heard this message, while (CU)he was drinking [at]with the kings in the [au]temporary shelters, he said to his servants, “Take your positions.” So they took their positions against the city.

Ahab Victorious

13 Now behold, a prophet approached Ahab king of Israel, and said, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Have you seen all this great multitude? Behold, (CV)I am going to hand them over to you today, and (CW)you shall know that I am the Lord.’” 14 But Ahab said, “By whom?” So he said, “The Lord says this: ‘By the young men of the leaders of the provinces.’” Then he said, “Who will begin the battle?” And he said, “You will.” 15 So he mustered the young men of the leaders of the provinces, and there were 232; and after them he mustered all the people, all the sons of Israel: seven thousand.

16 They went out at noon, while (CX)Ben-hadad was drinking himself drunk in the [av]temporary shelters [aw]with the thirty-two kings who were helping him. 17 The young men of the leaders of the provinces went out first; and Ben-hadad sent out scouts, and they reported to him, saying, “Men have come out from Samaria.” 18 (CY)Then he said, “If they have come out [ax]for peace, take them alive; or if they have come out for war, take them alive as well.”

19 So these men went out from the city, the young men of the leaders of the provinces, and the army which followed them. 20 And they [ay]killed, each one, his man; and the Arameans fled and Israel pursued them, and Ben-hadad the king of Aram escaped on a horse with horsemen. 21 The king of Israel also went out and struck the horses and chariots, and [az]killed the Arameans in a great slaughter.

22 Then (CZ)the prophet approached the king of Israel and said to him, “Go, show yourself courageous and be aware and see what you have to do; for (DA)at [ba]the turn of the year the king of Aram will march against you.”

23 Now the servants of the king of Aram said to him, “(DB)Their gods are gods of the mountains; for that reason they were stronger than we. But let us fight them in the plain, and we will certainly be stronger than they. 24 Carry out this [bb]plan: remove the kings, each from his place, and put governors in their place, 25 and [bc]muster an army like the army that you have lost, horse for horse and chariot for chariot. Then we will fight against them in the plain, and we will certainly be stronger than they.” And he listened to their voice and did so.

Another Aramean War

26 So (DC)at [bd]the turn of the year Ben-hadad mustered the Arameans and went up to (DD)Aphek to fight against Israel. 27 And the sons of Israel were mustered and given provisions, and they went to meet them; and the sons of Israel camped opposite them like two little flocks of goats, (DE)while the Arameans filled the country. 28 Then (DF)a man of God approached and spoke to the king of Israel, and said, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Since the Arameans have said, “(DG)The Lord is a god of mountains, but He is not a god of valleys,” therefore (DH)I will hand over to you all this great multitude, and you shall know that I am the Lord.’” 29 So they camped, one opposite the other, for seven days. And on the seventh day the battle was joined, and the sons of Israel [be]killed of the Arameans a hundred thousand foot soldiers in a single day. 30 But the rest fled to (DI)Aphek into the city, and the wall fell on twenty-seven thousand men who were left. And Ben-hadad fled and came into the city, going from one (DJ)inner room to another.

31 But (DK)his servants said to him, “Behold now, we have heard that the kings of the house of Israel are merciful kings. Please let’s (DL)put sackcloth [bf]around our waists and ropes on our heads, and go out to the king of Israel; perhaps he will let [bg]you live.” 32 So (DM)they put sackcloth [bh]around their waists and ropes on their heads, and came to the king of Israel and said, “(DN)Your servant Ben-hadad says, ‘Please let [bi]me live.’” And Ahab said, “Is he still alive? He is my brother.” 33 Now the men took this as a good omen, and quickly [bj]accepting it from him, they said, “Your brother Ben-hadad.” Then he said, “Go, bring him.” Then Ben-hadad came out to him, and he had him mount the chariot. 34 And Ben-hadad said to him, “(DO)The cities which my father took from your father I will restore, and you can make streets for yourself in Damascus, as my father made in Samaria.” Ahab said, “And I will let you go with this covenant.” So he made a covenant with him and let him go.

