David at Nob

21 [a]David went to Nob, to Ahimelek the priest. Ahimelek trembled when he met him, and asked, ‘Why are you alone? Why is no one with you?’

David answered Ahimelek the priest, ‘The king sent me on a mission and said to me, “No one is to know anything about the mission I am sending you on.” As for my men, I have told them to meet me at a certain place. Now then, what have you to hand? Give me five loaves of bread, or whatever you can find.’

But the priest answered David, ‘I don’t have any ordinary bread to hand; however, there is some consecrated bread here – provided the men have kept themselves from women.’

David replied, ‘Indeed women have been kept from us, as usual whenever[b] I set out. The men’s bodies are holy even on missions that are not holy. How much more so today!’ So the priest gave him the consecrated bread, since there was no bread there except the bread of the Presence that had been removed from before the Lord and replaced by hot bread on the day it was taken away.

Now one of Saul’s servants was there that day, detained before the Lord; he was Doeg the Edomite, Saul’s chief shepherd.

David asked Ahimelek, ‘Don’t you have a spear or sword here? I haven’t brought my sword or any other weapon, because the king’s mission was urgent.’

The priest replied, ‘The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom you killed in the Valley of Elah, is here; it is wrapped in a cloth behind the ephod. If you want it, take it; there is no sword here but that one.’

David said, ‘There is none like it; give it to me.’

David at Gath

10 That day David fled from Saul and went to Achish king of Gath. 11 But the servants of Achish said to him, ‘Isn’t this David, the king of the land? Isn’t he the one they sing about in their dances:

‘“Saul has slain his thousands,
    and David his tens of thousands”?’

12 David took these words to heart and was very much afraid of Achish king of Gath. 13 So he feigned insanity in their presence; and while he was in their hands he acted like a madman, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting saliva run down his beard.

14 Achish said to his servants, ‘Look at the man! He is insane! Why bring him to me? 15 Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?’


  1. 1 Samuel 21:1 In Hebrew texts 21:1-15 is numbered 21:2-16.
  2. 1 Samuel 21:5 Or from us in the past few days since

21 (21:2) David went to Ahimelech the priest in Nob. Ahimelech was shaking with fear when he met[a] David, and said to him, “Why are you by yourself with no one accompanying you?” David replied to Ahimelech the priest, “The king instructed me to do something, but he said to me, ‘Don’t let anyone know the reason I am sending you or the instructions I have given you.’[b] I have told my soldiers[c] to wait at a certain place.[d] Now what do you have at your disposal?[e] Give me five loaves of bread, or whatever can be found.”

The priest replied to David, “I don’t have any ordinary bread at my disposal. Only holy bread is available, and then only if your soldiers[f] have abstained from relations with women.”[g] David said to the priest, “Certainly women have been kept away from us, just as on previous occasions when I have set out. The soldiers’[h] equipment[i] is holy, even on an ordinary journey. How much more so will they be holy today, along with their equipment!”

So the priest gave him holy bread, for there was no bread there other than the Bread of the Presence. It had been removed from before the Lord in order to replace it with hot bread on the day it had been taken away. (One of Saul’s servants was there that day, detained before the Lord. His name was Doeg the Edomite, who was in charge of Saul’s shepherds.) David said to Ahimelech, “Is there no sword or spear here at your disposal? I don’t have my own sword or equipment in hand due to the urgency of the king’s instructions.”

David Goes to Gath

The priest replied, “The sword of Goliath the Philistine, whom you struck down in the valley of Elah, is wrapped in a garment behind the ephod. If you wish, take it for yourself. Other than that one, there’s no sword here.” David said, “There’s nothing like it. Give it to me.” 10 So on that day David arose and fled from Saul. He went to King Achish of Gath. 11 The servants of Achish said to him, “Isn’t this David, the king of the land? Isn’t he the one that they sing about when they dance, saying,

‘Saul struck down his thousands,
but David his tens of thousands’?”

12 David thought about what they said[j] and was very afraid of King Achish of Gath. 13 He altered his behavior in their presence.[k] Since he was in their power,[l] he pretended to be insane, making marks on the doors of the gate and letting his saliva run down his beard.

14 Achish said to his servants, “Look at this madman! Why did you bring him to me? 15 Do I have a shortage of fools so that you have brought me this man to display his insanity in front of me? Should this man enter my house?”


