The second census

26 After the plague the Lord said to Moses and Eleazar son of Aaron, the priest, ‘Take a census of the whole Israelite community by families – all those twenty years old or more who are able to serve in the army of Israel.’ So on the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho, Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them and said, ‘Take a census of men twenty years old or more, as the Lord commanded Moses.’

These were the Israelites who came out of Egypt:

The descendants of Reuben, the firstborn son of Israel, were:

through Hanok, the Hanokite clan;

through Pallu, the Palluite clan;

through Hezron, the Hezronite clan;

through Karmi, the Karmite clan.

These were the clans of Reuben; those numbered were 43,730.

The son of Pallu was Eliab, and the sons of Eliab were Nemuel, Dathan and Abiram. The same Dathan and Abiram were the community officials who rebelled against Moses and Aaron and were among Korah’s followers when they rebelled against the Lord. 10 The earth opened its mouth and swallowed them along with Korah, whose followers died when the fire devoured the 250 men. And they served as a warning sign. 11 The line of Korah, however, did not die out.

12 The descendants of Simeon by their clans were:

through Nemuel, the Nemuelite clan;

through Jamin, the Jaminite clan;

through Jakin, the Jakinite clan;

13 through Zerah, the Zerahite clan;

through Shaul, the Shaulite clan.

14 These were the clans of Simeon; those numbered were 22,200.

15 The descendants of Gad by their clans were:

through Zephon, the Zephonite clan;

through Haggi, the Haggite clan;

through Shuni, the Shunite clan;

16 through Ozni, the Oznite clan;

through Eri, the Erite clan;

17 through Arodi,[a] the Arodite clan;

through Areli, the Arelite clan.

18 These were the clans of Gad; those numbered were 40,500.

19 Er and Onan were sons of Judah, but they died in Canaan.

20 The descendants of Judah by their clans were:

through Shelah, the Shelanite clan;

through Perez, the Perezite clan;

through Zerah, the Zerahite clan.

21 The descendants of Perez were:

through Hezron, the Hezronite clan;

through Hamul, the Hamulite clan.

22 These were the clans of Judah; those numbered were 76,500.

23 The descendants of Issachar by their clans were:

through Tola, the Tolaite clan;

through Puah, the Puite[b] clan;

24 through Jashub, the Jashubite clan;

through Shimron, the Shimronite clan.

25 These were the clans of Issachar; those numbered were 64,300.

26 The descendants of Zebulun by their clans were:

through Sered, the Seredite clan;

through Elon, the Elonite clan;

through Jahleel, the Jahleelite clan.

27 These were the clans of Zebulun; those numbered were 60,500.

28 The descendants of Joseph by their clans through Manasseh and Ephraim were:

29 The descendants of Manasseh:

through Makir, the Makirite clan (Makir was the father of Gilead);

through Gilead, the Gileadite clan.

30 These were the descendants of Gilead:

through Iezer, the Iezerite clan;

through Helek, the Helekite clan;

31 through Asriel, the Asrielite clan;

through Shechem, the Shechemite clan;

32 through Shemida, the Shemidaite clan;

through Hepher, the Hepherite clan.

33 (Zelophehad son of Hepher had no sons; he had only daughters, whose names were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milkah and Tirzah.)

34 These were the clans of Manasseh; those numbered were 52,700.

35 These were the descendants of Ephraim by their clans:

through Shuthelah, the Shuthelahite clan;

through Beker, the Bekerite clan;

through Tahan, the Tahanite clan.

36 These were the descendants of Shuthelah:

through Eran, the Eranite clan.

37 These were the clans of Ephraim; those numbered were 32,500.

These were the descendants of Joseph by their clans.

38 The descendants of Benjamin by their clans were:

through Bela, the Belaite clan;

through Ashbel, the Ashbelite clan;

through Ahiram, the Ahiramite clan;

39 through Shupham,[c] the Shuphamite clan;

through Hupham, the Huphamite clan.

40 The descendants of Bela through Ard and Naaman were:

through Ard,[d] the Ardite clan;

through Naaman, the Naamite clan.

41 These were the clans of Benjamin; those numbered were 45,600.

42 These were the descendants of Dan by their clans:

through Shuham, the Shuhamite clan.

These were the clans of Dan: 43 all of them were Shuhamite clans; and those numbered were 64,400.

44 The descendants of Asher by their clans were:

through Imnah, the Imnite clan;

through Ishvi, the Ishvite clan;

through Beriah, the Beriite clan;

45 and through the descendants of Beriah:

through Heber, the Heberite clan;

through Malkiel, the Malkielite clan.

46 (Asher had a daughter named Serah.)

47 These were the clans of Asher; those numbered were 53,400.

48 The descendants of Naphtali by their clans were:

through Jahzeel, the Jahzeelite clan;

through Guni, the Gunite clan;

49 through Jezer, the Jezerite clan;

through Shillem, the Shillemite clan.

50 These were the clans of Naphtali; those numbered were 45,400.

51 The total number of the men of Israel was 601,730.

52 The Lord said to Moses, 53 ‘The land is to be allotted to them as an inheritance based on the number of names. 54 To a larger group give a larger inheritance, and to a smaller group a smaller one; each is to receive its inheritance according to the number of those listed. 55 Be sure that the land is distributed by lot. What each group inherits will be according to the names for its ancestral tribe. 56 Each inheritance is to be distributed by lot among the larger and smaller groups.’

57 These were the Levites who were counted by their clans:

through Gershon, the Gershonite clan;

through Kohath, the Kohathite clan;

through Merari, the Merarite clan.

58 These also were Levite clans:

the Libnite clan,

the Hebronite clan,

the Mahlite clan,

the Mushite clan,

the Korahite clan.

(Kohath was the forefather of Amram; 59 the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, a descendant of Levi, who was born to the Levites[e] in Egypt. To Amram she bore Aaron, Moses and their sister Miriam. 60 Aaron was the father of Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 61 But Nadab and Abihu died when they made an offering before the Lord with unauthorised fire.)

62 All the male Levites a month old or more numbered 23,000. They were not counted along with the other Israelites because they received no inheritance among them.

63 These are the ones counted by Moses and Eleazar the priest when they counted the Israelites on the plains of Moab by the Jordan opposite Jericho. 64 Not one of them was among those counted by Moses and Aaron the priest when they counted the Israelites in the Desert of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had told those Israelites they would surely die in the wilderness, and not one of them was left except Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.


  1. Numbers 26:17 Samaritan Pentateuch and Syriac (see also Gen. 46:16); Masoretic Text Arod
  2. Numbers 26:23 Samaritan Pentateuch, Septuagint, Vulgate and Syriac (see also 1 Chron. 7:1); Masoretic Text through Puvah, the Punite
  3. Numbers 26:39 A few manuscripts of the Masoretic Text, Samaritan Pentateuch, Vulgate and Syriac (see also Septuagint); most manuscripts of the Masoretic Text Shephupham
  4. Numbers 26:40 Samaritan Pentateuch and Vulgate (see also Septuagint); Masoretic Text does not have through Ard,
  5. Numbers 26:59 Or Jochebed, a daughter of Levi, who was born to Levi

A Second Census Required

26 [a] After the plague the Lord said to Moses and to Eleazar son of Aaron the priest,[b] “Take a census of the whole community of Israelites, from twenty years old and upward, by their clans,[c] everyone who can serve in the army of Israel.”[d] So Moses and Eleazar the priest spoke with them in the rift valley plains[e] of Moab, along the Jordan River[f] across from Jericho. They said, “Number the people[g] from twenty years old and upward, just as the Lord commanded Moses and the Israelites who went out from the land of Egypt.”


Reuben was the firstborn of Israel. The Reubenites: from[h] Hanoch, the family of the Hanochites; from Pallu, the family of the Palluites; from Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; from Carmi, the family of the Carmites. These were the families of the Reubenites; and those numbered of them were 43,730. Pallu’s descendant[i] was Eliab. Eliab’s descendants were Nemuel, Dathan, and Abiram. It was Dathan and Abiram who as leaders of the community rebelled against Moses and Aaron with the followers[j] of Korah when they rebelled against the Lord. 10 The earth opened its mouth and swallowed them and Korah at the time that company died, when the fire consumed 250 men. So they became a warning. 11 But the descendants of Korah did not die.


12 The Simeonites by their families: from Nemuel, the family of the Nemuelites; from Jamin, the family of the Jaminites; from Jakin, the family of the Jakinites; 13 from Zerah,[k] the family of the Zerahites; and from Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. 14 These were the families of the Simeonites, 22,200.


15 The Gadites by their families: from Zephon, the family of the Zephonites; from Haggi, the family of the Haggites; from Shuni, the family of the Shunites; 16 from Ozni,[l] the family of the Oznites; from Eri,[m] the family of the Erites; 17 from Arod,[n] the family of the Arodites; and from Areli, the family of the Arelites. 18 These were the families of the Gadites according to those numbered of them, 40,500.


19 The descendants of Judah were Er and Onan, but Er and Onan died in the land of Canaan. 20 And the Judahites by their families were: from Shelah, the family of the Shelahites; from Perez, the family of the Perezites; and from Zerah, the family of the Zerahites. 21 And the Perezites were: from Hezron, the family of the Hezronites; from Hamul,[o] the family of the Hamulites. 22 These were the families of Judah according to those numbered of them, 76,500.


23 The Issacharites by their families: from Tola, the family of the Tolaites; from Puah, the family of the Puites; 24 from Jashub, the family of the Jashubites; and from Shimron, the family of the Shimronites. 25 These were the families of Issachar, according to those numbered of them, 64,300.


