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Exodus 26 New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

The tabernacle

26 ‘Make the tabernacle with ten curtains of finely twisted linen and blue, purple and scarlet yarn, with cherubim woven into them by a skilled worker. All the curtains are to be the same size – twenty-eight cubits long and four cubits wide.[a] Join five of the curtains together, and do the same with the other five. Make loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in one set, and do the same with the end curtain in the other set. Make fifty loops on one curtain and fifty loops on the end curtain of the other set, with the loops opposite each other. Then make fifty gold clasps and use them to fasten the curtains together so that the tabernacle is a unit.

‘Make curtains of goat hair for the tent over the tabernacle – eleven altogether. All eleven curtains are to be the same size – thirty cubits long and four cubits wide.[b] Join five of the curtains together into one set and the other six into another set. Fold the sixth curtain double at the front of the tent. 10 Make fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in one set and also along the edge of the end curtain in the other set. 11 Then make fifty bronze clasps and put them in the loops to fasten the tent together as a unit. 12 As for the additional length of the tent curtains, the half curtain that is left over is to hang down at the rear of the tabernacle. 13 The tent curtains will be a cubit[c] longer on both sides; what is left will hang over the sides of the tabernacle so as to cover it. 14 Make for the tent a covering of ram skins dyed red, and over that a covering of other durable leather.[d]

15 ‘Make upright frames of acacia wood for the tabernacle. 16 Each frame is to be ten cubits long and a cubit and a half wide,[e] 17 with two projections set parallel to each other. Make all the frames of the tabernacle in this way. 18 Make twenty frames for the south side of the tabernacle 19 and make forty silver bases to go under them – two bases for each frame, one under each projection. 20 For the other side, the north side of the tabernacle, make twenty frames 21 and forty silver bases – two under each frame. 22 Make six frames for the far end, that is, the west end of the tabernacle, 23 and make two frames for the corners at the far end. 24 At these two corners they must be double from the bottom all the way to the top and fitted into a single ring; both shall be like that. 25 So there will be eight frames and sixteen silver bases – two under each frame.

26 ‘Also make crossbars of acacia wood: five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle, 27 five for those on the other side, and five for the frames on the west, at the far end of the tabernacle. 28 The centre crossbar is to extend from end to end at the middle of the frames. 29 Overlay the frames with gold and make gold rings to hold the crossbars. Also overlay the crossbars with gold.

30 ‘Set up the tabernacle according to the plan shown you on the mountain.

31 ‘Make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen, with cherubim woven into it by a skilled worker. 32 Hang it with gold hooks on four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold and standing on four silver bases. 33 Hang the curtain from the clasps and place the ark of the covenant law behind the curtain. The curtain will separate the Holy Place from the Most Holy Place. 34 Put the atonement cover on the ark of the covenant law in the Most Holy Place. 35 Place the table outside the curtain on the north side of the tabernacle and put the lampstand opposite it on the south side.

36 ‘For the entrance to the tent make a curtain of blue, purple and scarlet yarn and finely twisted linen – the work of an embroiderer. 37 Make gold hooks for this curtain and five posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold. And cast five bronze bases for them.

Footnotes:

  1. Exodus 26:2 That is, about 13 metres long and 1.8 metres wide
  2. Exodus 26:8 That is, about 13.5 metres long and 1.8 metres wide
  3. Exodus 26:13 That is, about 45 centimetres
  4. Exodus 26:14 Possibly the hides of large aquatic mammals (see 25:5)
  5. Exodus 26:16 That is, about 4.5 metres long and 68 centimetres wide
New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Exodus 26 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Tabernacle

26 [a] “The tabernacle itself[b] you are to make with[c] ten curtains of fine twisted linen and blue and purple and scarlet;[d] you are to make them with[e] cherubim that are the work of an artistic designer. The length of each[f] curtain is to be 42 feet, and the width of each curtain is to be 6 feet[g]—the same size for each of the curtains. Five curtains are to be joined,[h] one to another,[i] and the other[j] five curtains are to be joined, one to another. You are to make loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in one set, and in the same way you are to make loops[k] in the outer edge of the end curtain in the second set. You are to make fifty loops on the one curtain, and you are to make fifty loops on the end curtain which is on the second set, so that the loops are opposite one to another.[l] You are to make fifty gold clasps and join the curtains together with the clasps, so that the tabernacle is a unit.[m]

“You are to make curtains of goats’ hair[n] for a tent over the tabernacle;[o] you are to make[p] eleven curtains. The length of each[q] curtain is to be 45 feet, and the width of each curtain is to be 6 feet—the same size for the eleven curtains. You are to join five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves. You are to double over[r] the sixth curtain at the front of the tent. 10 You are to make fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in one set and fifty loops along the edge of the curtain that joins the second set. 11 You are to make fifty bronze clasps and put the clasps into the loops and join the tent together so that it is a unit.[s] 12 Now the part that remains of the curtains of the tent—the half curtain that remains will hang over at the back of the tabernacle.[t] 13 The foot and a half[u] on the one side and the foot and a half on the other side of what remains in the length of the curtains of the tent will hang over the sides of the tabernacle, on one side and the other side, to cover it.[v]

14 “You are to make a covering[w] for the tent out of ram skins dyed red and over that a covering of fine leather.[x]

15 “You are to make the frames[y] for the tabernacle out of[z] acacia wood as uprights.[aa] 16 Each[ab] frame is to be 15 feet long, and each frame is to be 27 inches wide, 17 with two projections[ac] per frame parallel one to another.[ad] You are to make all the frames of the tabernacle in this way. 18 So you are to make the frames for the tabernacle: twenty frames for the south side,[ae] 19 and you are to make forty silver bases to go under the twenty frames—two bases under the first frame for its two projections, and likewise[af] two bases under the next frame for its two projections; 20 and for the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, twenty frames, 21 and their forty silver bases, two bases under the first frame, and two bases under the next frame. 22 And for the back of the tabernacle on the west[ag] you will make six frames. 23 You are to make two frames for the corners[ah] of the tabernacle on the back. 24 At the two corners[ai] they must be doubled at the lower end and finished together at the top in one ring. So it will be for both. 25 So there are to be eight frames and their silver bases, sixteen bases, two bases under the first frame, and two bases under the next frame.