  1. 1 Samuel 21:1 tn Heb “trembled to meet.”
  2. 1 Samuel 21:2 tn Heb “let not a man know anything about the matter [for] which I am sending you and [about] which I commanded you.”
  3. 1 Samuel 21:2 tn Heb “servants.”
  4. 1 Samuel 21:2 tn The Hebrew expression here refers to a particular, but unnamed, place. It occurs in the OT only here, in 2 Kgs 6:8, and in Ruth 4:1, where Boaz uses it to refer to Naomi’s unnamed kinsman-redeemer. A contracted form of the expression appears in Dan 8:13.
  5. 1 Samuel 21:3 tn Heb “under your hand.”
  6. 1 Samuel 21:4 tn Heb “servants.”
  7. 1 Samuel 21:4 tn Heb “have kept themselves from women” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “haven’t had sexual relations recently”; NLT “have not slept with any women recently.” sn Temporary sexual abstinence was part of the requirements of a war campaign (Deut 23:9-14), since God was pictured as coming among the camp (compare the abstinence in Exod 19:15). Besides David’s claim that it was standard practice for he and his men, it is also evident through the account of Uriah (2 Sam 11:11-12).
  8. 1 Samuel 21:5 tn Heb “servants’.”
  9. 1 Samuel 21:5 tn Or “things”; or “weapons”; Heb “vessels,” which some understand as a reference to the soldiers’ bodies (so NIV).
  10. 1 Samuel 21:12 tn Heb “placed these matters in his heart.”
  11. 1 Samuel 21:13 tn Heb “in their eyes.”
  12. 1 Samuel 21:13 tn Heb “in their hand.”

David at Adullam and Mizpah

22 David left Gath and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and his father’s household heard about it, they went down to him there. All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered round him, and he became their commander. About four hundred men were with him.

From there David went to Mizpah in Moab and said to the king of Moab, ‘Would you let my father and mother come and stay with you until I learn what God will do for me?’ So he left them with the king of Moab, and they stayed with him as long as David was in the stronghold.

But the prophet Gad said to David, ‘Do not stay in the stronghold. Go into the land of Judah.’ So David left and went to the forest of Hereth.

Saul kills the priests of Nob

Now Saul heard that David and his men had been discovered. And Saul was seated, spear in hand, under the tamarisk tree on the hill at Gibeah, with all his officials standing at his side. He said to them, ‘Listen, men of Benjamin! Will the son of Jesse give all of you fields and vineyards? Will he make all of you commanders of thousands and commanders of hundreds? Is that why you have all conspired against me? No one tells me when my son makes a covenant with the son of Jesse. None of you is concerned about me or tells me that my son has incited my servant to lie in wait for me, as he does today.’

But Doeg the Edomite, who was standing with Saul’s officials, said, ‘I saw the son of Jesse come to Ahimelek son of Ahitub at Nob. 10 Ahimelek enquired of the Lord for him; he also gave him provisions and the sword of Goliath the Philistine.’

11 Then the king sent for the priest Ahimelek son of Ahitub and all the men of his family, who were the priests at Nob, and they all came to the king. 12 Saul said, ‘Listen now, son of Ahitub.’

‘Yes, my lord,’ he answered.

13 Saul said to him, ‘Why have you conspired against me, you and the son of Jesse, giving him bread and a sword and enquiring of God for him, so that he has rebelled against me and lies in wait for me, as he does today?’

14 Ahimelek answered the king, ‘Who of all your servants is as loyal as David, the king’s son-in-law, captain of your bodyguard and highly respected in your household? 15 Was that day the first time I enquired of God for him? Of course not! Let not the king accuse your servant or any of his father’s family, for your servant knows nothing at all about this whole affair.’

16 But the king said, ‘You shall surely die, Ahimelek, you and your whole family.’

17 Then the king ordered the guards at his side: ‘Turn and kill the priests of the Lord, because they too have sided with David. They knew he was fleeing, yet they did not tell me.’

But the king’s officials were unwilling to raise a hand to strike the priests of the Lord.

18 The king then ordered Doeg, ‘You turn and strike down the priests.’ So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck them down. That day he killed eighty-five men who wore the linen ephod. 19 He also put to the sword Nob, the town of the priests, with its men and women, its children and infants, and its cattle, donkeys and sheep.