26 The Zebulunites by their families: from Sered, the family of the Sardites; from Elon, the family of the Elonites; from Jahleel, the family of the Jahleelites. 27 These were the families of the Zebulunites, according to those numbered of them, 60,500.


28 The descendants of Joseph by their families: Manasseh and Ephraim. 29 The Manassehites: from Machir, the family of the Machirites (now Machir became the father of Gilead); from Gilead, the family of the Gileadites. 30 These were the Gileadites: from Iezer, the family of the Iezerites; from Helek, the family of the Helekites; 31 from Asriel, the family of the Asrielites; from Shechem, the family of the Shechemites; 32 from Shemida, the family of the Shemidaites; from Hepher, the family of the Hepherites. 33 Now Zelophehad son of Hepher had no sons, but only daughters; and the names of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. 34 These were the families of Manasseh; those numbered of them were 52,700.


35 These are the Ephraimites by their families: from Shuthelah, the family of the Shuthelahites; from Beker, the family of the Bekerites; from Tahan, the family of the Tahanites. 36 Now these were the Shuthelahites: from Eran, the family of the Eranites. 37 These were the families of the Ephraimites, according to those numbered of them, 32,500. These[p] were the descendants of Joseph by their families.


38 The Benjaminites by their families: from Bela, the family of the Belaites; from Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites; from Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites; 39 from Shupham,[q] the family of the Shuphamites; from Hupham, the family of the Huphamites. 40 The descendants of Bela were Ard[r] and Naaman. From Ard,[s] the family of the Ardites; from Naaman, the family of the Naamanites. 41 These are the Benjaminites, according to their families, and according to those numbered of them, 45,600.


42 These are the Danites by their families: from Shuham, the family of the Shuhamites. These were the families of Dan, according to their families. 43 All the families of the Shuhamites according to those numbered of them were 64,400.


44 The Asherites by their families: from Imnah, the family of the Imnahites; from Ishvi, the family of the Ishvites; from Beriah, the family of the Beriahites. 45 From the Beriahites: from Heber, the family of the Heberites; from Malkiel, the family of the Malkielites. 46 Now the name of the daughter of Asher was Serah.[t] 47 These are the families of the Asherites, according to those numbered of them, 53,400.


48 The Naphtalites by their families: from Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites; from Guni, the family of the Gunites; 49 from Jezer, the family of the Jezerites; from Shillem, the family of the Shillemites. 50 These were the families of Naphtali according to their families; and those numbered of them were 45,400.

Total Number and Division of the Land

51 These were those numbered of the Israelites, 601,730.

52 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 53 “To these the land must be divided as an inheritance according to the number of the names. 54 To a larger group you will give a larger inheritance,[u] and to a smaller group you will give a smaller inheritance.[v] To each one its inheritance must be given according to the number of people in it.[w] 55 The land must be divided by lot; and they will inherit in accordance with the names of their ancestral tribes. 56 Their inheritance must be apportioned[x] by lot among the larger and smaller groups.”

57 And these are the Levites who were numbered according to their families: from Gershon, the family of the Gershonites; of Kohath, the family of the Kohathites; from Merari, the family of the Merarites. 58 These are the families of the Levites: the family of the Libnites, the family of the Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the family of the Mushites, the family of the Korahites. Kohath became the father of Amram. 59 Now the name of Amram’s wife was Jochebed, daughter of Levi, who was born[y] to Levi in Egypt. And to Amram she bore Aaron, Moses, and Miriam their sister. 60 And to Aaron were born Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar. 61 But Nadab and Abihu died when they offered strange fire[z] before the Lord. 62 Those of the Levites[aa] who were numbered were 23,000, all males from a month old and upward, for they were not numbered among the Israelites; no inheritance was given to them among the Israelites.

63 These are those who were numbered by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numbered the Israelites in the rift valley plains[ab] of Moab along the Jordan River opposite Jericho. 64 But there was not a man among these who had been[ac] among those numbered by Moses and Aaron the priest when they numbered the Israelites in the desert of Sinai. 65 For the Lord had said of them, “They will surely die in the wilderness.” And there was not left a single man of them, except Caleb son of Jephunneh and Joshua son of Nun.


  1. Numbers 26:1 sn The breakdown of ch. 26 for outlining purposes will be essentially according to the tribes of Israel. The format and structure is similar to the first census, and so less comment is necessary here.
  2. Numbers 26:1 tc The MT has also “saying.”
  3. Numbers 26:2 tn Heb “house of their fathers.”
  4. Numbers 26:2 tn Heb “everyone who goes out in the army in Israel.”
  5. Numbers 26:3 tn The term עַרְבוֹת (ʿarevot) refers to the sloping plain of the rift valley basin to the north of the Dead Sea and east of the Jordan. See the note at Num 21:1.
  6. Numbers 26:3 tn The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied in the translation for clarity (also in v. 62).
  7. Numbers 26:4 tn “Number the people” is added here to the text for a smooth reading.
  8. Numbers 26:5 tc The Hebrew text has no preposition here, but one has been supplied in the translation for clarity. Cf. vv. 23, 30, 31, 32.
  9. Numbers 26:8 tc The MT has “and the sons of Pallu.”
  10. Numbers 26:9 tn Or “company” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); Heb “congregation.”
  11. Numbers 26:13 tc This is “Zohar” in Exod 6:15 and Gen 46:10.
  12. Numbers 26:16 tc The MT of Gen 46:16 reads this as “Ezbon.”
  13. Numbers 26:16 tc The Greek version and Smr have “Ad[d]i,” probably by confusion of letters.
  14. Numbers 26:17 tc Gen 46:16 and the LXX here read “Arodi.”
  15. Numbers 26:21 tc Smr and the Greek version have “Hamuel.”
  16. Numbers 26:37 sn This is a significant reduction from the first count of 40,500.
  17. Numbers 26:39 tc With the exception of a few manuscripts the MT has Shephupham. The spelling in the translation above is supported by Smr and the ancient versions.
  18. Numbers 26:40 tc The LXX has Adar. Cf. 1 Chr 8:3.
  19. Numbers 26:40 tc “From Ard” is not in the Hebrew text.
  20. Numbers 26:46 tn Also mentioned in 1 Chr 7:30.
  21. Numbers 26:54 tn Heb “to many you will multiply his inheritance.”
  22. Numbers 26:54 tn Heb “to a few you will lessen his inheritance.”
  23. Numbers 26:54 tn Heb “according to those that were numbered of him,” meaning, in accordance with the number of people in his clan.
  24. Numbers 26:56 tn Heb “divided.”
  25. Numbers 26:59 tn Heb “who she bore him to Levi.” The verb has no expressed subject. Either one could be supplied, such as “her mother,” or it could be treated as a passive.
  26. Numbers 26:61 tn The expression אֵשׁ זָרָה (ʾesh zarah, “strange fire”) seems imprecise and has been interpreted numerous ways (see the helpful summary in J. E. Hartley, Leviticus [WBC 4], 132-33). The infraction may have involved any of the following or a combination thereof: (1) using coals from some place other than the burnt offering altar (i.e., “unauthorized coals” according to J. Milgrom, Leviticus [AB], 1:598; cf. Lev 16:12 and cf. “unauthorized person” [אִישׁ זָר, ʾish zar] in Num 16:40 [17:5 HT], NASB “layman”), (2) using the wrong kind of incense (cf. the Exod 30:9 regulation against “strange incense” [קְטֹרֶת זָרָה, qetoret zarah] on the incense altar and the possible connection to Exod 30:34-38), (3) performing an incense offering at an unprescribed time (B. A. Levine, Leviticus [JPSTC], 59), or (4) entering the Holy of Holies at an inappropriate time (Lev 16:1-2).sn This event is narrated in Lev 10:1-7.
  27. Numbers 26:62 tn Heb “them”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  28. Numbers 26:63 sn This is the area of the rift valley basin to the north of the Dead Sea and east of the Jordan. See the note at Num 21:1.
  29. Numbers 26:64 tn “who had been” is added to clarify the text.

18 An unfriendly person pursues selfish ends
    and against all sound judgment starts quarrels.

Fools find no pleasure in understanding
    but delight in airing their own opinions.

When wickedness comes, so does contempt,
    and with shame comes reproach.

The words of the mouth are deep waters,
    but the fountain of wisdom is a rushing stream.

It is not good to be partial to the wicked
    and so deprive the innocent of justice.

The lips of fools bring them strife,
    and their mouths invite a beating.

The mouths of fools are their undoing,
    and their lips are a snare to their very lives.

The words of a gossip are like choice morsels;
    they go down to the inmost parts.

One who is slack in his work
    is brother to one who destroys.