26 “You are to make bars of acacia wood, five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle, 27 and five bars for the frames on the second side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the frames on the back of the tabernacle on the west. 28 The middle bar in the center of the frames will reach from end to end.[aj] 29 You are to overlay the frames with gold and make their rings of gold to provide places for the bars, and you are to overlay the bars with gold. 30 You are to set up the tabernacle according to the plan[ak] that you were shown on the mountain.

31 “You are to make a special curtain[al] of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen; it is to be made[am] with cherubim, the work of an artistic designer. 32 You are to hang it[an] with gold hooks[ao] on four posts of acacia wood overlaid with gold, set in[ap] four silver bases. 33 You are to hang this curtain under the clasps and bring the ark of the testimony in there behind the curtain.[aq] The curtain will make a division for you between the Holy Place and the Most Holy Place.[ar] 34 You are to put the atonement lid on the ark of the testimony in the Most Holy Place. 35 You are to put the table outside the curtain and the lampstand on the south side of the tabernacle, opposite the table, and you are to place the table on the north side.

36 “You are to make a hanging[as] for the entrance of the tent of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer.[at] 37 You are to make for the hanging five posts of acacia wood and overlay them with gold, and their hooks will be[au] gold, and you are to cast five bronze bases for them.[av]

Footnotes:

  1. Exodus 26:1 sn This chapter is given over to the details of the structure itself, the curtains, coverings, boards and walls and veil. The passage can be studied on one level for its function both practically and symbolically for Israel’s worship. On another level it can be studied for its typology, for the tabernacle and many of its parts speak of Christ. For this one should see the commentaries.
  2. Exodus 26:1 tn The word order in Hebrew thrusts the direct object to the front for particular emphasis. After the first couple of pieces of furniture are treated (chap. 25), attention turns to the tabernacle itself.
  3. Exodus 26:1 tn This is for the adverbial accusative explaining how the dwelling place is to be made.
  4. Exodus 26:1 sn S. R. Driver suggests that the curtains were made with threads dyed with these colors (Exodus, 280). Perhaps the colored threads were used for embroidering the cherubim in the curtains.
  5. Exodus 26:1 tn The construction is difficult in this line because of the word order. “Cherubim” is an adverbial accusative explaining how they were to make the curtains. And מַעֲשֵׂה חֹשֵׁב (maʿaseh khoshev) means literally “work of a designer”; it is in apposition to “cherubim.” The Hebrew participle means “designer” or “deviser” so that one could render this “of artistic designs in weaving” (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 280-81). B. Jacob says that it refers to “artistic weavers” (Exodus, 789).
  6. Exodus 26:2 tn Heb “one” (so KJV).
  7. Exodus 26:2 tn Heb “28 cubits” long and “4 cubits” wide.
  8. Exodus 26:3 tn This is the active participle, not the passive. It would normally be rendered “joining together.” The Bible uses the active because it has the result of the sewing in mind, namely, that every curtain accompanies another (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 348).
  9. Exodus 26:3 tn Heb “a woman to her sister,” this form of using nouns to express “one to another” is selected because “curtains” is a feminine noun (see GKC 448 §139.e).
  10. Exodus 26:3 tn The phrase “the other” has been supplied.
  11. Exodus 26:4 tn Here “loops” has been supplied.
  12. Exodus 26:5 tn Heb “a woman to her sister.”
  13. Exodus 26:6 tn Heb “one”; KJV “it shall be one tabernacle”; NRSV “that the tabernacle may be one whole”; NLT “a single unit.”
  14. Exodus 26:7 sn This chapter will show that there were two sets of curtains and two sets of coverings that went over the wood building to make the tabernacle or dwelling place. The curtains of fine linen described above could be seen only by the priests from inside. Above that was the curtain of goats’ hair. Then over that were the coverings, an inner covering of rams’ skins dyed red and an outer covering of hides of fine leather. The movement is from the inside to the outside because it is God’s dwelling place; the approach of the worshiper would be the opposite. The pure linen represented the righteousness of God, guarded by the embroidered cherubim; the curtain of goats’ hair was a reminder of sin through the daily sin offering of a goat; the covering of rams’ skins dyed red was a reminder of the sacrifice and the priestly ministry set apart by blood, and the outer covering marked the separation between God and the world. These are the interpretations set forth by Kaiser; others vary, but not greatly (see W. C. Kaiser, Jr., “Exodus,” EBC 2:459).
  15. Exodus 26:7 sn This curtain will serve “for a tent over the tabernacle,” as a dwelling place.
  16. Exodus 26:7 tn Heb “you will make them”
  17. Exodus 26:8 tn Heb “one”
  18. Exodus 26:9 sn The text seems to describe this part as being in front of the tabernacle, hanging down to form a valence at the entrance (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 284).
  19. Exodus 26:11 tn Heb “one”
  20. Exodus 26:12 sn U. Cassuto (Exodus, 353) cites b. Shabbat 98b which says, “What did the tabernacle resemble? A woman walking on the street with her train trailing behind her.” In the expression “the half of the curtain that remains,” the verb agrees in gender with the genitive near it.
  21. Exodus 26:13 tn Literally “cubit.”
  22. Exodus 26:13 sn U. Cassuto states the following: “To the north and to the south, since the tent curtains were 30 cubits long, there were 10 cubits left over on each side; these covered the 9 cubits of the curtains of the tabernacle and also the bottom cubit of the boards, which the tabernacle curtains did not suffice to cover. It is to this that v. 13 refers” (Exodus, 353).
  23. Exodus 26:14 sn Two outer coverings made of stronger materials will be put over the tent and the curtain, the two inner layers.
  24. Exodus 26:14 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.