20 But one son of Ahimelek son of Ahitub, named Abiathar, escaped and fled to join David. 21 He told David that Saul had killed the priests of the Lord. 22 Then David said to Abiathar, ‘That day, when Doeg the Edomite was there, I knew he would be sure to tell Saul. I am responsible for the death of your whole family. 23 Stay with me; don’t be afraid. The man who wants to kill you is trying to kill me too. You will be safe with me.’

David Goes to Adullam and Mizpah

22 So David left there and escaped to the cave of Adullam. When his brothers and the rest of his father’s family[a] learned about it, they went down there to him. All those who were in trouble or owed someone money or were discontented[b] gathered around[c] him, and he became their leader. He had about 400 men with him.

Then David went from there to Mizpah in Moab, where he said to the king of Moab, “Please let my father and mother stay[d] with you until I know what God is going to do for me.” So he had them stay with the king of Moab; they stayed with him the whole time[e] that David was in the stronghold. Then Gad the prophet said to David, “Don’t stay in the stronghold. Go to the land of Judah.” So David left and went to the forest of Hereth.

Saul Executes the Priests

But Saul found out the whereabouts of David and the men who were with him.[f] Now Saul was sitting at Gibeah under the tamarisk tree at an elevated location with his spear in hand and all his servants stationed around him. Saul said to his servants, “Listen up, you Benjaminites! Is Jesse’s son giving fields and vineyards to all of you? Or is he making all of you[g] commanders and officers?[h] For all of you have conspired against me! No one informs me[i] when my own son makes an agreement with the son of Jesse. Not one of you feels sorry for me or informs me that my own son has commissioned my own servant to hide in ambush against me, as is the case today!”

But Doeg the Edomite, who had stationed himself with the servants of Saul, replied, “I saw this son of Jesse come to Ahimelech son of Ahitub at Nob. 10 He inquired of the Lord for him and gave him provisions. He also gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.”

11 Then the king arranged for a meeting with the priest Ahimelech son of Ahitub and all the priests of his father’s house who were at Nob. They all came to the king. 12 Then Saul said, “Listen, son of Ahitub.” He replied, “Here I am, my lord.” 13 Saul said to him, “Why have you conspired against me, you and this son of Jesse? You gave[j] him bread and a sword and inquired of God on his behalf, so that he opposes[k] me and waits in ambush, as is the case today!”

14 Ahimelech replied to the king, “Who among all your servants is faithful like David? He is the king’s son-in-law, the leader of your bodyguard, and honored in your house. 15 Was it just today that I began to inquire of God on his behalf? Far be it from me! The king should not accuse[l] his servant or any of my father’s house, for your servant is not aware of all this—not in whole or in part!”[m]

16 But the king said, “You will surely die, Ahimelech, you and all your father’s house!” 17 Then the king said to the messengers[n] who were stationed beside him, “Turn and kill the priests of the Lord, for they too have sided[o] with David. They knew he was fleeing, but they did not inform me.” But the king’s servants refused to harm[p] the priests of the Lord.

18 Then the king said to Doeg, “You turn and strike down the priests!” So Doeg the Edomite turned and struck down the priests. He killed on that day eighty-five[q] men who wore the linen ephod. 19 As for Nob, the city of the priests, Doeg struck down men and women, children and infants, oxen, donkeys, and sheep—all with the sword.

20 But one of the sons of Ahimelech son of Ahitub escaped and fled to David. His name was Abiathar. 21 Abiathar told David that Saul had killed the priests of the Lord. 22 Then David said to Abiathar, “I knew that day when Doeg the Edomite was there that he would certainly tell Saul! I am guilty[r] of all the deaths in your father’s house. 23 Stay with me. Don’t be afraid. Whoever[s] seeks my life is seeking your life as well. You are secure with me.”