10 The name of the Lord is a fortified tower;
    the righteous run to it and are safe.

11 The wealth of the rich is their fortified city;
    they imagine it a wall too high to scale.

12 Before a downfall the heart is haughty,
    but humility comes before honour.

13 To answer before listening –
    that is folly and shame.

14 The human spirit can endure in times of illness,
    but a crushed spirit who can bear?

15 The heart of the discerning acquires knowledge,
    for the ears of the wise seek it out.

16 A gift opens the way
    and ushers the giver into the presence of the great.

17 In a lawsuit the first to speak seems right,
    until someone comes forward and cross-examines.

18 Casting the lot settles disputes
    and keeps strong opponents apart.

19 A brother wronged is more unyielding than a fortified city;
    disputes are like the barred gates of a citadel.

20 From the fruit of their mouth a person’s stomach is filled;
    with the harvest of their lips they are satisfied.

21 The tongue has the power of life and death,
    and those who love it will eat its fruit.

22 He who finds a wife finds what is good
    and receives favour from the Lord.

23 The poor plead for mercy,
    but the rich answer harshly.

24 One who has unreliable friends soon comes to ruin,
    but there is a friend who sticks closer than a brother.

18 One who has isolated himself[a] seeks his own desires;[b]
he rejects[c] all sound judgment.
A fool takes no pleasure[d] in understanding
but only in disclosing[e] what is on his mind.[f]
When a wicked person[g] arrives, contempt[h] shows up with him,[i]
and with shame comes[j] a reproach.
The words of a person’s mouth[k] are like[l] deep waters,[m]
and[n] the fountain of wisdom[o] is like[p] a flowing brook.[q]
It is terrible[r] to show partiality[s] to the wicked,[t]
by depriving[u] a righteous man of justice.
The lips of a fool[v] enter into strife,[w]
and his mouth invites[x] a flogging.[y]
The mouth of a fool is his ruin,
and his lips are a snare for his life.[z]
The words of a gossip[aa] are like choice morsels;[ab]
and they have gone down into the person’s innermost being.[ac]
The one who[ad] is slack[ae] in his work
is a brother[af] to one who destroys.[ag]
10 The name of the Lord[ah] is like[ai] a strong tower;[aj]
the righteous person runs[ak] to it and is set safely on high.[al]
11 The wealth[am] of a rich person is like[an] a strong city,[ao]
and it is like a high wall in his imagination.[ap]
12 Before destruction the heart[aq] of a person is proud,
but humility comes[ar] before honor.[as]
13 The one who gives an answer[at] before he listens[au]
that is his folly and his shame.[av]
14 A person’s spirit[aw] sustains him through sickness—
but who can bear[ax] a crushed spirit?[ay]
15 The discerning person[az] acquires knowledge,
and the wise person[ba] seeks[bb] knowledge.
16 A person’s gift[bc] makes room for him,
and leads him[bd] before important people.
17 The first to state his case[be] seems[bf] right,
until his opponent[bg] begins to[bh] cross-examine him.[bi]
18 A toss of a coin[bj] ends[bk] disputes,
and settles the issue[bl] between strong opponents.[bm]
19 A relative[bn] offended[bo] is harder to reach than[bp] a strong city,
and disputes are like the barred gates[bq] of a fortified citadel.[br]
20 From the fruit of a person’s mouth[bs] his stomach[bt] will be satisfied,[bu]
with the product of his lips he will be satisfied.
21 Death and life are in the power[bv] of the tongue,[bw]
and those who love its use[bx] will eat its fruit.
22 The one who has found[by] a good[bz] wife has found what goodness is,[ca]
and obtained a delightful gift[cb] from the Lord.[cc]
23 A poor person makes supplications,[cd]
but a rich man answers harshly.[ce]
24 There are[cf] companions[cg] who harm one another,[ch]
but there is a friend[ci] who sticks closer than a brother.


