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Vision of a Ram and a Goat

In the third year of the reign of King Belshazzar a vision appeared to me, Daniel, after the one that had appeared to me at first.(A) In the vision[a] I saw myself in Susa the capital, in the province of Elam,[b] and I was by the Ulai Gate.[c](B) I looked up and saw a ram standing beside the gate.[d] It had two horns. Both horns were long, but one was longer than the other, and the longer one came up second.(C) I saw the ram charging westward and northward and southward. All beasts were powerless to withstand it, and no one could rescue from its power; it did as it pleased and became strong.(D)

As I was watching, a male goat appeared from the west, coming across the face of the whole earth without touching the ground. The goat had a horn[e] between its eyes.(E) It came toward the ram with the two horns that I had seen standing beside the gate,[f] and it ran at it with savage force.(F) I saw it approaching the ram. It was enraged against it and struck the ram, breaking its two horns. The ram did not have power to withstand it; it threw the ram down to the ground and trampled upon it, and there was no one who could rescue the ram from its power.(G) Then the male goat grew exceedingly great, but at the height of its power the great horn was broken, and in its place there came up four prominent horns toward the four winds of heaven.(H)

Out of one of them came another[g] horn, a little one, which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the beautiful land.(I) 10 It grew as high as the host of heaven. It threw down to earth some of the host and some of the stars and trampled on them.(J) 11 Even against the prince of the host it acted arrogantly; it took the regular burnt offering away from him and overthrew the place of his sanctuary.(K) 12 Because of wickedness, the host was given over to it together with the regular burnt offering;[h] it cast truth to the ground and kept prospering in what it did. 13 Then I heard a holy one speaking, and another holy one said to the one who spoke, “For how long is this vision concerning the regular burnt offering, the transgression that makes desolate, and the giving over of the sanctuary and host to be trampled?”[i](L) 14 And he answered him,[j] “For two thousand three hundred evenings and mornings; then the sanctuary shall be restored to its rightful state.”

Gabriel Interprets the Vision

15 When I, Daniel, had seen the vision, I tried to understand it. Then someone appeared standing before me, having the appearance of a man,(M) 16 and I heard a human voice by the Ulai, calling, “Gabriel, help this man understand the vision.”(N) 17 So he came near where I stood, and when he came, I became frightened and fell prostrate. But he said to me, “Understand, O mortal,[k] that the vision is for the time of the end.”(O)

18 As he was speaking to me, I fell into a trance, face to the ground; then he touched me and set me on my feet.(P) 19 He said, “Listen, and I will tell you what will take place later in the period of wrath, for it refers to the appointed time of the end.(Q) 20 As for the ram that you saw with the two horns, these are the kings of Media and Persia. 21 The male goat[l] is the king of Greece, and the great horn between its eyes is the first king.(R) 22 As for the horn that was broken, in place of which four others arose, four kingdoms shall arise from his[m] nation but not with his power.(S)

23 At the end of their rule,
    when the transgressions have reached their full measure,
a king of bold countenance shall arise,
    skilled in intrigue.
24 He shall grow strong in power,[n]
    shall cause fearful destruction,
    and shall succeed in what he does.
He shall destroy the powerful
    and the people of the holy ones.(T)
25 By his cunning
    he shall make deceit prosper under his hand,
    and in his own mind he shall be great.
Without warning he shall destroy many
    and shall even rise up against the Prince of princes.
But he shall be broken, and not by human hands.(U)

26 “The vision of the evenings and the mornings that has been told is true. As for you, seal up the vision, for it refers to many days from now.”(V)

27 So I, Daniel, was overcome and lay sick for some days; then I arose and went about the king’s business. But I was dismayed by the vision and did not understand it.(W)

Daniel’s Prayer for the People

In the first year of Darius son of Ahasuerus, by birth a Mede, who became king over the realm of the Chaldeans,(X) I,[o] Daniel, perceived in the books the number of years that, according to the word of the Lord to the prophet Jeremiah, must be fulfilled for the devastation of Jerusalem, namely, seventy years.(Y)

Then I turned to the Lord God to seek an answer by prayer and supplication with fasting and sackcloth and ashes.(Z) I prayed to the Lord my God and made confession, saying,

“Ah, Lord, great and awesome God, keeping covenant and steadfast love with those who love you[p] and keep your[q] commandments,(AA) we have sinned and done wrong, acted wickedly and rebelled, turning aside from your commandments and ordinances.(AB) We have not listened to your servants the prophets, who spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our ancestors, and to all the people of the land.

