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Again I saw all the oppressions that are practiced under the sun. Look, the tears of the oppressed—with no one to comfort them! On the side of their oppressors there was power—with no one to comfort them.(A) And I commended the dead, who have already died, more than the living, who are still alive, but better than both is the one who has not yet been and has not seen the evil deeds that are done under the sun.(B)

Then I saw that all toil and all skill in work come from one person’s envy of another. This also is vanity and a chasing after wind.(C)

Fools fold their hands
    and consume their own flesh.(D)
Better is a handful with quiet
    than two handfuls with toil
    and a chasing after wind.(E)

Again, I saw vanity under the sun: the case of solitary individuals, without sons or brothers; yet there is no end to all their toil, and their eyes are never satisfied with riches. “For whom am I toiling,” they ask, “and depriving myself of pleasure?” This also is vanity and an unhappy business.(F)

The Value of a Friend

Two are better than one because they have a good reward for their toil. 10 For if they fall, one will lift up the other, but woe to one who is alone and falls and does not have another to help. 11 Again, if two lie together, they keep warm, but how can one keep warm alone?(G) 12 And though one might prevail against another, two will withstand one. A threefold cord is not quickly broken.

13 Better is a poor but wise youth than an old but foolish king who will no longer take advice.(H) 14 One can indeed come out of prison to reign, even though born poor in the kingdom.(I) 15 I saw all the living who, moving about under the sun, follow that[a] youth who replaced the king;[b] 16 there was no end to all those people whom he led.[c] Yet those who come later will not rejoice in him. Surely this also is vanity and a chasing after wind.(J)

Reverence, Humility, and Contentment

[d]Guard your steps when you go to the house of God; to draw near to listen is better than the sacrifice offered by fools, for they do not know how to keep from doing evil.[e](K) [f]Never be rash with your mouth nor let your heart be quick to utter a word before God, for God is in heaven and you upon earth; therefore let your words be few.(L)

For dreams come with many cares, and a fool’s voice with many words.

When you make a vow to God, do not delay fulfilling it, for he has no pleasure in fools. Fulfill what you vow.(M) It is better that you should not vow than that you should vow and not fulfill it.(N) Do not let your mouth lead you into sin, and do not say before the messenger that it was a mistake; why should God be angry at your words and destroy the work of your hands?

With many dreams come vanities and a multitude of words,[g] but fear God.(O)

If you see in a province the oppression of the poor and the violation of justice and right, do not be amazed at the matter, for the high official is watched by a higher, and there are yet higher ones over them.(P) But all things considered, this is an advantage for a land: a king for a plowed field.[h]

10 The lover of money will not be satisfied with money, nor the lover of wealth with gain. This also is vanity.(Q)

11 When goods increase, those who eat them increase, and what gain has their owner but to see them with his eyes?

12 Sweet is the sleep of laborers, whether they eat little or much, but the abundance of the rich will not let them sleep.(R)

13 There is a grievous ill that I have seen under the sun: riches were kept by their owners to their hurt,(S) 14 and those riches were lost in a bad venture; though they are parents of children, they have nothing in their hands. 15 As they came from their mother’s womb, so they shall go again, naked as they came; they shall take nothing for their toil that they may carry away with their hands.(T) 16 This also is a grievous ill: just as they came, so shall they go, and what gain do they have from toiling for the wind?(U) 17 Besides, all their days they eat in darkness, in much anger and sickness and resentment.(V)

18 This is what I have seen to be good: it is fitting to eat and drink and find enjoyment in all the toil with which one toils under the sun the few days of the life God gives us, for this is our lot.(W) 19 Likewise, all to whom God gives wealth and possessions and whom he enables to enjoy them and to accept their lot and find enjoyment in their toil—this is the gift of God.(X) 20 For they will scarcely brood over the days of their lives because God keeps them occupied with the joy of their hearts.