  1. Proverbs 18:1 tn The Niphal participle functions substantively and has a reflexive nuance: “one who has separated himself” (cf. KJV, ASV, NASB). He is not merely anti-social; he is a problem for society since he will defy sound judgment. The Mishnah uses the verse to teach the necessity of being part of a community because people have social responsibilities and need each other (m. Avot 2:4).
  2. Proverbs 18:1 tc The MT has “seeks [his own] desire[s].” The translation in the LXX represents a Hebrew Vorlage of לְתֹאֲנָה (letoʾanah) instead of לְתַאֲוָה (letaʾavah); this could be translated “seeks his own occasion,” that is, “his own pretext” (C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 354; cf. NAB). The MT makes sense as it stands and the emendation is not really necessary.
  3. Proverbs 18:1 tn Heb “breaks out”; NRSV “showing contempt for”; NLT “snarling at.” This individual breaks out in contention against sound judgment. He is in opposition to society (e.g., Prov 17:14; 20:3).
  4. Proverbs 18:2 sn This expression forms an understatement (tapeinosis); the opposite is the point—he detests understanding or discernment.
  5. Proverbs 18:2 tn The Hitpael infinitive construct בְּהִתְגַּלּוֹת (behitgallot) functions nominally as the object of the preposition. The term means “reveal, uncover, betray.” So the fool takes pleasure “in uncovering” his heart.
  6. Proverbs 18:2 tn Heb “his heart.” This is a metonymy meaning “what is on his mind” (cf. NAB “displaying what he thinks”; NRSV “expressing personal opinion”). This kind of person is in love with his own ideas and enjoys spewing them out (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 515). It is the kind of person who would ask a question, not to learn, but to show everyone how clever he is (cf. TEV).
  7. Proverbs 18:3 tc The MT has “a wicked [person].” Many commentators emend the text to רֶשַׁע (reshaʿ, “wickedness”) which makes better parallelism with “shame” (W. McKane, Proverbs [OTL], 521; R. B. Y. Scott, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes [AB], 112; C. H. Toy, Proverbs [ICC], 355; cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). However, there is no external evidence for this emendation.
  8. Proverbs 18:3 sn “Contempt” (בּוּז, buz) accompanies the wicked; “reproach” (חֶרְפָּה, kherpah) goes with shame. This reproach either further characterizes the behaviors expected of the wicked or possibly the critical rebukes and taunts of the community against a wicked person.
  9. Proverbs 18:3 tn Heb “contempt also comes/has come.” The verb form בָּא (baʾ) may either be a perfect verb “has come” (cf. Prov 11:2) or a participle “comes.”
  10. Proverbs 18:3 tn The term “comes” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and smoothness.
  11. Proverbs 18:4 tc The LXX reads “in a person’s heart,” probably conforming to the near parallel in Prov 20:5.
  12. Proverbs 18:4 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.
  13. Proverbs 18:4 sn The metaphor “deep waters” indicates either that the words have an inexhaustible supply or that they are profound. Keil and Delitzsch see the second line as two more characteristics of the man’s words rather than as a second sentence, i.e., a person’s words are: deep waters, a bubbling brook, a fountain of wisdom. The “bubbling brook” would refer to the supply and “deep waters” to their insightfulness, or what is beneath the surface. See also Prov 20:5 for the metaphor “deep waters.”
  14. Proverbs 18:4 tn There is debate about the nature of the parallelism between lines 4a and 4b. The major options are: (1) synonymous parallelism, (2) antithetical parallelism (e.g., NAB, NIV, NCV) or (3) formal parallelism. Normally a vav (ו) would begin an antithetical clause; the structure and the ideas suggest that the second colon continues the idea of the first half, but in a parallel way rather than as additional predicates. The metaphors used in the proverb elsewhere describe the wise.
  15. Proverbs 18:4 sn This is an implied comparison (hypocatastasis), the fountain of wisdom being the person who speaks. The Greek version has “fountain of life” instead of “wisdom,” probably influenced from 10:11.
  16. Proverbs 18:4 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied for the sake of clarity.
  17. Proverbs 18:4 sn The point of this metaphor is that the wisdom is a continuous source of refreshing and beneficial ideas.
  18. Proverbs 18:5 tn Heb “not good.” This is a figure known as tapeinosis, a deliberate understatement to emphasize a worst-case scenario: “it is terrible!”
  19. Proverbs 18:5 tn The idiom “lifting up the face of” (שְׂאֵת פְּנֵי, seʾet pene) means “to show partiality” in decisions (e.g., Deut 10:17; Mal 2:9); cf. CEV, NLT “to favor.” The verbal form is the Qal infinitive construct from נָשָׂא (nasaʾ), which functions as the subject of the clause.
  20. Proverbs 18:5 tn Or “the guilty,” since in the second colon “righteous” can also be understood in contrast as “innocent” (cf. NRSV, TEV, NLT).
  21. Proverbs 18:5 tn Heb “to turn aside” (so ASV); NASB “to thrust aside.” The second half of the verse may illustrate this reprehensible action. The Hiphil infinitive construct לְהַטּוֹת (lehattot) may serve either (1) as result, “showing partiality…so that the righteous are turned away,” or (2) as epexegetical infinitive, “showing partiality…by turning the righteous away.” The second is preferred in the translation. Depriving the innocent of their rights is a perversion of justice.
  22. Proverbs 18:6 sn The “lips” is a metonymy of cause, meaning what the fool says. The “mouth” in the second colon is likewise a metonymy for speech, what comes out of the mouth.
  23. Proverbs 18:6 sn “Strife” is a metonymy of cause, it is the cause of the beating or flogging that follows; “flogging” in the second colon is a metonymy of effect, the flogging is the effect of the strife. The two together give the whole picture.
  24. Proverbs 18:6 tn Heb “calls for.” This is personification: What the fool says “calls for” a beating or flogging. The fool deserves punishment, but does not actually request it.
  25. Proverbs 18:6 tn Heb “blows.” This would probably be physical beatings, either administered by the father or by society (e.g., also 19:25; Ps 141:5; cf. NAB, NIV, TEV, NLT). Today, however, “a beating” could be associated with violent criminal assault, whereas the context suggests punishment. Therefore “a flogging” is used in the translation, since that term is normally associated with disciplinary action.
  26. Proverbs 18:7 tn Heb “his soul” (so KJV, NASB, NIV).sn What a fool says can ruin him. Calamity and misfortune can come to a person who makes known his lack of wisdom by what he says. It may be that his words incite anger, or merely reveal stupidity; in either case, he is in trouble.
  27. Proverbs 18:8 tn Or “slanderer”; KJV, NAB “talebearer”; ASV, NRSV “whisperer.”
  28. Proverbs 18:8 tn The word כְּמִתְלַהֲמִים (kemitlahamim) occurs only here (and 26:22 where the verse is repeated verbatim). It is related to a cognate verb meaning “to swallow greedily,” so here “things swallowed greedily,” meaning food delicacies. Earlier English versions took it from a Hebrew root הָלַם (halam, see the word לְמַהֲלֻמוֹת [lemahalumot] in v. 6) meaning “wounds” (so KJV) or reflexively for the Hitpael as “self-inflicted wounds.” But the translation of “choice morsels” seems to fit the next image of going into the belly better. But that could also show the extent of wounds.
  29. Proverbs 18:8 tn Heb “they have gone down [into] the dark/inner chambers of the belly”; NASB “of the body.” sn When the choice morsels of gossip are received, they go down like delicious food—into the innermost being; they have been too easily believed. R. N. Whybray says, “There is a flaw in human nature that assures slander will be listened to” (Proverbs [CBC], 105).
  30. Proverbs 18:9 tn Heb “Also, the one who.” Many commentators and a number of English versions omit the word “also.”
  31. Proverbs 18:9 tn The form מִתְרַפֶּה (mitrappeh) is the Hitpael participle, “showing oneself slack.” The verb means “to sink; to relax,” and in the causative stem “to let drop” the hands. This is the lazy person who does not even try to work.
  32. Proverbs 18:9 sn These two troubling types, the slacker and the destroyer, are closely related.
  33. Proverbs 18:9 tn Heb “possessor of destruction.” This idiom means “destroyer” (so ASV); KJV “a great waster”; NRSV “a vandal.”
  34. Proverbs 18:10 sn The “name of the Lord” is a metonymy of subject. The “name” here signifies not the personal name “Yahweh,” for that would be redundant in the expression “the name of Yahweh,” but the attributes of the Lord (cf. Exod 34:5-7)—here his power to protect.
  35. Proverbs 18:10 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied for the sake of clarity.
  36. Proverbs 18:10 tn Heb “a tower of strength,” with “strength” regarded as attributive by most English versions. The metaphor “strong tower” indicates that God is a secure refuge. The figure is qualified in the second colon.
  37. Proverbs 18:10 sn The metaphor of “running” to the Lord refers to a whole-hearted and unwavering trust in God’s protection (e.g., Isa 40:31).
  38. Proverbs 18:10 tn Heb “is high” or “is inaccessible.” This military-type expression stresses the effect of the trust—security, being out of danger (see HALOT 1305 s.v. שׂגב). Other scriptures will supply the ways that God actually protects people who trust him.
  39. Proverbs 18:11 sn This proverb forms a contrast with the previous one. The rich, unlike the righteous, trust in wealth and not in God.
  40. Proverbs 18:11 tn The comparative “like” does not appear in the Hebrew text, but is implied by the metaphor; it is supplied for the sake of clarity.
  41. Proverbs 18:11 tn Heb “city of his strength”; NIV “fortified city.” This term refers to their place of refuge, what they look to for security and protection in time of trouble.
  42. Proverbs 18:11 tc The MT reads בְּמַשְׂכִּיתוֹ (bemaskito, “in his imaginations”). The LXX, Tg. Prov 18:11, and the Latin reflect בִּמְשֻׂכָּתוֹ (bimsukkato, “like a fence [or, high wall]”) that is, wealth provides protection. The MT reading, on the other hand, suggests that this security is only in the The proverb is an observation saying, reporting a common assumption without commenting on it. The juxtaposition with the last verse is a loud criticism of this misguided faith. The final word בְּמַשְׂכִּיתוֹ (bemaskito, “in his imaginations”) indicates that one’s wealth is a futile place of refuge.
  43. Proverbs 18:12 sn The term “heart” is a metonymy of subject, referring to the seat of the spiritual and intellectual capacities—the mind, the will, the motivations and intentions. Proud ambitions and intentions will lead to a fall.
  44. Proverbs 18:12 tn Heb “[is] before honor”; cf. CEV “humility leads to honor.”
  45. Proverbs 18:12 sn The way to honor is through humility (e.g., Prov 11:2; 15:33; 16:18). The humility and exaltation of Jesus provides the classic example (Phil 2:1-10).
  46. Proverbs 18:13 tn Heb “returns a word”; KJV “He that answereth a matter.”
  47. Proverbs 18:13 sn Poor listening and premature answering indicate that the person has a low regard for what the other is saying, or that he is too absorbed in his own ideas. The Mishnah lists this as the second characteristic of the uncultured person (m. Avot 5:7).
  48. Proverbs 18:13 tn Heb “it is folly to him and shame.” The verse uses formal parallelism, with the second colon simply completing the thought of the first.
  49. Proverbs 18:14 tn Heb “the spirit of a man.” Because the verb of this clause is a masculine form, some have translated this line as “with spirit a man sustains,” but that is an unnecessary change.
  50. Proverbs 18:14 sn This is a rhetorical question, asserting that very few can cope with depression.
  51. Proverbs 18:14 sn The figure of a “crushed spirit” (ASV, NAB, NCV, NRSV “a broken spirit,” comparing depression to something smashed or crushed) suggests a broken will, a loss of vitality, despair, and emotional pain. In physical sickness one can fall back on the will to live, but in depression even the will to live is gone.
  52. Proverbs 18:15 tn Heb “discerning mind.” The term לֵב (lev, “mind, heart”) is a synecdoche of part (= heart/mind) for the whole (= person); cf. TEV, NLT “intelligent people.” Placing “heart” and “ear” in parallel encompasses more of the process of acquiring knowledge. The ear listens for and to instruction, and the mind considers what is heard to acquire knowledge.
  53. Proverbs 18:15 tn Heb “the ear of the wise.” The term “ear” is a synecdoche of part (= ear) for the whole (= person): “wise person.” sn The wise continually seek more knowledge. D. Kidner says, “Those who know most know best how little they know” (Proverbs [TOTC], 129).
  54. Proverbs 18:15 sn This line features a mixed metaphor: The “ear” is pictured “seeking.” The wise person is listening for (on the lookout for) things worth listening to in the pursuit of knowledge.
  55. Proverbs 18:16 sn The Hebrew term translated “gift” is a more general term than “bribe” (שֹׁחַד, shokhad), used in 17:8, 23. But it also has danger (e.g., 15:27; 21:14), for by giving gifts one might learn how influential they are and use them for bribes. The proverb simply states that a gift can expedite matters.
  56. Proverbs 18:16 sn The two verbs here show a progression, helping to form the synthetic parallelism. The gift first “makes room” (יַרְחִיב, yarkhiv) for the person, that is, extending a place for him, and then “ushers him in” (יַנְחֵנּוּ, yankhennu) among the greats.
  57. Proverbs 18:17 tn Heb “in his legal case”; NAB “who pleads his case first.”
  58. Proverbs 18:17 tn The term “seems” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness (cf. KJV “seemeth”).
  59. Proverbs 18:17 tn Heb “his neighbor”; NRSV “the other.”
  60. Proverbs 18:17 tc The Kethib is the imperfect יָבֹא (yavoʾ), “his opponent comes and….” The Qere is the conjunction with the participle/perfect tense form וּבָא (uvaʾ), “[but] then his opponent comes and….” The latter is reflected in most of the ancient versions. There is not an appreciable difference in the translation.
  61. Proverbs 18:17 sn The proverb is a continuous sentence teaching that there must be cross-examination to settle legal disputes. There are two sides in any disputes, and so even though the first to present his case sounds right, it must be challenged. The verb הָקַר (haqar, translated “cross-examines”) is used for careful, diligent searching and investigating to know something (e.g., Ps 139:1).
  62. Proverbs 18:18 tn Heb “casting the lot.” Because modern readers are not familiar with the ancient practice of casting lots, the image of the coin toss to decide an issue has been employed in the translation (cf. CEV “drawing straws”). Although the casting of lots is often compared to throwing dice, the translation “throwing dice ends disputes” in this context could be misunderstood to mean “participating in a game of dice ends disputes.”
  63. Proverbs 18:18 tn The verb יַשְׁבִּית (yashbit) is the Hiphil imperfect from שָׁבַת (shavat), meaning “to cause to cease; to bring to an end; to end”; cf. NIV “settles disputes.” The assumption behind this practice and this saying is that providence played the determining role in the casting of lots. If both parties accepted this, then the issue could be resolved.
  64. Proverbs 18:18 tn Heb “makes a separation” or “decides.” In the book of Proverbs this verb often has a negative connotation, such as separating close friends (e.g., 16:9). But here it has a positive nuance: Opponents are “separated” by settling the issue.
  65. Proverbs 18:18 tn The word is the adjective, “mighty” (so KJV, NAB, NASB) used here substantivally as the object of the preposition.
  66. Proverbs 18:19 tn Heb “brother,” but this is not limited to actual siblings (cf. NRSV “an ally”; CEV, NLT “friend”).
  67. Proverbs 18:19 tn The Niphal participle from פָּשַׁע (pashaʿ) modifies “brother”: a brother transgressed, offended, sinned against.
  68. Proverbs 18:19 tc The LXX has a clear antithetical proverb here: “A brother helped is like a stronghold, but disputes are like bars of a citadel.” Accordingly, the editors of BHS propose מוֹשִׁיעַ (moshiaʿ) instead of נִפְשָׁע (nifshaʿ, so also the other versions and the RSV). But since both lines use the comparison with a citadel (fortified/barred), the antithesis is problematic. tn The phrase “is harder to reach” is supplied in the translation on the basis of the comparative מִן (min). It is difficult to get into a fortified city; it is more difficult to reach an offended brother.
  69. Proverbs 18:19 tn Heb “bars,” but this could be understood to mean “taverns,” so “barred gates” is employed in the translation.
  70. Proverbs 18:19 sn The proverb is talking about changing a friend or a relative into an enemy by abuse or strife—the bars go up, as it were. And the “walls” that are erected are not easily torn down.
  71. Proverbs 18:20 sn Two harvest images, fruit (from trees) and produce (from field crops), are applied to speech, represented by the mouth and lips. The “mouth” and the “lips” are metonymies of cause, with both lines indicating that speech is productive. The following verse about harvest of the tongue may be part of this proverb.
  72. Proverbs 18:20 tn The noun בֶּטֶן (beten) can refer to the stomach, womb, or internal organs. In Prov 20:30 and 22:18 it appears to be metaphorical for the inner person, or soul. Given the references to the mouth, lips, and being satisfied, on one level it refers to the stomach. But it probably functions on a spiritual level as well, especially when read with the following verse.
  73. Proverbs 18:20 tn Or “is satisfied.” The translation understands שָׂבַע (savaʿ) as stative “to be satisfied; be filled” rather than fientive, “to satisfy oneself,” so that the imperfect form is future. An imperfect verb may be future for both stative and dynamic verbs, and may be present for dynamic verbs. It is not possible to tell by morphological criteria whether the verb שָׂבַע is stative or dynamic, but elsewhere it behaves similarly to a stative.
  74. Proverbs 18:21 tn Heb “in the hand of.”
  75. Proverbs 18:21 sn What people say can lead to life or death. The Midrash on Psalms shows one way the tongue [what is said] can cause death: “The evil tongue slays three, the slanderer, the slandered, and the listener” (Midrash Tehillim 52:2). See J. G. Williams, “The Power of Form: A Study of Biblical Proverbs,” Semeia 17 (1980): 35-38.
  76. Proverbs 18:21 tn The referent of “it” must be the tongue, i.e., what the tongue says (= “its use”). So those who enjoy talking, indulging in it, must “eat” its fruit, whether good or bad. The expression “eating the fruit” is an implied comparison; it means accept the consequences of loving to talk (cf. TEV).
  77. Proverbs 18:22 tn The verb מָצָא (matsaʾ, translated “has found”) is used twice in the first colon. As the perfect form of a dynamic root, the verb should be understood as past or perfective. The first verb sets the premise—the case where a man has found a good wife. The second verb makes an evaluative comment about the premise.
  78. Proverbs 18:22 tc Some Hebrew manuscripts, the LXX, the Syriac, the Targum, and some Latin witnesses include the adjective “good” (טוֺבָה; tovah). Its omission in the MT resulted from the common scribal mistake of homoeoteleuton, omitting a word when two successive words have a similar The adjective “good” has a broad meaning and may mean “virtuous,” “kind,” “cheerful,” or “content.”sn The significance of the adjective is affirmed by realizing that this proverb should not contradict Prov 19:13; 21:9; 25:24; and 27:15. These verses do not paint the contentious wife as a benefit.
  79. Proverbs 18:22 tc Heb טוֹב (tov) “a good [thing]” or “[what is] good.” The LXX translates with a noun “grace/favor” which may imply the Hebrew noun טוֹב (tov), or the noun טוּב (tuv), a different reading of the same consonants. Both nouns mean “goodness,” “well-being;” “happiness.”sn The term טוֹב (tov, “good; enjoyable; favorable; virtuous”) might be an allusion to Gen 2:18, which affirms that it is not good for man to be alone. The word describes that which is pleasing to God, beneficial for life, and abundantly enjoyable.
  80. Proverbs 18:22 tn Heb “what is pleasing; what brings delight.” The noun רָצוֹן (ratson, “what is pleasing”). This is not the specific religious sense of finding acceptance before the Lord (a when bringing a sacrifice, e.g. Lev 1:3) but the general sense of delight. Yet this fortunate condition of having a virtuous, cheerful wife is described as providentially from God, cf. CEV “she is a gift from the Lord.”
  81. Proverbs 18:22 tc The LXX adds this embellishment to complete the thought: “Whoever puts away a good wife puts away good, and whoever keeps an adulteress is foolish and ungodly.”
  82. Proverbs 18:23 tn Heb “speaks supplications”; NIV “pleads for mercy.” The poor man has to ask for help because he has no choice (cf. CEV). The Hebrew term תַּחֲנוּן (takhanun) is a “supplication for favor” (related to the verb חָנַן [khanan], “to be gracious; to show favor”). So the poor man speaks, but what he speaks is a request for favor.
  83. Proverbs 18:23 sn The rich person responds harshly to the request. He has hardened himself against such appeals because of relentless demands. The proverb is an observation saying; it simply describes the way the world generally works, rather than setting this out as the ideal.
  84. Proverbs 18:24 tn The word is spelled אִישׁ (ʾish), typical of the word for “man, person,” and is often so translated (KJV, NIV, NASB, ESV). It is probably a synonym or alternate form of יֵשׁ (yesh, “there is”), which begins the second line of the verse. The Ugaritic and Aramaic cognates of יֵשׁ (yesh) are ʾt and אִית (ʾith) respectively. A regular phonetic change in the history of the languages accounts for the Ugaritic and Aramaic tav (ת, “t”) where Hebrew has a shin (שׁ, “sh”). It is spelled without the yod as אִשׁ (ʾish, “there is”) in 2 Sam 14:19 and Mic 6:10 (see HALOT 92, s.v. אִשׁ). C. H. Toy suggested reading יֵשׁ (yesh) instead of אִישׁ (ʾish), along with some of the Greek mss, the Syriac, and Tg. Prov 18:24 (Proverbs [ICC], 366) but the emendation is unnecessary in light of the cognate.
  85. Proverbs 18:24 tn The noun רֵעַ (reaʿ) refers to a “companion, associate, friend, neighbor.” It has a wide range of meaning depending on context, but generally “those persons with whom one is brought into contact and with whom one must live on account of the circumstances of life” (HALOT 1253 s.v. II רֵעַ). Some translations employ the word “friend” in both halves of the verse, obscuring the distinction between them. This term speaks of association, not necessarily friendship.
  86. Proverbs 18:24 tn The text lacks a main verb and simply has an infinitive construct, לְהִתְרֹעֵעַ (lehitroʿeaʿ), a hitpolel of the verb רעע (raʿaʿ). Based on the noun רֵעַ (reaʿ, “companion, associate, friend, neighbor”), the KJV had postulated a cognate, an otherwise unattested root רעע meaning “show oneself friendly” in the Hitpolel. This would be reasonable if there was a root רעע that means “to be a friend” in the Qal, but the noun רֵעַ (reaʿ) is actually associated with a root רעה (raʿah). Instead the infinitive points toward a result and the Hitpolel of רעע (raʿaʿ) means “to smash one another” (HALOT 1269 s.v. II רעע). If the first word of the verse is maintained to be אִישׁ (ʾish, “man”), it might mean “a man of companions may be crushed by them.”
  87. Proverbs 18:24 tn This term for friend (אֹהֵב, ʾohev) is based on the root meaning “to love. It speaks of a bond or commitment that is not true of the term for “companion” in the first line.

Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus,

To all God’s holy people in Christ Jesus at Philippi, together with the overseers and deacons[a]:

Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Thanksgiving and prayer

I thank my God every time I remember you. In all my prayers for all of you, I always pray with joy because of your partnership in the gospel from the first day until now, being confident of this, that he who began a good work in you will carry it on to completion until the day of Christ Jesus.

It is right for me to feel this way about all of you, since I have you in my heart and, whether I am in chains or defending and confirming the gospel, all of you share in God’s grace with me. God can testify how I long for all of you with the affection of Christ Jesus.

And this is my prayer: that your love may abound more and more in knowledge and depth of insight, 10 so that you may be able to discern what is best and may be pure and blameless for the day of Christ, 11 filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ – to the glory and praise of God.

Paul’s chains advance the gospel

12 Now I want you to know, brothers and sisters,[b] that what has happened to me has actually served to advance the gospel. 13 As a result, it has become clear throughout the whole palace guard[c] and to everyone else that I am in chains for Christ. 14 And because of my chains, most of the brothers and sisters have become confident in the Lord and dare all the more to proclaim the gospel without fear.

15 It is true that some preach Christ out of envy and rivalry, but others out of goodwill. 16 The latter do so out of love, knowing that I am put here for the defence of the gospel. 17 The former preach Christ out of selfish ambition, not sincerely, supposing that they can stir up trouble for me while I am in chains. 18 But what does it matter? The important thing is that in every way, whether from false motives or true, Christ is preached. And because of this I rejoice.

Yes, and I will continue to rejoice, 19 for I know that through your prayers and God’s provision of the Spirit of Jesus Christ what has happened to me will turn out for my deliverance.[d] 20 I eagerly expect and hope that I will in no way be ashamed, but will have sufficient courage so that now as always Christ will be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death. 21 For to me, to live is Christ and to die is gain. 22 If I am to go on living in the body, this will mean fruitful labour for me. Yet what shall I choose? I do not know! 23 I am torn between the two: I desire to depart and be with Christ, which is better by far; 24 but it is more necessary for you that I remain in the body. 25 Convinced of this, I know that I will remain, and I will continue with all of you for your progress and joy in the faith, 26 so that through my being with you again your boasting in Christ Jesus will abound on account of me.