“Righteousness is on your side, O Lord, but open shame, as at this day, falls on us, the people of Judah, the inhabitants of Jerusalem, and all Israel, those who are near and those who are far away, in all the lands to which you have driven them because of the treachery that they have committed against you.(AC) Open shame, O Lord, falls on us, our kings, our princes, and our ancestors because we have sinned against you. To the Lord our God belong mercy and forgiveness, but we have rebelled against him(AD) 10 and have not obeyed the voice of the Lord our God by following his laws, which he set before us by his servants the prophets.

11 “All Israel has transgressed your law and turned aside, refusing to obey your voice. So the curse and the oath written in the law of Moses, the servant of God, have been poured out upon us because we have sinned against you.(AE) 12 He has confirmed his words that he spoke against us and against our rulers by bringing upon us a calamity so great that what has been done against Jerusalem has never before been done under the whole heaven.(AF) 13 Just as it is written in the law of Moses, all this calamity has come upon us. We did not entreat the favor of the Lord our God, turning from our iniquities and reflecting on his[r] fidelity.(AG) 14 So the Lord kept watch over this calamity until he brought it upon us. Indeed, the Lord our God is right in all that he has done, for we have disobeyed his voice.(AH)

15 “And now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of the land of Egypt with a mighty hand and made your name renowned even to this day—we have sinned, we have done wickedly.(AI) 16 O Lord, in view of all your righteous acts, let your anger and wrath, we pray, turn away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain; because of our sins and the iniquities of our ancestors, Jerusalem and your people have become a disgrace among all our neighbors.(AJ) 17 Now therefore, O our God, listen to the prayer of your servant and to his supplication, and for your own sake, Lord,[s] let your face shine upon your desolated sanctuary.(AK) 18 Incline your ear, O my God, and hear. Open your eyes and look at our desolation and the city that bears your name. We do not present our supplication before you on the ground of our righteousness but on the ground of your great mercies.(AL) 19 O Lord, hear; O Lord, forgive; O Lord, listen and act and do not delay! For your own sake, O my God, because your city and your people bear your name!”(AM)

The Seventy Weeks

20 While I was speaking and was praying and confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and presenting my supplication before the Lord my God on behalf of the holy mountain of my God,(AN) 21 while I was speaking in prayer, the man Gabriel, whom I had seen before in a vision, came to me in swift flight at the time of the evening sacrifice.(AO) 22 He came[t] and said to me, “Daniel, I have now come out to give you wisdom and understanding. 23 At the beginning of your supplications a word went out, and I have come to declare it, for you are greatly beloved. So consider the word and understand the vision:(AP)

24 “Seventy weeks are decreed for your people and your holy city: to finish the transgression, to put an end to sin, and to atone for iniquity, to bring in everlasting righteousness, to seal both vision and prophet, and to anoint a most holy place.[u](AQ) 25 Know therefore and understand: from the time that the word went out to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until the time of an anointed prince, there shall be seven weeks, and for sixty-two weeks it shall be built again with streets and moat, but in a troubled time.(AR) 26 After the sixty-two weeks, an anointed one shall be cut off and shall have nothing, and the troops of the prince who is to come shall destroy the city and the sanctuary. Its[v] end shall come with a flood, and to the end there shall be war. Desolations are decreed.(AS) 27 He shall make a strong covenant with many for one week, and for half of the week he shall make sacrifice and offering cease, and in their place[w] shall be a desolating sacrilege until the decreed end is poured out upon the desolator.”(AT)

Conflict of Nations and Heavenly Powers

10 In the third year of King Cyrus of Persia a word was revealed to Daniel, who was named Belteshazzar. The word was true, and it concerned a great conflict. He understood the word, having received understanding in the vision.(AU)

At that time I, Daniel, had been mourning for three weeks.(AV) I had eaten no rich food, no meat or wine had entered my mouth, and I had not anointed myself at all, for the full three weeks. On the twenty-fourth day of the first month, as I was standing on the bank of the great river (that is, the Tigris),(AW) I looked up and saw a man clothed in linen, with a belt of gold from Uphaz around his waist.(AX) His body was like beryl, his face like lightning, his eyes like flaming torches, his arms and legs like the gleam of burnished bronze, and the sound of his words like the roar of a multitude.(AY) I, Daniel, alone saw the vision; the people who were with me did not see the vision, though a great trembling fell upon them, and they fled and hid themselves.(AZ) So I was left alone to see this great vision. My strength left me, and my complexion grew deathly pale, and I retained no strength.(BA) When[x] I heard the sound of his words, I fell into a trance, face to the ground.(BB)