  1. 1 Samuel 22:1 tn Heb “house.”
  2. 1 Samuel 22:2 tn Heb “bitter of soul.”
  3. 1 Samuel 22:2 tn Heb “to.”
  4. 1 Samuel 22:3 tn Heb “go forth.”
  5. 1 Samuel 22:4 tn Heb “all the days.”
  6. 1 Samuel 22:6 tn Heb “and Saul heard that David and the men who were with him were known.”
  7. 1 Samuel 22:7 tc The MT has “to all of you.” If this reading is correct, we have here an example of a prepositional phrase functioning as the equivalent of a dative of advantage, which is not impossible from a grammatical point of view. However, the LXX, the Syriac Peshitta, and Vulgate all have “and.” A conjunction rather than a preposition should probably be read on the front of this phrase.
  8. 1 Samuel 22:7 tn Heb “officers of a thousand and officers of a hundred.”
  9. 1 Samuel 22:8 tn Heb “uncovers my ear.”
  10. 1 Samuel 22:13 tn Heb “by giving.”
  11. 1 Samuel 22:13 tn Heb “rises up against.”
  12. 1 Samuel 22:15 tn Heb “set a matter against.”
  13. 1 Samuel 22:15 tn Heb “small or great.”
  14. 1 Samuel 22:17 tn Heb “runners.”
  15. 1 Samuel 22:17 tn Heb “their hand is.”
  16. 1 Samuel 22:17 tn Heb “to extend their hand to harm.”
  17. 1 Samuel 22:18 tc The number is confused in the Greek ms tradition. The LXX, with the exception of the Lucianic recension, has the number 305. The Lucianic recension, along with a couple of Old Latin mss, has the number 350.
  18. 1 Samuel 22:22 tc The translation follows the LXX, which reads “I am guilty,” rather than the MT, which has “I have turned.”
  19. 1 Samuel 22:23 tn Or “the one who.” This may refer specifically to Saul, in which case David acknowledges that Abiathar’s life is endangered because of his allegiance to David. The translation assumes that the statement is more generalized, meaning that any enemy of Abiathar is an enemy of David. In other words, David promises that he will protect Abiathar with his very own life.

Judgment and salvation

65 ‘I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me;
    I was found by those who did not seek me.
To a nation that did not call on my name,
    I said, “Here am I, here am I.”
All day long I have held out my hands
    to an obstinate people,
who walk in ways not good,
    pursuing their own imaginations –
a people who continually provoke me
    to my very face,
offering sacrifices in gardens
    and burning incense on altars of brick;
who sit among the graves
    and spend their nights keeping secret vigil;
who eat the flesh of pigs,
    and whose pots hold broth of impure meat;
who say, “Keep away; don’t come near me,
    for I am too sacred for you!”
Such people are smoke in my nostrils,
    a fire that keeps burning all day.

‘See, it stands written before me;
    I will not keep silent but will pay back in full;
    I will pay it back into their laps –
both your sins and the sins of your ancestors,’
    says the Lord.
‘Because they burned sacrifices on the mountains
    and defied me on the hills,
I will measure into their laps
    the full payment for their former deeds.’

This is what the Lord says:

‘As when juice is still found in a cluster of grapes
    and people say, “Don’t destroy it,
    there is still a blessing in it,”
so will I do on behalf of my servants;
    I will not destroy them all.
I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,
    and from Judah those who will possess my mountains;
my chosen people will inherit them,
    and there will my servants live.
10 Sharon will become a pasture for flocks,
    and the Valley of Achor a resting-place for herds,
    for my people who seek me.

11 ‘But as for you who forsake the Lord
    and forget my holy mountain,
who spread a table for Fortune
    and fill bowls of mixed wine for Destiny,
12 I will destine you for the sword,
    and all of you will fall in the slaughter;
for I called but you did not answer,
    I spoke but you did not listen.
You did evil in my sight
    and chose what displeases me.’

13 Therefore this is what the Sovereign Lord says:

‘My servants will eat,
    but you will go hungry;
my servants will drink,
    but you will go thirsty;
my servants will rejoice,
    but you will be put to shame.
14 My servants will sing
    out of the joy of their hearts,
but you will cry out
    from anguish of heart
    and wail in brokenness of spirit.
15 You will leave your name
    for my chosen ones to use in their curses;
the Sovereign Lord will put you to death,
    but to his servants he will give another name.
16 Whoever invokes a blessing in the land
    will do so by the one true God;
whoever takes an oath in the land
    will swear by the one true God.
For the past troubles will be forgotten
    and hidden from my eyes.

New heavens and a new earth

17 ‘See, I will create
    new heavens and a new earth.
The former things will not be remembered,
    nor will they come to mind.
18 But be glad and rejoice for ever
    in what I will create,
for I will create Jerusalem to be a delight
    and its people a joy.
19 I will rejoice over Jerusalem
    and take delight in my people;
the sound of weeping and of crying
    will be heard in it no more.