  25. Exodus 26:15 tn There is debate whether the word הַקְּרָשִׁים (haqqerashim) means “boards” (KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB) or “frames” (NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV) or “planks” (see Ezek 27:6) or “beams,” given the size of them. The literature on this includes M. Haran, “The Priestly Image of the Tabernacle,” HUCA 36 (1965): 192; B. A. Levine, “The Description of the Tabernacle Texts of the Pentateuch,” JAOS 85 (1965): 307-18; J. Morgenstern, “The Ark, the Ephod, and the Tent,” HUCA 17 (1942/43): 153-265; 18 (1943/44): 1-52.
  26. Exodus 26:15 tn “Wood” is an adverbial accusative.
  27. Exodus 26:15 tn The plural participle “standing” refers to how these items will be situated; they will be vertical rather than horizontal (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 354).
  28. Exodus 26:16 tn Heb “the frame.”
  29. Exodus 26:17 sn Heb “hands,” the reference is probably to projections that served as stays or supports. They may have been tenons, or pegs, projecting from the bottom of the frames to hold the frames in their sockets (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 286).
  30. Exodus 26:17 tn Or “being joined each to the other.”
  31. Exodus 26:18 tn Heb “on the south side southward.”
  32. Exodus 26:19 tn The clause is repeated to show the distributive sense; it literally says, “and two bases under the one frame for its two projections.”
  33. Exodus 26:22 tn Or “westward” (toward the sea).
  34. Exodus 26:23 sn The term rendered “corners” is “an architectural term for some kind of special corner structure. Here it seems to involve two extra supports, one at each corner of the western wall” (N. M. Sarna, Exodus [JPSTC], 170).
  35. Exodus 26:24 tn Heb “they will be for the two corners.” This is the last clause of the verse, moved forward for clarity.
  36. Exodus 26:28 sn These bars served as reinforcements to hold the upright frames together. The Hebrew term for these bars is also used of crossbars on gates (Judg 16:3; Neh 3:3).
  37. Exodus 26:30 tn The noun is מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat), often translated “judgment” or “decision” in other contexts. In those settings it may reflect its basic idea of custom, which here would be reflected with a rendering of “prescribed norm” or “plan.”
  38. Exodus 26:31 tn Although translated “curtain” (traditionally “veil,” so ASV, NAB, NASB) this is a different word from the one used earlier of the tent curtains, so “special curtain” is used. The word פָּרֹכֶת (parokhet) seems to be connected with a verb that means “to shut off” and was used with a shrine. This curtain would form a barrier in the approach to God (see S. R. Driver, Exodus, 289).
  39. Exodus 26:31 tn The verb is the third masculine singular form, but no subject is expressed. It could be translated “one will make” or as a passive. The verb means “to make,” but probably has the sense of embroidering both here and in v. 1.
  40. Exodus 26:32 tn Heb “put it.”
  41. Exodus 26:32 tn This clause simply says “and their hooks gold,” but is taken as a circumstantial clause telling how the veil will be hung.
  42. Exodus 26:32 tn Heb “on four silver bases.”
  43. Exodus 26:33 tn The traditional expression is “within the veil,” literally “into the house (or area) of the (special) curtain.”
  44. Exodus 26:33 tn Or “the Holy of Holies.”
  45. Exodus 26:36 sn This was another curtain, serving as a screen in the entrance way. Since it was far away from the special curtain screening the Most Holy Place, it was less elaborate. It was not the work of the master designer, but of the “embroiderer,” and it did not have the cherubim on it.
  46. Exodus 26:36 tn The word רֹקֵם (roqem) refers to someone who made cloth with colors. It is not certain, however, whether the colors were woven into the fabric on the loom or applied with a needle; so “embroiderer” should be understood as an approximation (cf. HALOT 1290-91 s.v. רקם).
  47. Exodus 26:37 tn “will be” has been supplied.
  48. Exodus 26:37 sn In all the details of this chapter the expositor should pay attention to the overall message rather than engage in speculation concerning the symbolism of the details. It is, after all, the divine instruction for the preparation of the dwelling place for Yahweh. The point could be said this way: The dwelling place of Yahweh must be prepared in accordance with, and by the power of, his divine word. If God was to fellowship with his people, then the center of worship had to be made to his specifications, which were in harmony with his nature. Everything was functional for the approach to God through the ritual by divine provisions. But everything also reflected the nature of God, the symmetry, the order, the pure wood, the gold overlay, or (closer to God) the solid gold. And the symbolism of the light, the table, the veil, the cherubim—all of it was revelatory. All of it reflected the reality in heaven. Churches today do not retain the pattern and furnishings of the old tabernacle. However, they would do well to learn what God was requiring of Israel, so that their structures are planned in accordance with the theology of worship and the theology of access to God. Function is a big part, but symbolism and revelation instruct the planning of everything to be used. Christians live in the light of the fulfillment of Christ, and so they know the realities that the old foreshadowed. While a building is not necessary for worship (just as Israel worshiped in places other than the sanctuary), it is practical, and if there is going to be one, then the most should be made of it in the teaching and worshiping of the assembly. This chapter, then, provides an inspiration for believers on preparing a functional, symbolical, ordered place of worship that is in harmony with the word of God. And there is much to be said for making it as beautiful and uplifting as is possible—as a gift of freewill offering to God. Of course, the most important part of preparing a place of worship is the preparing of the heart. Worship, to be acceptable to God, must be in Christ. He said that when the temple was destroyed he would raise it up in three days. While he referred to his own body, he also alluded to the temple by the figure. When they put Jesus to death, they were destroying the temple; at his resurrection he would indeed begin a new form of worship. He is the tent, the curtain, the atonement, that the sanctuary foreshadowed. And then, believers also (when they receive Christ) become the temple of the Lord. So the NT will take the imagery and teaching of this chapter in a number of useful ways that call for more study. This does not, however, involve allegorization of the individual tabernacle parts.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 79 New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Psalm 79

A psalm of Asaph.