Life worthy of the gospel

27 Whatever happens, conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ. Then, whether I come and see you or only hear about you in my absence, I will know that you stand firm in the one Spirit,[e] striving together as one for the faith of the gospel 28 without being frightened in any way by those who oppose you. This is a sign to them that they will be destroyed, but that you will be saved – and that by God. 29 For it has been granted to you on behalf of Christ not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him, 30 since you are going through the same struggle you saw I had, and now hear that I still have.


  1. Philippians 1:1 The word deacons refers here to Christians designated to serve with the overseers/elders of the church in a variety of ways; similarly in Romans 16:1 and 1 Tim. 3:8,12.
  2. Philippians 1:12 The Greek word for brothers and sisters (adelphoi) refers here to believers, both men and women, as part of God’s family; also in verse 14; and in 3:1, 13, 17; 4:1, 8, 21.
  3. Philippians 1:13 Or whole palace
  4. Philippians 1:19 Or vindication; or salvation
  5. Philippians 1:27 Or in one spirit


From Paul[a] and Timothy, slaves[b] of Christ Jesus, to all the saints in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi, with the overseers[c] and deacons. Grace and peace to you[d] from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ!

Prayer for the Church

I thank my God every time I remember you.[e] I always pray with joy in my every prayer for all of you because of your participation[f] in the gospel from the first day until now.[g] For I am sure of this very thing,[h] that the one[i] who began a good work in[j] you will perfect it[k] until the day of Christ Jesus. For[l] it is right for me to think this about all of you, because I have you in my heart,[m] since both in my imprisonment[n] and in the defense and confirmation of the gospel all of you became partners in God’s grace[o] together with me. For God is my witness that I long for all of you with the affection of Christ Jesus. And I pray this, that your love may abound even more and more in knowledge and every kind of insight 10 so that you can decide what is best, and thus be sincere and blameless for the day of Christ, 11 filled with the fruit of righteousness that comes through Jesus Christ to the glory and praise of God.

Ministry as a Prisoner

12 I want you to know, brothers and sisters,[p] that my situation has actually turned out to advance the gospel:[q] 13 The[r] whole imperial guard[s] and everyone else knows[t] that I am in prison[u] for the sake of Christ, 14 and most of the brothers and sisters,[v] having confidence in the Lord[w] because of my imprisonment, now more than ever[x] dare to speak the word[y] fearlessly.

15 Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ from envy and rivalry, but others from goodwill. 16 The latter do so from love because they know that I am placed here for the defense of the gospel. 17 The former proclaim Christ from selfish ambition, not sincerely, because they think they can cause trouble for me in my imprisonment.[z] 18 What is the result? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is being proclaimed, and in this I rejoice.

Yes,[aa] and I will continue to rejoice, 19 for I know that this will turn out for my deliverance[ab] through your prayers and the help of the Spirit of Jesus Christ. 20 My confident hope[ac] is that I will in no way be ashamed[ad] but that with complete boldness, even now as always, Christ will be exalted in my body, whether I live or die.[ae] 21 For to me, living is Christ and dying is gain. 22 Now if I am to go on living in the body,[af] this will mean productive work[ag] for me, yet I don’t know which I prefer:[ah] 23 I feel torn between the two,[ai] because I have a desire to depart and be with Christ, which is better by far, 24 but it is more vital for your sake that I remain[aj] in the body.[ak] 25 And since I am sure of this, I know that I will remain and continue with all of you for the sake of your progress[al] and joy in the faith,[am] 26 so that what you can be proud of may increase[an] because of me in Christ Jesus, when I come back to you.[ao]

27 Only conduct yourselves[ap] in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ so that—whether I come and see you or whether I remain absent—I should hear that[aq] you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind, by contending side by side for the faith of the gospel,[ar] 28 and by not being intimidated in any way by your opponents. This is[as] a sign of their[at] destruction, but of your salvation—a sign which[au] is from God. 29 For it has been granted to you[av] not only to believe in Christ but also to suffer for him, 30 since you are encountering[aw] the same conflict that you saw me face and now hear that I am facing.[ax]