35 Now a man from (DP)the sons of the prophets said to [bk]another (DQ)by the word of the Lord, “Please strike me.” But the man refused to strike him. 36 Then he said to him, “Because you have not listened to the voice of the Lord, behold, as soon as you leave me, (DR)a lion will [bl]kill you.” And as soon as he left him a lion found him and [bm]killed him. 37 Then he found another man and said, “Please strike me.” And the man struck him, [bn]injuring him. 38 So the prophet departed and waited for the king by the road, and (DS)disguised himself with a bandage over his eyes. 39 And as the king passed by, he cried out to the king and said, “Your servant went out into the midst of the battle; and behold, a man turned aside and brought a man to me and said, ‘Guard this man; if for any reason he goes missing, (DT)then your life shall be forfeited in place of his life, or else you shall pay a [bo]talent of silver.’ 40 Now while your servant was busy here and there, he disappeared.” And the king of Israel said to him, “So shall your judgment be; you yourself determined it.” 41 Then he quickly took the bandage away from his eyes, and the king of Israel recognized him, that he was one of the prophets. 42 And the prophet said to him, “This is what the Lord says: ‘Since you have let go from your hand the man I had designated for destruction, (DU)your [bp]life shall be forfeited in place of his [bq]life, and your people in place of his people.’” 43 So (DV)the king of Israel went to his house sullen and furious, and came to Samaria.

Ahab Covets Naboth’s Vineyard

21 Now it came about after these things that Naboth the Jezreelite had a vineyard which was in (DW)Jezreel beside the palace of Ahab, the king of Samaria. And Ahab spoke to Naboth, saying, “(DX)Give me your vineyard so that I may have it for a vegetable garden, because it is close beside my house, and I will give you a better vineyard in place of it; if [br]you prefer, I will give you what [bs]it is worth in money.” But Naboth said to Ahab, “The Lord forbid me (DY)that I would give you the inheritance of my fathers!” (DZ)So Ahab entered his house sullen and furious because of the [bt]answer that Naboth the Jezreelite had given to him, since he said, “I will not give you the inheritance of my fathers.” And he lay down on his bed and turned his face away, and ate no [bu]food.

But Jezebel his wife came to him and said to him, “How is it that your spirit is so sullen that you are not eating [bv]food?” So he said to her, “It is because I was speaking to Naboth the Jezreelite and saying to him, ‘Give me your vineyard for money; or else, if it pleases you, I will give you a vineyard in place of it.’ But he said, ‘I will not give you my vineyard.’” Jezebel his wife said to him, “(EA)Do you now [bw]reign over Israel? Arise, eat bread, and let your heart be joyful; I will give you the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite.”

(EB)So she wrote letters in Ahab’s name and sealed them with his seal, and sent the letters to (EC)the elders and to the nobles who were living with Naboth in his city. Now she had written in the letters, saying, “Proclaim a fast and seat Naboth at the head of the people; 10 and seat two (ED)worthless men opposite him, and have them testify against him, saying, ‘(EE)You [bx]cursed God and the king.’ Then take him out and (EF)stone him [by]to death.”

Jezebel’s Plot

11 So the men of his city, the elders and the nobles who lived in his city, did just as Jezebel had sent word to them, just as it was written in the letters which she had sent them. 12 They (EG)proclaimed a fast, and seated Naboth at the head of the people. 13 Then the two worthless men came in and sat opposite him; and the worthless men testified against him, against Naboth, before the people, saying, “Naboth [bz]cursed God and the king.” (EH)So they took him outside the city and stoned him [ca]to death with stones. 14 Then they sent word to Jezebel, saying, “Naboth has been stoned and is dead.”

15 And when Jezebel heard that Naboth had been stoned and was dead, Jezebel said to Ahab, “Arise, take possession of the vineyard of Naboth, the Jezreelite, which he refused to give you for money; for Naboth is not alive, but dead.” 16 When Ahab heard that Naboth was dead, Ahab got up to go down to the vineyard of Naboth the Jezreelite, to take possession of it.

17 Then the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite, saying, 18 “Arise, go down to meet Ahab king of Israel, (EI)who is in Samaria; behold, he is in the vineyard of Naboth, where he has gone down to take possession of it. 19 And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘This is what the Lord says: “(EJ)Have you murdered and also taken possession?”’ And you shall speak to him, saying, ‘The Lord says this: “(EK)In the place where the dogs licked up the blood of Naboth, the dogs will lick up your blood, yours as well.”’”