O God, the nations have invaded your inheritance;
    they have defiled your holy temple,
    they have reduced Jerusalem to rubble.
They have left the dead bodies of your servants
    as food for the birds of the sky,
    the flesh of your own people for the animals of the wild.
They have poured out blood like water
    all around Jerusalem,
    and there is no one to bury the dead.
We are objects of contempt to our neighbours,
    of scorn and derision to those around us.

How long, Lord? Will you be angry for ever?
    How long will your jealousy burn like fire?
Pour out your wrath on the nations
    that do not acknowledge you,
on the kingdoms
    that do not call on your name;
for they have devoured Jacob
    and devastated his homeland.

Do not hold against us the sins of past generations;
    may your mercy come quickly to meet us,
    for we are in desperate need.
Help us, God our Saviour,
    for the glory of your name;
deliver us and forgive our sins
    for your name’s sake.
10 Why should the nations say,
    ‘Where is their God?’

Before our eyes, make known among the nations
    that you avenge the outpoured blood of your servants.
11 May the groans of the prisoners come before you;
    with your strong arm preserve those condemned to die.
12 Pay back into the laps of our neighbours seven times
    the contempt they have hurled at you, Lord.
13 Then we your people, the sheep of your pasture,
    will praise you for ever;
from generation to generation
    we will proclaim your praise.

New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Psalm 79 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 79[a]

A psalm of Asaph.

79 O God, foreigners[b] have invaded your chosen land;[c]
they have polluted your holy temple
and turned Jerusalem into a heap of ruins.
They have given the corpses of your servants
to the birds of the sky,[d]
the flesh of your loyal followers
to the beasts of the earth.
They have made their blood flow like water
all around Jerusalem, and there is no one to bury them.[e]
We have become an object of disdain to our neighbors;
those who live on our borders taunt and insult us.[f]
How long will this go on, O Lord?[g]
Will you stay angry forever?
How long will your rage[h] burn like fire?
Pour out your anger on the nations that do not acknowledge you,[i]
on the kingdoms that do not pray to you.[j]
For they have devoured Jacob
and destroyed his home.
Do not hold us accountable for the sins of earlier generations.[k]
Quickly send your compassion our way,[l]
for we are in serious trouble.[m]
Help us, O God, our deliverer!
For the sake of your glorious reputation,[n] rescue us.
Forgive our sins for the sake of your reputation.[o]
10 Why should the nations say, “Where is their God?”
Before our very eyes may the shed blood of your servants
be avenged among the nations.[p]
11 Listen to the painful cries of the prisoners.[q]
Use your great strength to set free those condemned to die.[r]
12 Pay back our neighbors in full.[s]
May they be insulted the same way they insulted you, O Lord.[t]
13 Then we, your people, the sheep of your pasture,
will continually thank you.[u]
We will tell coming generations of your praiseworthy acts.[v]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 79:1 sn Psalm 79. The author laments how the invading nations have destroyed the temple and city of Jerusalem. He asks God to forgive his people and to pour out his vengeance on those who have mistreated them.
  2. Psalm 79:1 tn Or “nations.”
  3. Psalm 79:1 tn Heb “have come into your inheritance.”
  4. Psalm 79:2 tn Heb “[as] food for the birds of the sky.”
  5. Psalm 79:3 tn Heb “they have poured out their blood like water, all around Jerusalem, and there is no one burying.”
  6. Psalm 79:4 tn Heb “an [object of] taunting and [of] mockery to those around us.” See Ps 44:13.
  7. Psalm 79:5 tn Heb “How long, O Lord?”
  8. Psalm 79:5 tn Or “jealous anger.”
  9. Psalm 79:6 tn Heb “which do not know you.” Here the Hebrew term “know” means “acknowledge the authority of.”
  10. Psalm 79:6 sn The kingdoms that do not pray to you. The people of these kingdoms pray to other gods, not the Lord, because they do not recognize his authority over them.
  11. Psalm 79:8 tn Heb “do not remember against us sins, former.” Some understand “former” as an attributive adjective modifying sins, “former [i.e., chronologically prior] sins” (see BDB 911 s.v. רִאשׁוֹן). The present translation assumes that רִאשֹׁנִים (riʾshonim, “former”) here refers to those who lived formerly, that is, the people’s ancestors (see Lam 5:7). The word is used in this way in Lev 26:45; Deut 19:14 and Eccl 1:11.
  12. Psalm 79:8 tn Heb “may your compassion quickly confront us.” The prefixed verbal form is understood as a jussive, indicating a tone of prayer.
  13. Psalm 79:8 tn Heb “for we are very low.”
  14. Psalm 79:9 tn Heb “the glory of your name.” Here and in the following line “name” stands metonymically for God’s reputation.
  15. Psalm 79:9 tn Heb “your name.”
  16. Psalm 79:10 tn Heb “may it be known among the nations, to our eyes, the vengeance of the shed blood of your servants.”
  17. Psalm 79:11 tn Heb “may the painful cry of the prisoner come before you.”
  18. Psalm 79:11 tn Heb “according to the greatness of your arm leave the sons of death.” God’s “arm” here symbolizes his strength to deliver. The verbal form הוֹתֵר (hoter) is a Hiphil imperative from יָתַר (yatar, “to remain; to be left over”). Here it must mean “to leave over; to preserve.” However, it is preferable to emend the form to הַתֵּר (hatter), a Hiphil imperative from נָתַר (natar, “be free”). The Hiphil form is used in Ps 105:20 of Pharaoh freeing Joseph from prison. The phrase “sons of death” (see also Ps 102:21) is idiomatic for those condemned to die.
  19. Psalm 79:12 tn Heb “Return to our neighbors sevenfold into their lap.” The number seven is used rhetorically to express the thorough nature of the action. For other rhetorical/figurative uses of the Hebrew phrase שִׁבְעָתַיִם (shivʿatayim, “seven times”) see Gen 4:15, 24; Ps 12:6; Prov 6:31; Isa 30:26.
  20. Psalm 79:12 tn Heb “their reproach with which they reproached you, O Lord.”
  21. Psalm 79:13 tn Or (hyperbolically) “will thank you forever.”
  22. Psalm 79:13 tn Heb “to a generation and a generation we will report your praise.” Here “praise” stands by metonymy for the mighty acts that prompt worship. Cf. Ps 9:14.
New English Translation (NET)

NET Bible® copyright ©1996-2017 by Biblical Studies Press, L.L.C. http://netbible.com All rights reserved.