The Frustration of Desires

There is an evil that I have seen under the sun, and it lies heavy upon humankind:(Y) those to whom God gives wealth, possessions, and honor, so that they lack nothing of all that they desire, yet God does not enable them to enjoy these things, but a stranger enjoys them. This is vanity; it is a grievous ill.(Z) A man may father a hundred children and live many years, but however many are the days of his years, if he does not enjoy life’s good things or has no burial, I say that a stillborn child is better off than he.(AA) For it comes in vanity and goes in darkness, and in darkness its name is covered; moreover, it has not seen the sun or known anything, yet it finds rest rather than he. Even though he should live a thousand years twice over yet enjoy no good—do not all go to one place?

All human toil is for the mouth, yet the appetite is not satisfied.(AB) For what advantage have the wise over fools? And what do the poor have who know how to conduct themselves before the living?(AC) Better is the sight of the eyes than the wandering of desire; this also is vanity and a chasing after wind.(AD)

10 Whatever has come to be has already been named, and it is known what humans are and that they are not able to dispute with those who are stronger.(AE) 11 The more words, the more vanity, so how is one the better? 12 For who knows what is good for mortals while they live the few days of their vain life, which they pass like a shadow? For who can tell them what will be after them under the sun?(AF)


  1. 4.15 Heb the second
  2. 4.15 Heb him
  3. 4.16 Heb who were before them
  4. 5.1 4.17 in Heb
  5. 5.1 Cn: Heb they do not know how to do evil
  6. 5.2 5.1 in Heb
  7. 5.7 Meaning of Heb uncertain
  8. 5.9 Meaning of Heb uncertain

Paul’s Visions and Revelations

12 It is necessary to boast; nothing is to be gained by it, but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. I know a person in Christ who fourteen years ago was caught up to the third heaven—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows.(A) And I know that such a person—whether in the body or out of the body I do not know; God knows— was caught up into paradise and heard things that are not to be told, that no mortal is permitted to repeat. On behalf of such a one I will boast, but on my own behalf I will not boast, except of my weaknesses. But if I wish to boast, I will not be a fool, for I will be speaking the truth. But I refrain from it, so that no one may think better of me than what is seen in me or heard from me,(B) even considering the exceptional character of the revelations. Therefore, to keep[a] me from being too elated, a thorn was given me in the flesh, a messenger of Satan to torment me, to keep me from being too elated.[b] Three times I appealed to the Lord about this, that it would leave me,(C) but he said to me, “My grace is sufficient for you, for power[c] is made perfect in weakness.” So I will boast all the more gladly of my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me.(D) 10 Therefore I am content with weaknesses, insults, hardships, persecutions, and calamities for the sake of Christ, for whenever I am weak, then I am strong.(E)

Paul’s Concern for the Corinthian Church

11 I have been a fool! You forced me to it. Indeed you should have been the ones commending me, for I am not at all inferior to these super-apostles, even though I am nothing.(F) 12 The signs of an apostle were performed among you with utmost patience, signs and wonders and mighty works.(G) 13 How have you been worse off than the other churches, except that I myself did not burden you? Forgive me this wrong!(H)

14 Here I am, ready to come to you this third time, and I will not be a burden because I do not want what is yours but you, for children ought not to save up for their parents but parents for their children.(I) 15 I will most gladly spend and be spent for you. If I love you more, am I to be loved less?(J) 16 Be that as it may, I did not burden you. But, crafty person that I am, did I take you in by deceit? 17 Did I take advantage of you through any of those whom I sent to you? 18 I urged Titus to go and sent the brother with him. Titus did not take advantage of you, did he? Did we not conduct ourselves with the same spirit? Did we not walk in the same footsteps?(K)

19 Have you been thinking all along that we have been defending ourselves before you? We are speaking in Christ before God. Everything we do, beloved, is for the sake of building you up.(L) 20 For I fear that when I come I may find you not as I wish and that you may find me not as you wish; I fear that there may perhaps be quarreling, jealousy, anger, selfishness, slander, gossip, conceit, and disorder.(M) 21 I fear that when I come again my God may humble me before you and that I may have to mourn over many who previously sinned and have not repented of the impurity, sexual immorality, and debauchery that they have practiced.(N)


  1. 12.7 Other ancient authorities read To keep
  2. 12.7 Other ancient authorities lack to keep me from being too elated
  3. 12.9 Other ancient authorities read my power