20 Then Ahab said to Elijah, “(EL)Have you found me, enemy of mine?” And he [cb]answered, “I have found you, (EM)because you have given yourself over to do evil in the sight of the Lord. 21 Behold, I am bringing disaster upon you, and I (EN)will utterly sweep you away, and will eliminate from Ahab every male, both [cc]bond and free in Israel; 22 and (EO)I will make your house (EP)like the house of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, and like the house of Baasha the son of Ahijah, because of the provocation with which you have provoked Me to anger, and because you (EQ)have misled Israel into sin. 23 The Lord has also spoken of Jezebel, saying, ‘(ER)The dogs will eat Jezebel in the [cd]territory of Jezreel.’ 24 (ES)The one belonging to Ahab, who dies in the city, the dogs will eat; and the one who dies in the field, the birds of the sky will eat.”

25 (ET)There certainly was no one like Ahab who gave himself over to do evil in the sight of the Lord, [ce]because Jezebel his wife incited him. 26 (EU)He also acted very despicably in following idols, (EV)conforming to everything that the Amorites had done, whom the Lord drove out from the sons of Israel.

27 Yet it came about, when Ahab heard these words, that (EW)he tore his clothes and put [cf]on sackcloth and fasted, and he lay in sackcloth and went about despondently. 28 Then the word of the Lord came to Elijah the Tishbite, saying, 29 “Do you see how Ahab has humbled himself before Me? Because he has humbled himself before Me, I will not bring the disaster in his days; I will bring the disaster upon his house (EX)in his son’s days.”

Ahab’s Third Campaign against Aram

22 Now [cg]three years passed without war between Aram and Israel. (EY)In the third year, (EZ)Jehoshaphat the king of Judah came down to the king of Israel. Now the king of Israel said to his servants, “Are you aware that (FA)Ramoth-gilead belongs to us, yet we are hesitant to take it out of the hand of the king of Aram?” So he said to Jehoshaphat, “Will you go to battle with me at Ramoth-gilead?” And Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “[ch](FB)Consider me yours, my people yours, and my horses yours!”

However, Jehoshaphat said to the king of Israel, “Please request the word of the Lord [ci]first.” So (FC)the king of Israel assembled the [cj]prophets, about four hundred men, and said to them, “Should I go to battle against Ramoth-gilead or should I refrain?” And they said, “Go up, for the Lord will hand it over to the king.” But (FD)Jehoshaphat said, “Is there no longer a prophet of the Lord here, that we may inquire of him?” And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “There is still one man by whom we may inquire of the Lord, but I hate him, because he does not prophesy anything good regarding me, but only bad. He is Micaiah the son of Imlah.” But Jehoshaphat said, “May the king not say so.” Then the king of Israel summoned an officer and said, “Bring Micaiah son of Imlah quickly.” 10 Now the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah were sitting, each on his throne, dressed in their robes, at the threshing floor at the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and (FE)all the prophets were prophesying before them. 11 Then Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah made (FF)horns of iron for himself and said, “This is what the Lord says: ‘(FG)With these you will gore the Arameans until they are destroyed!’” 12 All the prophets were prophesying this as well, saying, “Go up to Ramoth-gilead and succeed, for the Lord will hand it over to the king.”

Micaiah Predicts Defeat

13 Then the messenger who went to summon Micaiah spoke to him saying, “Behold now, the words of the prophets are [ck]unanimously favorable to the king. Please let your word be like the word of one of them, and speak favorably.” 14 But Micaiah said, “(FH)As the Lord lives, whatever (FI)the Lord says to me, I shall speak it.”

15 When he came to the king, the king said to him, “Micaiah, should we go to battle against Ramoth-gilead, or should we refrain?” And he said, “(FJ)Go up and succeed, for the Lord will hand it over to the king!” 16 Then the king said to him, “How many times must I make you swear that you will tell me nothing but the truth in the name of the Lord?” 17 So he said,

“I saw all Israel
Scattered on the mountains,
(FK)Like sheep that have no shepherd.
And the Lord said,
‘These people have no master.
Each of them is to return to his house in peace.’”

18 Then the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “(FL)Did I not tell you that he would not prophesy anything good regarding me, but only bad?”