Psalm 80 New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Psalm 80[a]

For the director of music. To the tune of ‘The Lilies of the Covenant’. Of Asaph. A psalm.

Hear us, Shepherd of Israel,
    you who lead Joseph like a flock.
You who sit enthroned between the cherubim,
    shine forth before Ephraim, Benjamin and Manasseh.
Awaken your might;
    come and save us.

Restore us, O God;
    make your face shine on us,
    that we may be saved.

How long, Lord God Almighty,
    will your anger smoulder
    against the prayers of your people?
You have fed them with the bread of tears;
    you have made them drink tears by the bowlful.
You have made us an object of derision[b] to our neighbours,
    and our enemies mock us.

Restore us, God Almighty;
    make your face shine on us,
    that we may be saved.

You transplanted a vine from Egypt;
    you drove out the nations and planted it.
You cleared the ground for it,
    and it took root and filled the land.
10 The mountains were covered with its shade,
    the mighty cedars with its branches.
11 Its branches reached as far as the Sea,[c]
    its shoots as far as the River.[d]

12 Why have you broken down its walls
    so that all who pass by pick its grapes?
13 Boars from the forest ravage it,
    and insects from the fields feed on it.
14 Return to us, God Almighty!
    Look down from heaven and see!
Watch over this vine,
15     the root your right hand has planted,
    the son[e] you have raised up for yourself.

16 Your vine is cut down, it is burned with fire;
    at your rebuke your people perish.
17 Let your hand rest on the man at your right hand,
    the son of man you have raised up for yourself.
18 Then we will not turn away from you;
    revive us, and we will call on your name.

19 Restore us, Lord God Almighty;
    make your face shine on us,
    that we may be saved.

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 80:1 In Hebrew texts 80:1-19 is numbered 80:2-20.
  2. Psalm 80:6 Probable reading of the original Hebrew text; Masoretic Text contention
  3. Psalm 80:11 Probably the Mediterranean
  4. Psalm 80:11 That is, the Euphrates
  5. Psalm 80:15 Or branch
New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Psalm 80 New English Translation (NET Bible)

Psalm 80[a]

For the music director, according to the shushan-eduth style;[b] a psalm of Asaph.

80 O Shepherd of Israel, pay attention,
you who lead Joseph like a flock of sheep.
You who sit enthroned above the cherubim,[c] reveal your splendor.[d]
In the sight of Ephraim, Benjamin, and Manasseh reveal[e] your power.
Come and deliver us.[f]
O God, restore us.
Smile on us.[g] Then we will be delivered.[h]
O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[i]
how long will you remain angry at your people while they pray to you?[j]
You have given them tears as food;[k]
you have made them drink tears by the measure.[l]
You have made our neighbors dislike us,[m]
and our enemies insult us.
O God of Heaven’s Armies,[n] restore us.
Smile on us.[o] Then we will be delivered.[p]
You uprooted a vine[q] from Egypt;
you drove out nations and transplanted it.
You cleared the ground for it;[r]
it took root,[s]
and filled the land.
10 The mountains were covered by its shadow,
the highest cedars[t] by its branches.
11 Its branches reached the Mediterranean Sea,[u]
and its shoots the Euphrates River.[v]
12 Why did you break down its walls,[w]
so that all who pass by pluck its fruit?[x]
13 The wild boars of the forest ruin it;[y]
the insects[z] of the field feed on it.
14 O God of Heaven’s Armies,[aa] come back.
Look down from heaven and take notice.
Take care of this vine,
15 the root[ab] your right hand planted,
the shoot you made to grow.[ac]
16 It is burned[ad] and cut down.
May those who did this die because you are displeased with them.[ae]
17 May you give support to the one you have chosen,[af]
to the one whom you raised up for yourself.[ag]
18 Then we will not turn away from you.
Revive us and we will pray to you.[ah]
19 O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[ai] restore us.
Smile on us.[aj] Then we will be delivered.[ak]

Footnotes:

  1. Psalm 80:1 sn Psalm 80. The psalmist laments Israel’s demise and asks the Lord to show favor toward his people, as he did in earlier times.
  2. Psalm 80:1 tn The Hebrew expression shushan-eduth means “lily of the testimony.” It may refer to a particular music style or to a tune title. See the superscription to Ps 60.
  3. Psalm 80:1 sn Cherubim are winged angels. As depicted in the OT, they possess both human and animal (lion, ox, and eagle) characteristics (see Ezek 1:10; 10:14, 21; 41:18). They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Ps 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). The picture of the Lord seated on the cherubim suggests they might be used by him as a vehicle, a function they carry out in Ezek 1:22-28 (the “living creatures” mentioned here are identified as cherubim in Ezek 10:20). In Ps 18:10 the image of a cherub serves to personify the wind.
  4. Psalm 80:1 tn Heb “shine forth.”sn Reveal your splendor. The psalmist may allude to Deut 33:2, where God “shines forth” from Sinai and comes to superintend Moses’ blessing of the tribes.
  5. Psalm 80:2 tn Heb “stir up”; “arouse.”
  6. Psalm 80:2 tn Heb “come for our deliverance.”
  7. Psalm 80:3 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
  8. Psalm 80:3 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
  9. Psalm 80:4 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (ʾelohe) before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot; “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. In this context the term “hosts” has been rendered “Heaven’s Armies.”
  10. Psalm 80:4 tn Heb “How long will you remain angry during the prayer of your people.” Some take the preposition ב (bet) in an adversative sense here (“at/against the prayer of your people”), but the temporal sense is preferable. The psalmist expects persistent prayer to pacify God.
  11. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “you have fed them the food of tears.”
  12. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “[by] the third part [of a measure].” The Hebrew term שָׁלִישׁ (shalish, “third part [of a measure]”) occurs only here and in Isa 40:12.
  13. Psalm 80:6 tn Heb “you have made us an object of contention to our neighbors.”
  14. Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also v. 4 for a similar construction.
  15. Psalm 80:7 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
  16. Psalm 80:7 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
  17. Psalm 80:8 sn The vine is here a metaphor for Israel (see Ezek 17:6-10; Hos 10:1).
  18. Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “you cleared away before it.”
  19. Psalm 80:9 tn Heb “and it took root [with] its roots.”
  20. Psalm 80:10 tn Heb “cedars of God.” The divine name אֵל (ʾel, “God”) is here used in an idiomatic manner to indicate the superlative.
  21. Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] sea.” The “sea” refers here to the Mediterranean Sea.
  22. Psalm 80:11 tn Heb “to [the] river.” The “river” is the Euphrates River in Mesopotamia. Israel expanded both to the west and to the east.
  23. Psalm 80:12 sn The protective walls of the metaphorical vineyard are in view here (see Isa 5:5).
  24. Psalm 80:12 tn Heb “pluck it.”
  25. Psalm 80:13 tn The Hebrew verb כִּרְסֵם (kirsem, “to eat away; to ruin”) occurs only here in the OT.
  26. Psalm 80:13 tn The precise referent of the Hebrew word translated “insects,” which occurs only here and in Ps 50:11, is uncertain. Aramaic, Arabic, and Akkadian cognates refer to insects, such as locusts or crickets.
  27. Psalm 80:14 tn Heb “O God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7 for a similar construction.
  28. Psalm 80:15 tn The form וְכַנָּה (vekhannah, “and a root”) is understood as וְכַנָּהּ (vekhannah), taking the ה (he) at the end as the third feminine singular pronominal suffix הּ (he with mappiq is hard “h”) rather than as the noun ending (see HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן). Elsewhere the noun refers to a pedestal or base, most often for the wash basin between the tabernacle and the altar. Translations here vary as “root” (NIV), “shoot” (NASB), “stock” (ASV, ESV, RSV), or the contextually driven “vineyard” (KJV).
  29. Psalm 80:15 tn Heb “and upon a son you strengthened for yourself.” In this context, where the extended metaphor of the vine dominates, בֵּן (ben, “son”) probably refers to the shoots that grow from the vine. Cf. Gen 49:22.
  30. Psalm 80:16 tn Heb “burned with fire.”
  31. Psalm 80:16 tn Heb “because of the rebuke of your face they perish.”
  32. Psalm 80:17 tn Heb “may your hand be upon the man of your right hand.” The referent of the otherwise unattested phrase “man of your right hand,” is unclear. It may refer to the nation collectively as a man. (See the note on the word “yourself” in v. 17b.)
  33. Psalm 80:17 tn Heb “upon the son of man you strengthened for yourself.” In its only other use in the Book of Psalms, the phrase “son of man” refers to the human race in general (see Ps 8:4). Here the phrase may refer to the nation collectively as a man. Note the use of the statement “you strengthened for yourself” both here and in v. 15, where the “son” (i.e., the branch of the vine) refers to Israel.
  34. Psalm 80:18 tn Heb “and in your name we will call.”
  35. Psalm 80:19 tn Heb “O Lord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot, “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. See also vv. 4, 7, 14 for a similar construction.
  36. Psalm 80:19 tn The idiom “cause your face to shine” probably refers to a smile (see Eccl 8:1), which in turn suggests favor and blessing (see Num 6:25; Pss 4:6; 31:16; 44:3; 67:1; 89:15; Dan 9:17).
  37. Psalm 80:19 tn Heb “cause your face to shine in order that we may be delivered.” After the imperative, the cohortative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose/result.
New English Translation (NET)

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Mark 11 New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Jesus comes to Jerusalem as king

11 As they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage and Bethany at the Mount of Olives, Jesus sent two of his disciples, saying to them, ‘Go to the village ahead of you, and just as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there, which no one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. If anyone asks you, “Why are you doing this?” say, “The Lord needs it and will send it back here shortly.”’

They went and found a colt outside in the street, tied at a doorway. As they untied it, some people standing there asked, ‘What are you doing, untying that colt?’ They answered as Jesus had told them to, and the people let them go. When they brought the colt to Jesus and threw their cloaks over it, he sat on it. Many people spread their cloaks on the road, while others spread branches they had cut in the fields. Those who went ahead and those who followed shouted,

‘Hosanna![a]

‘Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!’[b]

10 ‘Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David!’

‘Hosanna in the highest heaven!’

11 Jesus entered Jerusalem and went into the temple courts. He looked around at everything, but since it was already late, he went out to Bethany with the Twelve.

Jesus curses a fig-tree and clears the temple courts

12 The next day as they were leaving Bethany, Jesus was hungry. 13 Seeing in the distance a fig-tree in leaf, he went to find out if it had any fruit. When he reached it, he found nothing but leaves, because it was not the season for figs. 14 Then he said to the tree, ‘May no one ever eat fruit from you again.’ And his disciples heard him say it.

15 On reaching Jerusalem, Jesus entered the temple courts and began driving out those who were buying and selling there. He overturned the tables of the money-changers and the benches of those selling doves, 16 and would not allow anyone to carry merchandise through the temple courts. 17 And as he taught them, he said, ‘Is it not written: “My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations”[c]? But you have made it “a den of robbers”.[d]

18 The chief priests and the teachers of the law heard this and began looking for a way to kill him, for they feared him, because the whole crowd was amazed at his teaching.

19 When evening came, Jesus and his disciples[e] went out of the city.

20 In the morning, as they went along, they saw the fig-tree withered from the roots. 21 Peter remembered and said to Jesus, ‘Rabbi, look! The fig-tree you cursed has withered!’