  1. Philippians 1:1 tn Grk “Paul.” The word “from” is not in the Greek text, but has been supplied to indicate the sender of the letter.
  2. Philippians 1:1 tn Traditionally, “servants” or “bondservants.” Though δοῦλος (doulos) is normally translated “servant,” the word does not bear the connotation of a free individual serving another. BDAG notes that “‘servant’ for ‘slave’ is largely confined to Biblical transl. and early American times…in normal usage at the present time the two words are carefully distinguished” (BDAG 260 s.v.). One good translation is “bondservant” (sometimes found in the ASV for δοῦλος) in that it often indicates one who sells himself into slavery to another. But as this is archaic, few today understand its force. Also, many slaves in the Roman world became slaves through Rome’s subjugation of conquered nations, kidnapping, or by being born into slave households. sn Undoubtedly the background for the concept of being the Lord’s slave or servant is to be found in the Old Testament scriptures. For a Jew this concept did not connote drudgery, but honor and privilege. It was used of national Israel at times (Isa 43:10), but was especially associated with famous OT personalities, including such great men as Moses (Josh 14:7), David (Ps 89:3; cf. 2 Sam 7:5, 8) and Elijah (2 Kgs 10:10); all these men were “servants (or slaves) of the Lord.”
  3. Philippians 1:1 sn The overseers (or “church leaders,” L&N 53.71) is another term for the same official position of leadership as the “elder.” This is seen in the interchange of the two terms in Titus 1:6-7 and in Acts 20:17, 28, as well as in the parallels between Titus 1:6-7 and 1 Tim 3:1-7.
  4. Philippians 1:2 tn Grk “Grace to you and peace.”
  5. Philippians 1:3 tn This could also be translated “for your every remembrance of me.” See discussion below.
  6. Philippians 1:5 sn Your participation (Grk “fellowship”) could refer to Paul rejoicing because of the Philippian converts’ “fellowship” in the gospel along with him, but it is more likely that this refers to their active “participation” with him in the gospel by means of the financial support they sent to Paul on more than one occasion, discussed later in this letter (4:10-19, esp. 4:15-16).
  7. Philippians 1:5 tn Several alternatives for translating vv. 3-5 are possible: (1) “I thank my God every time I remember you, yes, always in my every prayer for all of you. I pray with joy because of your participation…” (see NAB; also M. Silva, Philippians [BECNT], 43-44; G. D. Fee, Philippians [NICNT], 76-80); (2) “I thank my God because of your every remembrance of me. Always in my every prayer for all of you I pray with joy. [I am grateful] for your participation…” (see Moffatt; also P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 58-61). Option (1) is quite similar to the translation above, but sees v. 4a as more or less parenthetical. Option (2) is significantly different in that Paul thanks God because the Philippians remember him rather than when he remembers them.
  8. Philippians 1:6 tn Grk “since I am sure of this very thing.” The verse begins with an adverbial participle that is dependent on the main verb in v. 3 (“I thank”). Paul here gives one reason for his thankfulness.
  9. Philippians 1:6 tn The referent is clearly God from the overall context of the paragraph and the mention of “the day of Christ Jesus” at the end, which would be redundant if Christ were referred to here.
  10. Philippians 1:6 tn Or “among.”
  11. Philippians 1:6 tn The word “it” is not in the Greek text but has been supplied. Direct objects were frequently omitted in Greek when clear from the context.
  12. Philippians 1:7 tn Grk “Just as.” The sense here is probably, “So I give thanks (v. 3) just as it is right for me…”
  13. Philippians 1:7 tn Or possibly “because you have me in your heart.”
  14. Philippians 1:7 tn Grk “in my bonds.” The meaning “imprisonment” derives from a figurative extension of the literal meaning (“bonds,” “fetters,” “chains”), L&N 37.115.
  15. Philippians 1:7 tn The word “God’s” is supplied from the context (v. 2) to clarify the meaning.
  16. Philippians 1:12 tn Grk “brothers,” but the Greek word may be used for “brothers and sisters” or “fellow Christians” as here (cf. BDAG 18 s.v. ἀδελφός 1, where considerable nonbiblical evidence for the plural ἀδελφοί [adelphoi] meaning “brothers and sisters” is cited).
  17. Philippians 1:12 tn Grk “for the advance of the gospel.” The genitive εὐαγγελίου (euangeliou) is taken as objective.
  18. Philippians 1:13 tn Grk “so that the whole imperial guard.” The ὥστε (hōste) clause that begins v. 13 indicates two results of the spread of the gospel: Outsiders know why Paul is imprisoned (v. 13) and believers are emboldened by his imprisonment (v. 14).
  19. Philippians 1:13 sn The whole imperial guard (Grk “praetorium”) can refer to the elite troops stationed in Rome or the headquarters of administrators in the provinces (cf. Matt 27:27; Mark 15:16; John 18:28, 33; 19:9; Acts 23:35). In either case a metonymy is involved, with the place (the praetorium) put for those (soldiers or government officials) who were connected with it or stationed in it.
  20. Philippians 1:13 tn Grk “it has become known by the whole imperial guard and all the rest.”
  21. Philippians 1:13 tn Grk “my bonds [are].”
  22. Philippians 1:14 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 1:12.
  23. Philippians 1:14 tn Or “most of the brothers and sisters in the Lord, having confidence.”
  24. Philippians 1:14 tn Grk “even more so.”
  25. Philippians 1:14 tc A number of significant mss have “of God” after “word.” Although τοῦ θεοῦ (tou theou) is amply supported in the Alexandrian and Western witnesses (א A B [D*] P Ψ 048vid 075 0278 33 81 1175 1241 2464 al lat co), the omission is difficult to explain as either an intentional deletion or unintentional oversight. To be sure, the pedigree of the witnesses is not nearly as great for the shorter reading (P46 D2 K 1505 1739 1881 M), but it explains well the rise of the other reading. Further, it explains the rise of κυρίου (kuriou, “of the Lord”), the reading of F and G (for if these mss had followed a Vorlage with τοῦ θεοῦ, κυρίου would not have been expected). Further, τοῦ θεοῦ is in different locations among the mss; such dislocations are usually signs of scribal additions to the text. Thus, the Byzantine text and a few other witnesses here have the superior reading, and it should be accepted as the Ausgangstext.
  26. Philippians 1:17 tn Grk “thinking to cause trouble to my bonds.”
  27. Philippians 1:18 tn Or “But.” The conjunction ἀλλά (alla) may be emphatic or contrastive. If the former, the idea may be that Paul will continue rejoicing because of the proclamation of the gospel or because of his imminent release from prison (v. 19); if the latter, Paul is now turning his attention solely to this second reason to rejoice, viz., that he will soon be released from prison. In this latter view the clause should be translated, “But I will also rejoice since I know…”
  28. Philippians 1:19 tn Or “salvation.” Deliverance from prison (i.e., release) is probably what Paul has in view here, although some take this as a reference to his ultimate release from the body, i.e., dying and being with Christ (v. 23).sn The phrase this will turn out for my deliverance may be an echo of Job 13:16 (LXX).
  29. Philippians 1:20 tn Grk “according to my eager expectation and hope.” The κατά (kata) phrase is taken as governing the following ὅτι (hoti) clause (“that I will not be ashamed…”); the idea could be expressed more verbally as “I confidently hope that I will not be ashamed…”
  30. Philippians 1:20 tn Or possibly, “be intimidated, be put to shame.”
  31. Philippians 1:20 tn Grk “whether by life or by death.”
  32. Philippians 1:22 tn Grk “flesh.”
  33. Philippians 1:22 tn Grk “fruit of work”; the genitive ἔργου (ergou) is taken as an attributed genitive in which the head noun, καρπός (karpos), functions attributively (cf. ExSyn 89-91).
  34. Philippians 1:22 tn Grk “what I shall prefer.” The Greek verb αἱρέω (haireō) could also mean “choose,” but in this context such a translation is problematic for it suggests that Paul could perhaps choose suicide (cf. L&N 30.86).sn I don’t know what I prefer. Paul is here struggling with what would be most beneficial for both him and the church. He resolves this issue in vv. 24-25.
  35. Philippians 1:23 tn Grk “I am hard-pressed between the two.” Cf. L&N 30.18.
  36. Philippians 1:24 tn Grk “But to remain in the flesh is more necessary for you.”
  37. Philippians 1:24 tn Grk “the flesh.”
  38. Philippians 1:25 tn Grk “for your progress.”
  39. Philippians 1:25 sn Paul’s confidence in his release from prison (I know that I will remain and continue with all of you) implies that this Roman imprisonment did not end in his death. Hence, there is the likelihood that he experienced a second Roman imprisonment later on (since the belief of the early church was that Paul died under Nero in Rome). If so, then the pastoral letters (1-2 Tim, Titus) could well fit into a life of Paul that goes beyond any descriptions in the book of Acts (which ends with Paul’s first Roman imprisonment). Some have argued that the pastorals cannot be genuine because they cannot fit into the history of Acts. But this view presupposes that Paul’s first Roman imprisonment was also his last.
  40. Philippians 1:26 tn Grk “your boasting may overflow in Christ Jesus because of me,” or possibly, “your boasting in me may overflow in Christ Jesus.” BDAG 536 s.v. καύχημα 1 translates the phrase τὸ καύχημα ὑμῶν (to kauchēma humōn) in Phil 1:26 as “what you can be proud of.”
  41. Philippians 1:26 tn Grk “through my coming again to you.”
  42. Philippians 1:27 tn Grk “live as citizens.” The verb πολιτεύεσθε (politeuesthe) connotes the life of a freeman in a free Roman Conduct yourselves (Grk “live your lives as citizens”). The Philippians lived in a free Roman city, and thus understood from their own experience what it meant to live as citizens. Paul is here picking up on that motif and elevating it to the citizenship of heaven. Cf. 3:20 (our citizenship is in heaven).
  43. Philippians 1:27 tn Grk “the things concerning you, [namely,] that.” The ὅτι (hoti) clause is appositional to τὰ περὶ ὑμῶν (ta peri humōn) and therefore “the things concerning you” was not translated.
  44. Philippians 1:27 tn The phrase “the faith of the gospel” could mean one of three things: “the faith that is the gospel” (genitive of apposition), “the faith that originates from the gospel” (genitive of source), or “faith in the gospel” (objective genitive).
  45. Philippians 1:28 tn Grk “which is,” continuing the sentence begun in v. The antecedent of the pronoun This is conceptual, most likely referring to the Philippian Christians standing firm for the gospel. Thus, their stand for the gospel is the dual sign of their opponents’ destruction and of their own salvation.
  46. Philippians 1:28 tn Grk “to them.” sn Paul uses the dative “to them” (translated here as their) to describe the coming destruction of the gospel’s enemies, but the genitive “your” to describe the believers’ coming salvation. The dative accents what will happen to the enemies (called a dative of disadvantage [see ExSyn 143-44]), while the genitive accents what the believers will possess (and, in fact, do already possess, as v. 29 makes clear).
  47. Philippians 1:28 tn Grk “this.” The pronoun refers back to “a sign”; thus these words have been repeated for clarity.
  48. Philippians 1:29 tn Grk “For that which is on behalf of Christ has been granted to you—namely, not only to believe in him but also to suffer for him.” The infinitive phrases are epexegetical to the subject, τὸ ὑπὲρ Χριστοῦ (to huper Christou), which has the force of “the on-behalf-of-Christ thing,” or “the thing on behalf of Christ.” To translate this in English requires a different idiom.
  49. Philippians 1:30 tn Grk “having,” most likely as an instrumental participle. Thus their present struggle is evidence that they have received the gift of suffering.
  50. Philippians 1:30 tn Grk “that you saw in me and now hear [to be] in me.”

Imitating Christ’s humility

Therefore if you have any encouragement from being united with Christ, if any comfort from his love, if any common sharing in the Spirit, if any tenderness and compassion, then make my joy complete by being like-minded, having the same love, being one in spirit and of one mind. Do nothing out of selfish ambition or vain conceit. Rather, in humility value others above yourselves, not looking to your own interests but each of you to the interests of the others.

In your relationships with one another, have the same mindset as Christ Jesus:

who, being in very nature[a] God,
    did not consider equality with God something to be used to his own advantage;
rather, he made himself nothing
    by taking the very nature[b] of a servant,
    being made in human likeness.
And being found in appearance as a man,
    he humbled himself
    by becoming obedient to death –
        even death on a cross!

Therefore God exalted him to the highest place
    and gave him the name that is above every name,
10 that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow,
    in heaven and on earth and under the earth,
11 and every tongue acknowledge that Jesus Christ is Lord,
    to the glory of God the Father.

Do everything without grumbling

12 Therefore, my dear friends, as you have always obeyed – not only in my presence, but now much more in my absence – continue to work out your salvation with fear and trembling, 13 for it is God who works in you to will and to act in order to fulfil his good purpose.

14 Do everything without grumbling or arguing, 15 so that you may become blameless and pure, ‘children of God without fault in a warped and crooked generation.’[c] Then you will shine among them like stars in the sky 16 as you hold firmly to the word of life. And then I will be able to boast on the day of Christ that I did not run or labour in vain. 17 But even if I am being poured out like a drink offering on the sacrifice and service coming from your faith, I am glad and rejoice with all of you. 18 So you too should be glad and rejoice with me.

Timothy and Epaphroditus

19 I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon, that I also may be cheered when I receive news about you. 20 I have no one else like him, who will show genuine concern for your welfare. 21 For everyone looks out for their own interests, not those of Jesus Christ. 22 But you know that Timothy has proved himself, because as a son with his father he has served with me in the work of the gospel. 23 I hope, therefore, to send him as soon as I see how things go with me. 24 And I am confident in the Lord that I myself will come soon.

25 But I think it is necessary to send back to you Epaphroditus, my brother, co-worker and fellow soldier, who is also your messenger, whom you sent to take care of my needs. 26 For he longs for all of you and is distressed because you heard he was ill. 27 Indeed he was ill, and almost died. But God had mercy on him, and not on him only but also on me, to spare me sorrow upon sorrow. 28 Therefore I am all the more eager to send him, so that when you see him again you may be glad and I may have less anxiety. 29 So then, welcome him in the Lord with great joy, and honour people like him, 30 because he almost died for the work of Christ. He risked his life to make up for the help you yourselves could not give me.