19 And Micaiah said, “Therefore, hear the word of the Lord. (FM)I saw the Lord sitting on His throne, and (FN)all the [cl]angels of heaven standing by Him on His right and on His left. 20 And the Lord said, ‘Who will [cm]entice Ahab to go up and fall at Ramoth-gilead?’ And one spirit said this, while another said that. 21 Then a spirit came forward and stood before the Lord, and said, ‘I will [cn]entice him.’ 22 And the Lord said to him, ‘How?’ And he said, ‘I will go out and (FO)be a deceiving spirit in the mouths of all his prophets.’ Then He said, ‘You shall [co]entice him, and you will also prevail. Go and do so.’ 23 Now then, behold, (FP)the Lord has put a deceiving spirit in the mouth of all these prophets of yours; and the Lord has declared disaster against you.”

24 Then (FQ)Zedekiah the son of Chenaanah approached and struck Micaiah on the cheek; and he said, “(FR)How did the Spirit of the Lord pass from me to speak to you?” 25 And Micaiah said, “Behold, you are going to see how on that day when you (FS)go from one inner room to [cp]another trying to hide yourself.” 26 Then the king of Israel said, “Take Micaiah and return him to Amon the governor of the city, and to Joash the king’s son; 27 and say, ‘This is what the king says: “(FT)Put this man in prison, and feed him enough bread and water to survive until I [cq]return safely.”’” 28 But Micaiah said, “(FU)If you actually return [cr]safely, the Lord has not spoken by me.” And he said, “(FV)Listen, all you people!”

Defeat and Death of Ahab

29 So (FW)the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat king of Judah went up against Ramoth-gilead. 30 And the king of Israel said to Jehoshaphat, “(FX)I will disguise myself and go into the battle, but you put on your robes.” So the king of Israel disguised himself and went into the battle. 31 Now (FY)the king of Aram had commanded the thirty-two commanders of his chariots, saying, “Do not fight with the small or great, but only with the king of Israel.” 32 So when the commanders of the chariots saw Jehoshaphat, they said, “Surely he is the king of Israel!” And they turned aside to fight against him, and Jehoshaphat cried out. 33 Then, when the commanders of the chariots saw that it was not the king of Israel, they turned back from pursuing him.

34 Now one man drew his bow at random and struck the king of Israel [cs]in a joint of the armor. So he said to the driver of his chariot, “Turn [ct]around and take me out of the battle, (FZ)for I am severely wounded.” 35 The battle [cu]raged on that day, and the king was propped up in his chariot in front of the Arameans, and he died at evening, and the blood from the wound ran into the bottom of the chariot. 36 (GA)Then the word passed throughout the army close to sunset, saying, “Every man to his city, and every man to his [cv]country!”

37 So the king died and was brought to Samaria, and they buried the king in Samaria. 38 They washed out the chariot by the pool of Samaria, and the dogs licked up his blood (it was there that the prostitutes bathed themselves) (GB)in accordance with the word of the Lord which He had spoken. 39 Now as for the rest of the acts of Ahab and everything that he did, and (GC)the ivory house which he built and all the cities which he built, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Israel? 40 So Ahab [cw]lay down with his fathers, and his son Ahaziah became king in his place.