20 ‘Never again will there be in it
    an infant who lives but a few days,
    or an old man who does not live out his years;
the one who dies at a hundred
    will be thought a mere child;
the one who fails to reach[a] a hundred
    will be considered accursed.
21 They will build houses and dwell in them;
    they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
22 No longer will they build houses and others live in them,
    or plant and others eat.
For as the days of a tree,
    so will be the days of my people;
my chosen ones will long enjoy
    the work of their hands.
23 They will not labour in vain,
    nor will they bear children doomed to misfortune;
for they will be a people blessed by the Lord,
    they and their descendants with them.
24 Before they call I will answer;
    while they are still speaking I will hear.
25 The wolf and the lamb will feed together,
    and the lion will eat straw like the ox,
    and dust will be the serpent’s food.
They will neither harm nor destroy
    on all my holy mountain,’
says the Lord.


  1. Isaiah 65:20 Or the sinner who reaches

The Lord Will Distinguish Between Sinners and the Godly

65 “I made myself available to those who did not ask for me;[a]
I appeared to those who did not look for me.[b]
I said, ‘Here I am! Here I am!’
to a nation that did not invoke[c] my name.
I spread out my hands all day long
to my rebellious people,
who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable,
and who did what they desired.[d]
These people continually and blatantly offend me[e]
as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards[f]
and burn incense on brick altars.[g]
They sit among the tombs[h]
and keep watch all night long.[i]
They eat pork,[j]
and broth[k] from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans.
They say, ‘Keep to yourself!
Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’
These people are like smoke in my nostrils,
like a fire that keeps burning all day long.
Look, I have decreed:[l]
I will not keep silent, but will pay them back;
I will pay them back exactly what they deserve,[m]
for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,”[n] says the Lord.
“Because they burned incense on the mountains
and offended[o] me on the hills,
I will punish them in full measure.”[p]

This is what the Lord says:

“When[q] juice is discovered in a cluster of grapes,
someone says, ‘Don’t destroy it, for it contains juice.’[r]
So I will do for the sake of my servants—
I will not destroy everyone.[s]
I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,
and from Judah people to take possession of my mountains.
My chosen ones will take possession of the land;[t]
my servants will live there.
10 Sharon[u] will become a pasture for sheep,
and the Valley of Achor[v] a place where cattle graze;[w]
they will belong to my people, who seek me.[x]
11 But as for you who abandon the Lord
and forget about worshiping at[y] my holy mountain,
who prepare a feast for the god called ‘Fortune,’[z]
and fill up wine jugs for the god called ‘Destiny’[aa]
12 I predestine you to die by the sword,[ab]
all of you will kneel down at the slaughtering block,[ac]
because I called to you, and you did not respond;
I spoke and you did not listen.
You did evil before me;[ad]
you chose to do what displeases me.”

13 So this is what the Sovereign Lord says:

“Look, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry.
Look, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty.
Look, my servants will rejoice, but you will be humiliated.
14 Look, my servants will shout for joy as happiness fills their hearts.[ae]
But you will cry out as sorrow fills your hearts;[af]
you will wail because your spirits will be crushed.[ag]
15 Your names will live on in the curse formulas of my chosen ones.[ah]
The Sovereign Lord will kill you,
but he will give his servants another name.
16 Whoever pronounces a blessing in the earth[ai]
will do so in the name of the faithful God;[aj]
whoever makes an oath in the earth
will do so in the name of the faithful God.[ak]
For past problems will be forgotten;
I will no longer think about them.[al]
17 For look, I am ready to create
new heavens and a new earth![am]
The former ones[an] will not be remembered;
no one will think about them anymore.[ao]
18 But be happy and rejoice forevermore
over what I am about to create!
For look, I am ready to create Jerusalem to be a source of joy,[ap]
and her people to be a source of happiness.[aq]
19 Jerusalem will bring me joy,
and my people will bring me happiness.[ar]
The sound of weeping or cries of sorrow
will never be heard in her again.
20 Never again will one of her infants live just a few days[as]
or an old man die before his time.[at]
Indeed, no one will die before the age of one hundred;[au]
anyone who fails to reach[av] the age of one hundred will be considered cursed.
21 They will build houses and live in them;
they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
22 No longer will they build a house only to have another live in it,[aw]
or plant a vineyard only to have another eat its fruit,[ax]
for my people will live as long as trees,[ay]
and my chosen ones will enjoy to the fullest what they have produced.[az]
23 They will not work in vain,
or give birth to children that will experience disaster.[ba]
For the Lord will bless their children
and their descendants.[bb]
24 Before they even call out,[bc] I will respond;
while they are still speaking, I will hear.
25 A wolf and a lamb will graze together;[bd]
a lion, like an ox, will eat straw,[be]
and a snake’s food will be dirt.[bf]
They will no longer injure or destroy
on my entire royal mountain,”[bg] says the Lord.