  1. Philippians 2:6 Or in the form of
  2. Philippians 2:7 Or the form
  3. Philippians 2:15 Deut. 32:5

Christian Unity and Christ’s Humility

Therefore, if there is any encouragement in Christ, any comfort provided by love, any fellowship in the Spirit,[a] any affection or mercy,[b] complete my joy and be of the same mind,[c] by having the same love, being united in spirit,[d] and having one purpose. Instead of being motivated by selfish ambition[e] or vanity, each of you should, in humility, be moved to treat one another as more important than yourself. Each of you should be concerned[f] not only[g] about your own interests, but about the interests of others as well.[h] You should have the same attitude toward one another that Christ Jesus had,[i]

[j] who though he existed in the form of God[k]
did not regard equality with God
as something to be grasped,
but emptied himself
by taking on the form of a slave,[l]
by looking like other men,[m]
and by sharing in human nature.[n]
He humbled himself,
by becoming obedient to the point of death
—even death on a cross!
As a result God highly exalted him
and gave him the name
that is above every name,
10 so that at the name of Jesus
every knee will bow
—in heaven and on earth and under the earth—
11 and every tongue confess
that Jesus Christ is Lord
to the glory of God the Father.

Lights in the World

12 So then, my dear friends, just as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence but even more in my absence, continue working out your salvation with awe and reverence,[o] 13 for the one bringing forth in you both the desire and the effort—for the sake of his good pleasure—is God. 14 Do everything without grumbling or arguing, 15 so that you may be blameless and pure, children of God without blemish though you live in a crooked and perverse society, in which you shine as lights in the world[p] 16 by holding on to[q] the word of life so that on the day of Christ I will have a reason to boast that I did not run in vain nor labor in vain. 17 But even if I am being poured out like a drink offering on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I am glad and rejoice together with all of you. 18 And in the same way you also should be glad and rejoice together with me.

Models for Ministry

19 Now I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you soon, so that I too may be encouraged by hearing news about you. 20 For there is no one here like him who will readily demonstrate his deep concern for you.[r] 21 Others are busy with their own concerns, not those of Jesus Christ. 22 But you know his qualifications, that like a son working with his father, he served with me in advancing the gospel. 23 So I hope to send him as soon as I know more about my situation, 24 though I am confident in the Lord that I too will be coming to see you[s] soon.

25 But for now[t] I have considered it necessary to send Epaphroditus to you. For he is my brother,[u] coworker and fellow soldier, and your messenger[v] and minister[w] to me in my need.[x] 26 Indeed, he greatly missed all of you and was distressed because you heard that he had been ill. 27 In fact he became so ill that he nearly died.[y] But God showed mercy to him—and not to him only, but also to me—so that I would not have grief on top of grief. 28 Therefore I am all the more eager to send him,[z] so that when you see him again you can rejoice[aa] and I can be free from anxiety. 29 So welcome him in the Lord with great joy, and honor people like him, 30 since it was because of the work of Christ that he almost died. He risked his life so that he could make up for your inability to serve me.[ab]


  1. Philippians 2:1 tn Or “spiritual fellowship” if πνεύματος (pneumatos) is an attributive genitive; or “fellowship brought about by the Spirit” if πνεύματος is a genitive of source or production.
  2. Philippians 2:1 tn Grk “affection and mercy.” The Greek idea, however, is best expressed by “or” in English.
  3. Philippians 2:2 tn Or “and feel the same way,” “and think the same thoughts.” The ἵνα (hina) clause has been translated “and be of the same mind” to reflect its epexegetical force to the imperative “complete my joy.”
  4. Philippians 2:2 tn The Greek word here is σύμψυχοι (sumpsuchoi, literally “fellow souled”).
  5. Philippians 2:3 tn Grk “not according to selfish ambition.” There is no main verb in this verse; the subjunctive φρονῆτε (phronēte, “be of the same mind”) is implied here as well. Thus, although most translations supply the verb “do” at the beginning of v. 3 (e.g., “do nothing from selfish ambition”), the idea is even stronger than that: “Don’t even think any thoughts motivated by selfish ambition.”
  6. Philippians 2:4 tn On the meaning “be concerned about” for σκοπέω (skopeō), see L&N 27.36.
  7. Philippians 2:4 tn The word “only” is not in the Greek text, but is implied by the ἀλλὰ καί (alla kai) in the second clause (“but…as well”).
  8. Philippians 2:4 tc The bulk of the Western witnesses (D*,c F G K it) dropped καί (kai) here, most likely due to ascetic concerns (the absence of the καί makes the statement express absolute self-denial). Strong external attestation for its inclusion from excellent witnesses as well as the majority (P46 א A B C D1 Ψ 075 0278 33 1175 1241 1505 1739 1881 2464 M sy) also marks it as Verses 1-4 constitute one long conditional sentence in Greek. The protasis is in verse 1, while vv. 2-4 constitute the apodosis. There is but one verb not in a subordinate clause in vv. 2-4, the imperative “complete” in v. 2. This is followed by a subjunctive after ἵνα (hina, translated as an epexegetical clause, “and be of the same mind”) and three instrumental participles. Thus the focus of these four verses is to “be of the same mind” and all that follows this instruction is the means for accomplishing that.
  9. Philippians 2:5 tn Grk “Have this attitude in/among yourselves which also [was] in Christ Jesus,” or “Have this attitude in/among yourselves which [you] also [have] in Christ Jesus.”
  10. Philippians 2:6 sn This passage has been typeset as poetry because many scholars regard this passage as poetic or hymnic. These terms are used broadly to refer to the genre of writing, not to the content. There are two broad criteria for determining if a passage is poetic or hymnic: “(a) stylistic: a certain rhythmical lilt when the passages are read aloud, the presence of parallelismus membrorum (i.e., an arrangement into couplets), the semblance of some metre, and the presence of rhetorical devices such as alliteration, chiasmus, and antithesis; and (b) linguistic: an unusual vocabulary, particularly the presence of theological terms, which is different from the surrounding context” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 188-89). Classifying a passage as hymnic or poetic is important because understanding this genre can provide keys to interpretation. However, not all scholars agree that the above criteria are present in this passage, so the decision to typeset it as poetry should be viewed as a tentative decision about its genre.
  11. Philippians 2:6 sn The Greek term translated form indicates a correspondence with reality. Thus the meaning of this phrase is that Christ was truly God.
  12. Philippians 2:7 tn See the note on the word “slaves” in 1:1.
  13. Philippians 2:7 tn Grk “by coming in the likeness of people.”sn The Greek expression underlying by looking like other men is similar to Paul’s wording in Rom 8:3 (“in the likeness of sinful flesh”). The same word “likeness” is used in both passages. It implies that there is a form that does not necessarily correspond to reality. In Rom 8:3, the meaning is that Christ looked like sinful humanity. Here the meaning is similar: Jesus looked like other men (note anthrōpoi), but was in fact different from them in that he did not have a sin nature.
  14. Philippians 2:7 tn Grk “and by being found in form as a man.” The versification of vv. 7 and 8 (so also NRSV) is according to the versification in the NA28 and UBS5 editions of the Greek text. Some translations, however, break the verses in front of this phrase (NKJV, NASB, NIV, NLT). The same material has been translated in each case; the only difference is the versification of that By sharing in human nature. This last line of v. 7 (line d) stands in tension with the previous line, line c (“by looking like other men”). Both lines have a word indicating form or likeness. Line c, as noted above, implies that Christ only appeared to be like other people. Line d, however, uses a different term that implies a correspondence between form and reality. Further, line c uses the plural “men” while line d uses the singular “man.” The theological point being made is that Christ looked just like other men, but he was not like other men (in that he was not sinful), though he was fully human.
  15. Philippians 2:12 tn Grk “with fear and trembling.” The Greek words φόβος and τρόμος both imply fear in a negative sense (L&N 25.251 and 16.6 respectively) while the former can also refer to respect and awe for deity (L&N 53.59). Paul’s use of the terms in other contexts refers to “awe and reverence in the presence of God” (P. T. O’Brien, Philippians [NIGTC], 284; see discussion on 282-84). The translation “awe and reverence” was chosen to portray the attitude the believer should have toward God as they consider their behavior in light of God working through Jesus Christ (2:6-11) and in the believer’s life (2:13) to accomplish their salvation.
  16. Philippians 2:15 tn Or “as stars in the universe.”
  17. Philippians 2:16 tn Or “holding out, holding forth.”
  18. Philippians 2:20 tn Grk “For I have no one who is like-minded who will genuinely be concerned for your welfare.”
  19. Philippians 2:24 tn The words “to see you” are not in the Greek text, but are implied, and are supplied in the translation for clarity.
  20. Philippians 2:25 tn Grk “But.” The temporal notion (“for now”) is implied in the epistolary aorist (“I have considered”), for Epaphroditus was dispatched with this letter to the Philippians.
  21. Philippians 2:25 tn Grk “my brother” instead of “For he is my brother.” Verse 25 constitutes one sentence in Greek, with “my brother…” functioning appositionally to “Epaphroditus.” sn The reason why Paul refers to Epaphroditus as his brother, coworker, fellow soldier, etc., is because he wants to build up Epaphroditus in the eyes of the Philippians, since Paul is sending him back instead of Timothy. This accent on Epaphroditus’ character and service is implied in the translation “For he is…
  22. Philippians 2:25 tn Grk “apostle.”
  23. Philippians 2:25 tn The Greek word translated “minister” here is λειτουργός (leitourgos).
  24. Philippians 2:25 tn Grk “servant of my need.”
  25. Philippians 2:27 tn Grk “For he became ill to the point of death.”
  26. Philippians 2:28 tn Grk “I have sent him to you with earnestness.” But the epistolary aorist needs to be translated as a present tense with this adverb due to English stylistic considerations.
  27. Philippians 2:28 tn Or “when you see him you can rejoice again.”
  28. Philippians 2:30 tn Grk “make up for your lack of service to me.”