  1. 1 Kings 16:33 I.e., wooden symbol of a female deity
  2. 1 Kings 17:1 Another reading is Tishbe in Gilead
  3. 1 Kings 17:3 Lit facing
  4. 1 Kings 17:5 Lit facing
  5. 1 Kings 17:10 Lit vessel
  6. 1 Kings 17:12 Lit pitcher
  7. 1 Kings 17:12 Lit two
  8. 1 Kings 17:12 I.e., have their last meal
  9. 1 Kings 17:13 Lit there
  10. 1 Kings 17:14 Lit pitcher
  11. 1 Kings 17:16 Lit pitcher
  12. 1 Kings 17:17 Lit illness
  13. 1 Kings 17:17 Lit breath was not left in him
  14. 1 Kings 17:18 Lit What to me and to you, an ancient idiom
  15. 1 Kings 17:19 Lit breast
  16. 1 Kings 17:20 Lit sojourning
  17. 1 Kings 17:21 Lit upon his inward part
  18. 1 Kings 17:22 Lit upon his inward part
  19. 1 Kings 18:3 Or revered
  20. 1 Kings 18:6 Lit pass through
  21. 1 Kings 18:9 Lit have I sinned
  22. 1 Kings 18:12 Or revered
  23. 1 Kings 18:13 Lit men of the prophets
  24. 1 Kings 18:19 I.e., wooden symbol of a female deity
  25. 1 Kings 18:21 Lit limp on the two crutches
  26. 1 Kings 18:24 Lit The matter is good
  27. 1 Kings 18:26 Lit he gave
  28. 1 Kings 18:26 I.e., in a type of ceremonial dance
  29. 1 Kings 18:26 As in some mss and ancient versions; MT he
  30. 1 Kings 18:29 Lit there was no attention
  31. 1 Kings 18:32 Heb seahs; i.e., one seah equals about 7 qt. or 7.7 liters
  32. 1 Kings 18:46 I.e., for travel
  33. 1 Kings 18:46 Lit ran ahead of
  34. 1 Kings 18:46 Lit until your coming to
  35. 1 Kings 19:1 Lit all that he had
  36. 1 Kings 19:2 Lit soul
  37. 1 Kings 19:2 Lit soul
  38. 1 Kings 19:3 Reading of many mss; MT may read saw
  39. 1 Kings 19:3 Lit soul
  40. 1 Kings 19:4 Lit soul
  41. 1 Kings 19:20 I.e., so as to influence Elisha’s decision
  42. 1 Kings 20:4 Lit your word
  43. 1 Kings 20:5 Lit this, saying
  44. 1 Kings 20:10 I.e., what is left of Samaria after it is destroyed
  45. 1 Kings 20:10 Lit are at my feet
  46. 1 Kings 20:12 Lit he and
  47. 1 Kings 20:12 Or huts
  48. 1 Kings 20:16 Or huts
  49. 1 Kings 20:16 Lit he and the 32 kings
  50. 1 Kings 20:18 I.e., to seek terms for surrender
  51. 1 Kings 20:20 Lit struck
  52. 1 Kings 20:21 Lit struck
  53. 1 Kings 20:22 I.e., spring
  54. 1 Kings 20:24 Lit word
  55. 1 Kings 20:25 Lit count
  56. 1 Kings 20:26 I.e., spring
  57. 1 Kings 20:29 Lit struck
  58. 1 Kings 20:31 Lit on
  59. 1 Kings 20:31 Lit your soul
  60. 1 Kings 20:32 Lit on
  61. 1 Kings 20:32 Lit my soul
  62. 1 Kings 20:33 Lit accepted
  63. 1 Kings 20:35 Lit his neighbor
  64. 1 Kings 20:36 Lit strike
  65. 1 Kings 20:36 Lit struck
  66. 1 Kings 20:37 Lit striking and injuring
  67. 1 Kings 20:39 About 75 lb. or 34 kg
  68. 1 Kings 20:42 Lit soul
  69. 1 Kings 20:42 Lit soul
  70. 1 Kings 21:2 Lit it is good in your eyes
  71. 1 Kings 21:2 Lit this
  72. 1 Kings 21:4 Lit word...had spoken to him
  73. 1 Kings 21:4 Lit bread
  74. 1 Kings 21:5 Lit bread
  75. 1 Kings 21:7 Lit exercise kingship
  76. 1 Kings 21:10 Lit blessed, an ancient euphemism to avoid any mention of the cursing of God
  77. 1 Kings 21:10 Lit so that he dies
  78. 1 Kings 21:13 See note 1 v 10
  79. 1 Kings 21:13 Lit with stones so that he died
  80. 1 Kings 21:20 Lit said
  81. 1 Kings 21:21 Or child and adult
  82. 1 Kings 21:23 As in some mss and ancient versions; MT rampart
  83. 1 Kings 21:25 Or whom Jezebel his wife
  84. 1 Kings 21:27 Lit sackcloth on his flesh
  85. 1 Kings 22:1 Lit they sat for three years
  86. 1 Kings 22:4 Lit As me as you, as my people...as my horses, as your horses, an ancient idiom
  87. 1 Kings 22:5 Lit today
  88. 1 Kings 22:6 I.e., official prophets who at that time were false
  89. 1 Kings 22:13 Lit of one mouth
  90. 1 Kings 22:19 Lit host
  91. 1 Kings 22:20 Or persuade
  92. 1 Kings 22:21 Or persuade
  93. 1 Kings 22:22 Or persuade
  94. 1 Kings 22:25 Lit inner room
  95. 1 Kings 22:27 Lit come in peace
  96. 1 Kings 22:28 Lit in peace
  97. 1 Kings 22:34 Lit between the scales and the scale armor
  98. 1 Kings 22:34 Lit your hand
  99. 1 Kings 22:35 Lit went up
  100. 1 Kings 22:36 Lit land
  101. 1 Kings 22:40 I.e., died

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