10 But then a hand touched me and roused me to my hands and knees.(BC) 11 He said to me, “Daniel, greatly beloved, pay attention to the words that I am going to speak to you. Stand on your feet, for I have now been sent to you.” So while he was speaking this word to me, I stood up trembling.(BD) 12 He said to me, “Do not fear, Daniel, for from the first day that you set your mind to gain understanding and to humble yourself before your God, your words have been heard, and I have come because of your words.(BE) 13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia opposed me twenty-one days. So Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me, and I left him there with the prince of the kingdom of Persia[y](BF) 14 and have come to help you understand what is to happen to your people at the end of days. For there is a further vision for those days.”(BG)

15 While he was speaking these words to me, I turned my face toward the ground and was speechless.(BH) 16 Then one in human form touched my lips, and I opened my mouth to speak and said to the one who stood before me, “My lord, because of the vision such pains have come upon me that I retain no strength.(BI) 17 How can my lord’s servant talk with my lord? For I am exhausted;[z] no strength remains in me, and no breath is left in me.”

18 Again one in human form touched me and strengthened me. 19 He said, “Do not fear, greatly beloved; you are safe. Be strong and courageous!” When he spoke to me, I was strengthened and said, “Let my lord speak, for you have strengthened me.”(BJ) 20 Then he said, “Do you know why I have come to you? Now I must return to fight against the prince of Persia, and when I am through with him, the prince of Greece will come. 21 But I am to tell you what is inscribed in the book of truth. There is no one with me who contends against these princes except Michael, your prince.(BK)


  1. 8.2 Syr Vg: Heb vision I was looking and
  2. 8.2 Gk Theodotion: Heb repeats in the vision I was looking
  3. 8.2 Gk Syr Vg: Heb River Ulai
  4. 8.3 Or river
  5. 8.5 Theodotion: Heb a horn of vision
  6. 8.6 Or river
  7. 8.9 Cn: Heb one
  8. 8.12 Meaning of Heb uncertain
  9. 8.13 Meaning of Heb uncertain
  10. 8.14 Gk Theodotion Syr Vg: Heb me
  11. 8.17 Heb son of man
  12. 8.21 Or shaggy male goat
  13. 8.22 Gk Theodotion Vg: Heb the
  14. 8.24 Gk Theodotion: Heb power, but not with his power
  15. 9.2 Theodotion: Heb in the first year of his reign, I
  16. 9.4 Heb him
  17. 9.4 Heb his
  18. 9.13 Heb your
  19. 9.17 Theodotion Vg Compare Syr: Heb for the Lord’s sake
  20. 9.22 Gk Syr: Heb He made to understand
  21. 9.24 Or thing or one
  22. 9.26 Or His
  23. 9.27 Cn: Meaning of Heb uncertain
  24. 10.9 Gk Syr: Heb Then I heard the sound of his words, and when
  25. 10.13 Gk Theodotion: Heb I was left there with the kings of Persia
  26. 10.17 Gk: Heb from now


The elder to the beloved Gaius, whom I love in truth.

Gaius Commended for His Hospitality

Beloved, I pray that all may go well with you and that you may be in good health, just as it is well with your soul. For I was overjoyed when some brothers and sisters arrived and testified to your faithfulness to the truth, how you walk in the truth.(A) I have no greater joy than this, to hear that my children are walking in the truth.(B)

Beloved, you do faithfully whatever you do for the brothers and sisters, even though they are strangers to you;(C) they have testified to your love before the church. You will do well to send them on in a manner worthy of God,(D) for they began their journey for the sake of Christ,[a] accepting no support from nonbelievers.[b](E) Therefore we ought to support such people, so that we may become coworkers with the truth.

Diotrephes and Demetrius

I have written something to the church, but Diotrephes, who likes to put himself first, does not welcome us. 10 So if I come, I will call attention to what he is doing in spreading false charges against us. And not content with those charges, he refuses to welcome the brothers and sisters and even prevents those who want to do so and expels them from the church.(F)

11 Beloved, do not imitate what is evil, but imitate what is good. Whoever does good is from God; whoever does evil has not seen God.(G) 12 Everyone has testified favorably about Demetrius, and so has the truth[c] itself. We also testify for him,[d] and you know that our testimony is true.(H)

Final Greetings

13 I have much to write to you, but I would rather not write to you with pen and ink;(I) 14 instead, I hope to see you soon, and we will talk together face to face.

15 Peace to you. The friends send you their greetings. Greet the friends there, each by name.(J)


  1. 7 Gk for the sake of the name
  2. 7 Gk the gentiles
  3. 12 Other ancient authorities read church or church and truth
  4. 12 Gk lacks for him