  1. Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask.”
  2. Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek.”
  3. Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “call out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “call on.”
  4. Isaiah 65:2 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”
  5. Isaiah 65:3 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”
  6. Isaiah 65:3 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
  7. Isaiah 65:3 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”
  8. Isaiah 65:4 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.
  9. Isaiah 65:4 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (netsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).
  10. Isaiah 65:4 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”
  11. Isaiah 65:4 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (meraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).
  12. Isaiah 65:6 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”
  13. Isaiah 65:6 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”
  14. Isaiah 65:7 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”
  15. Isaiah 65:7 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”
  16. Isaiah 65:7 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.
  17. Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “just as.” In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, “Just as…, so I will do….”
  18. Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “for a blessing is in it.”
  19. Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “by not destroying everyone.”
  20. Isaiah 65:9 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land that contains the aforementioned mountains.
  21. Isaiah 65:10 sn Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.
  22. Isaiah 65:10 sn The Valley of Achor (“Achor” means “trouble” in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.
  23. Isaiah 65:10 tn Heb “a resting place for cattle”; NASB, NIV “for herds.”
  24. Isaiah 65:10 tn Heb “for my people who seek me.”
  25. Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “forget.” The words “about worshiping at” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  26. Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, “for Gad”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.
  27. Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, “for Meni”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.
  28. Isaiah 65:12 tn Heb “I assign you to the sword.” Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, “I assign”) to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, “ I ordain”). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, meni, “Destiny, Fate”). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among God’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Lord is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.
  29. Isaiah 65:12 tn Or “at the slaughter”; NIV “for the slaughter”; NLT “before the executioner.”
  30. Isaiah 65:12 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”
  31. Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the good of the heart.”
  32. Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the pain of the heart.”
  33. Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the breaking of the spirit.”
  34. Isaiah 65:15 tn Heb “you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones.”sn For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22.
  35. Isaiah 65:16 tn Or “in the land” (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.
  36. Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “will pronounce a blessing by the God of truth.”
  37. Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “will take an oath by the God of truth.”
  38. Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes.”
  39. Isaiah 65:17 sn This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18-19) to a new creation of the cosmos.
  40. Isaiah 65:17 tn Or perhaps, “the former things” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “The events of the past.”
  41. Isaiah 65:17 tn Heb “and they will not come up on the mind.”
  42. Isaiah 65:18 tn Heb “Jerusalem, joy.” The next verse suggests the meaning: The Lord will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.
  43. Isaiah 65:18 tn Heb “her people, happiness.” See the preceding note.
  44. Isaiah 65:19 tn Heb “and I will rejoice in Jerusalem and be happy in my people.”
  45. Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days,” i.e., one that lives just a few days.
  46. Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “or an old [man] who does not fill out his days.”
  47. Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “for the child as a son of one hundred years will die.” The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category “child” will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.
  48. Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “the one who misses.” חָטָא (khataʾ) is used here in its basic sense of “miss the mark.” See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, “and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed.”
  49. Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “they will not build, and another live [in it].”
  50. Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “they will not plant, and another eat.”
  51. Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people.”
  52. Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “the work of their hands” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “their hard-won gains.”
  53. Isaiah 65:23 tn Heb “and they will not give birth to horror.”
  54. Isaiah 65:23 tn Heb “for offspring blessed by the Lord they [will be], and their descendants along with them.”
  55. Isaiah 65:24 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.
  56. Isaiah 65:25 sn A similar statement appears in 11:6.
  57. Isaiah 65:25 sn These words also appear in 11:7.
  58. Isaiah 65:25 sn Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14 (note “you will eat dirt”). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under God’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14, the primary allusion is to 11:8, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement “you will eat dirt” in Gen 3:14 means “you will crawl on the ground.” In the same way the statement “dirt will be its food” in Isa 65:25 means “it will crawl on the ground.”)
  59. Isaiah 65:25 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” These same words appear in 11:9. See the note there.sn As in 11:1-9 the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of 11:8.

Jesus sends out the Twelve

10 Jesus called his twelve disciples to him and gave them authority to drive out impure spirits and to heal every disease and illness.