22 ‘Have faith in God,’ Jesus answered. 23 ‘Truly[f] I tell you, if anyone says to this mountain, “Go, throw yourself into the sea,” and does not doubt in their heart but believes that what they say will happen, it will be done for them. 24 Therefore I tell you, whatever you ask for in prayer, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 25 And when you stand praying, if you hold anything against anyone, forgive them, so that your Father in heaven may forgive you your sins.’ [g]

The authority of Jesus questioned

27 They arrived again in Jerusalem, and while Jesus was walking in the temple courts, the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders came to him. 28 ‘By what authority are you doing these things?’ they asked. ‘And who gave you authority to do this?’

29 Jesus replied, ‘I will ask you one question. Answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I am doing these things. 30 John’s baptism – was it from heaven, or of human origin? Tell me!’

31 They discussed it among themselves and said, ‘If we say, “From heaven,” he will ask, “Then why didn’t you believe him?” 32 But if we say, “Of human origin” . . .’ (They feared the people, for everyone held that John really was a prophet.)

33 So they answered Jesus, ‘We don’t know.’

Jesus said, ‘Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.’

Footnotes:

  1. Mark 11:9 A Hebrew expression meaning ‘Save!’ which became an exclamation of praise; also in verse 10
  2. Mark 11:9 Psalm 118:25,26
  3. Mark 11:17 Isaiah 56:7
  4. Mark 11:17 Jer. 7:11
  5. Mark 11:19 Some early manuscripts came, Jesus
  6. Mark 11:23 Some early manuscripts ‘If you have faith in God,’ Jesus answered, 23 ‘truly
  7. Mark 11:26 Some manuscripts include here words similar to Matt. 6:15.
New International Version - UK (NIVUK)

Holy Bible, New International Version® Anglicized, NIV® Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica, Inc.® Used by permission. All rights reserved worldwide.

Mark 11 New English Translation (NET Bible)

The Triumphal Entry

11 Now[a] as they approached Jerusalem, near Bethphage[b] and Bethany, at the Mount of Olives,[c] Jesus[d] sent two of his disciples and said to them, “Go to the village ahead of you.[e] As soon as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there that has never been ridden.[f] Untie it and bring it here. If anyone says to you, ‘Why are you doing this?’ say, ‘The Lord needs it[g] and will send it back here soon.’” So[h] they went and found a colt tied at a door, outside in the street, and untied it. Some people standing there said to them, “What are you doing, untying that colt?” They replied as Jesus had told them, and the bystanders[i] let them go. Then[j] they brought the colt to Jesus, threw their cloaks[k] on it, and he sat on it.[l] Many spread their cloaks on the road and others spread branches they had cut in the fields. Both those who went ahead and those who followed kept shouting, “Hosanna![m] Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord![n] 10 Blessed is the coming kingdom of our father David! Hosanna in the highest!” 11 Then[o] Jesus[p] entered Jerusalem and went to the temple. And after looking around at everything, he went out to Bethany with the twelve since it was already late.

Cursing of the Fig Tree

12 Now[q] the next day, as they went out from Bethany, he was hungry. 13 After noticing in the distance a fig tree with leaves, he went to see if he could find any fruit[r] on it. When he came to it he found nothing but leaves, for it was not the season for figs. 14 He said to it,[s] “May no one ever eat fruit from you again.” And his disciples heard it.[t]

Cleansing the Temple

15 Then[u] they came to Jerusalem. Jesus[v] entered the temple area[w] and began to drive out those who were selling and buying in the temple courts.[x] He turned over the tables of the money changers and the chairs of those selling doves, 16 and he would not permit anyone to carry merchandise[y] through the temple courts.[z] 17 Then he began to teach[aa] them and said, “Is it not written: ‘My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations’?[ab] But you have turned it into a den[ac] of robbers!”[ad] 18 The chief priests and the experts in the law[ae] heard it and they considered how they could assassinate[af] him, for they feared him, because the whole crowd was amazed by his teaching. 19 When evening came, Jesus and his disciples[ag] went out of the city.

The Withered Fig Tree

20 In the morning as they passed by, they saw the fig tree withered from the roots. 21 Peter remembered and said to him, “Rabbi, look! The fig tree you cursed has withered.” 22 Jesus said to them, “Have faith in God. 23 I tell you the truth,[ah] if someone says to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ and does not doubt in his heart but believes that what he says will happen, it will be done for him. 24 For this reason I tell you, whatever you pray and ask for, believe that you have received it, and it will be yours. 25 Whenever you stand praying, if you have anything against anyone, forgive him, so that your Father in heaven will[ai] also forgive you your sins.”[aj]

The Authority of Jesus

27 They came again to Jerusalem. While Jesus[ak] was walking in the temple courts,[al] the chief priests, the experts in the law,[am] and the elders came up to him 28 and said, “By what authority[an] are you doing these things? Or who gave you this authority to do these things?” 29 Jesus said to them, “I will ask you one question. Answer me and I will tell you by what authority I do these things: 30 John’s baptism—was it from heaven or from people?[ao] Answer me.” 31 They discussed with one another, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Then why did you not believe him?’ 32 But if we say, ‘From people—’” (they feared the crowd, for they all considered John to be truly a prophet). 33 So[ap] they answered Jesus,[aq] “We don’t know.”[ar] Then Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you[as] by what authority[at] I am doing these things.”

Footnotes:

  1. Mark 11:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Mark 11:1 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most put it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.
  3. Mark 11:1 sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 30 meters (100 ft) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
  4. Mark 11:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  5. Mark 11:2 tn Grk “the village lying before you” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.b).
  6. Mark 11:2 tn Grk “a colt tied there on which no one of men has ever sat.”
  7. Mark 11:3 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.
  8. Mark 11:4 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  9. Mark 11:6 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the people mentioned in v. 5) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  10. Mark 11:7 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  11. Mark 11:7 tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.
  12. Mark 11:7 sn See Zech 9:9, a prophecy fulfilled here (cf. Matt 21:5; John 12:15.
  13. Mark 11:9 tn The expression ῾Ωσαννά (hōsanna, literally in Hebrew, “O Lord, save”) in the quotation from Ps 118:25-26 was probably by this time a familiar liturgical expression of praise, on the order of “Hail to the king,” although both the underlying Aramaic and Hebrew expressions meant “O Lord, save us.” The introductory ὡσαννά is followed by the words of Ps 118:25, εὐλογημένος ὁ ἐρχόμενος ἐν ὀνόματι κυρίου (eulogēmenos ho erchomenos en onomati kuriou), although in the Fourth Gospel the author adds for good measure καὶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τοῦ ᾿Ισραήλ (kai ho basileus tou Israēl). In words familiar to every Jew, the author is indicating that at this point every messianic expectation is now at the point of realization. It is clear from the words of the psalm shouted by the crowd that Jesus is being proclaimed as messianic king. See E. Lohse, TDNT 9:682-84.sn Hosanna is an Aramaic expression that literally means, “help, I pray,” or “save, I pray.” By Jesus’ time it had become a strictly liturgical formula of praise, however, and was used as an exclamation of praise to God.
  14. Mark 11:9 sn A quotation from Ps 118:25-26.
  15. Mark 11:11 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “Then” to indicate the transition from the previous narrative.
  16. Mark 11:11 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  17. Mark 11:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  18. Mark 11:13 tn Grk “anything.”
  19. Mark 11:14 tn Grk “And answering, he said to it.” The participle ἀποκριθείς (apokritheis) is redundant and has not been translated.
  20. Mark 11:14 sn Mark 11:12-14. The incident of the cursing of the fig tree occurs before he enters the temple for a third time (11:27ff) and is questioned at length by the religious leaders (11:27-12:40). It appears that Mark records the incident as a portent of what is going to happen to the leadership in Jerusalem who were supposed to have borne spiritual fruit but have been found by Messiah at his coming to be barren. The fact that the nation as a whole is indicted is made explicit in chapter 13:1-37 where Jesus speaks of Jerusalem’s destruction and his second coming.
  21. Mark 11:15 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  22. Mark 11:15 tn Grk “He”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  23. Mark 11:15 tn Grk “the temple.”sn The merchants (those who were selling) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.
  24. Mark 11:15 tn Grk “the temple.”sn Matthew (21:12-27), Mark (here, 11:15-19), and Luke (19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.
  25. Mark 11:16 tn Or “things.” The Greek word σκεῦος (skeuos) can refer to merchandise, property, goods, a vessel, or even generally “things” (but in the sense of some implement or tool). The idea here is almost certainly restricted to merchandise, rather than the more general “things,” although some suggest from the parallel with m. Berakhot 9.5 that Jesus was not even allowing sandals, staffs, or coin-purses to be carried through the court. The difficulty with this interpretation, however, is that it is fundamentally an appeal to Jewish oral tradition (something Jesus rarely sided with) as well as being indiscriminate toward all the worshipers.
  26. Mark 11:16 tn Grk “the temple.”
  27. Mark 11:17 tn The imperfect ἐδίδασκεν (edidasken) is here taken ingressively.
  28. Mark 11:17 sn A quotation from Isa 56:7.
  29. Mark 11:17 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).
  30. Mark 11:17 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.
  31. Mark 11:18 tn Or “The chief priests and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  32. Mark 11:18 tn Grk “how they could destroy him.”
  33. Mark 11:19 tn Grk “they”; the referents (Jesus and his disciples) have been specified in the translation for clarity. Without such clarification there is room for considerable confusion here, since there are two prior sets of plural referents in the context, “the chief priests and experts in the law” and “the whole crowd” (both in v. 18).
  34. Mark 11:23 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  35. Mark 11:25 tn Although the Greek subjunctive mood, formally required in a subordinate clause introduced by ἵνα (hina), is traditionally translated by an English subjunctive (e.g., “may,” so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV), changes in the use of the subjunctive in English now result in most readers understanding such a statement as indicating permission (“may” = “has permission to”) or as indicating uncertainty (“may” = “might” or “may or may not”). Thus a number of more recent translations render such instances by an English future tense (“will,” so TEV, CEV, NLT, NASB 1995 update). That approach has been followed here.
  36. Mark 11:25 tc A number of significant mss of various textual families (א B L W Δ Ψ 565 700 892 sa) do not include 11:26 “But if you do not forgive, neither will your Father in heaven forgive your sins.” The verse is included in most later mss (A [C D] Θ1,13 33] M lat) and is not likely to be original. It is probably an assimilation to Matt 6:15. The present translation follows NA28 in omitting the verse number, a procedure also followed by a number of other modern translations.
  37. Mark 11:27 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  38. Mark 11:27 tn Grk “the temple.”
  39. Mark 11:27 tn Or “the chief priests, the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 1:22.
  40. Mark 11:28 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ.
  41. Mark 11:30 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is probably used here (and in v. 32) in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NAB, NRSV, “of human origin”; TEV, “from human beings”; NLT, “merely human”).sn The question is whether John’s ministry was of divine or human origin.
  42. Mark 11:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of previous action(s) in the narrative.
  43. Mark 11:33 tn Grk “answering, they said to Jesus.” The participle ἀποκριθέντες (apokrithentes) is redundant, but the syntax of the phrase has been modified to conform to English style.
  44. Mark 11:33 sn Very few questions could have so completely revealed the wicked intentions of the religious leaders. Jesus’ question revealed the motivation of the religious leaders and exposed them for what they really were—hypocrites. They indicted themselves when they cited only two options and chose neither of them (“We do not know”). The point of Mark 11:27-33 is that no matter what Jesus said in response to their question they were not going to believe it and would in the end use it against him.
  45. Mark 11:33 sn Neither will I tell you. Though Jesus gave no answer, the analogy he used to their own question makes his view clear. His authority came from heaven.
  46. Mark 11:33 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. This is exactly the same phrase as in v. 28.
New English Translation (NET)

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