These are the names of the twelve apostles: first, Simon (who is called Peter) and his brother Andrew; James son of Zebedee, and his brother John; Philip and Bartholomew; Thomas and Matthew the tax collector; James son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus; Simon the Zealot and Judas Iscariot, who betrayed him.

These twelve Jesus sent out with the following instructions: ‘Do not go among the Gentiles or enter any town of the Samaritans. Go rather to the lost sheep of Israel. As you go, proclaim this message: “The kingdom of heaven has come near.” Heal those who are ill, raise the dead, cleanse those who have leprosy,[a] drive out demons. Freely you have received; freely give.

‘Do not get any gold or silver or copper to take with you in your belts – 10 no bag for the journey or extra shirt or sandals or a staff, for the worker is worth his keep. 11 Whatever town or village you enter, search there for some worthy person and stay at their house until you leave. 12 As you enter the home, give it your greeting. 13 If the home is deserving, let your peace rest on it; if it is not, let your peace return to you. 14 If anyone will not welcome you or listen to your words, leave that home or town and shake the dust off your feet. 15 Truly I tell you, it will be more bearable for Sodom and Gomorrah on the day of judgment than for that town.

16 ‘I am sending you out like sheep among wolves. Therefore be as shrewd as snakes and as innocent as doves. 17 Be on your guard; you will be handed over to the local councils and be flogged in the synagogues. 18 On my account you will be brought before governors and kings as witnesses to them and to the Gentiles. 19 But when they arrest you, do not worry about what to say or how to say it. At that time you will be given what to say, 20 for it will not be you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.

21 ‘Brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; children will rebel against their parents and have them put to death. 22 You will be hated by everyone because of me, but the one who stands firm to the end will be saved. 23 When you are persecuted in one place, flee to another. Truly I tell you, you will not finish going through the towns of Israel before the Son of Man comes.

24 ‘The student is not above the teacher, nor a servant above his master. 25 It is enough for students to be like their teachers, and servants like their masters. If the head of the house has been called Beelzebul, how much more the members of his household!

26 ‘So do not be afraid of them, for there is nothing concealed that will not be disclosed, or hidden that will not be made known. 27 What I tell you in the dark, speak in the daylight; what is whispered in your ear, proclaim from the roofs. 28 Do not be afraid of those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul. Rather, be afraid of the One who can destroy both soul and body in hell. 29 Are not two sparrows sold for a penny? Yet not one of them will fall to the ground outside your Father’s care.[b] 30 And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. 31 So don’t be afraid; you are worth more than many sparrows.

32 ‘Whoever acknowledges me before others, I will also acknowledge before my Father in heaven. 33 But whoever disowns me before others, I will disown before my Father in heaven.

34 ‘Do not suppose that I have come to bring peace to the earth. I did not come to bring peace, but a sword. 35 For I have come to turn

‘“a man against his father,
    a daughter against her mother,
a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law –
36     a man’s enemies will be the members of his own household.”[c]

37 ‘Anyone who loves their father or mother more than me is not worthy of me; anyone who loves their son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. 38 Whoever does not take up their cross and follow me is not worthy of me. 39 Whoever finds their life will lose it, and whoever loses their life for my sake will find it.

40 ‘Anyone who welcomes you welcomes me, and anyone who welcomes me welcomes the one who sent me. 41 Whoever welcomes a prophet as a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward, and whoever welcomes a righteous person as a righteous person will receive a righteous person’s reward. 42 And if anyone gives even a cup of cold water to one of these little ones who is my disciple, truly I tell you, that person will certainly not lose their reward.’


  1. Matthew 10:8 The Greek word traditionally translated leprosy was used for various diseases affecting the skin.
  2. Matthew 10:29 Or will; or knowledge
  3. Matthew 10:36 Micah 7:6

Sending Out the Twelve Apostles

10 Jesus[a] called his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits[b] so they could cast them out and heal every kind of disease and sickness.[c] Now these are the names of the twelve apostles:[d] first, Simon[e] (called Peter), and Andrew his brother; James son of Zebedee and John his brother; Philip and Bartholomew;[f] Thomas[g] and Matthew the tax collector;[h] James the son of Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus;[i] Simon the Zealot[j] and Judas Iscariot,[k] who betrayed him.[l]

Jesus sent out these twelve, instructing them as follows:[m] “Do not go on a road that leads to Gentile regions[n] and do not enter any Samaritan town.[o] Go[p] instead to the lost sheep[q] of the house of Israel. As you go, preach this message: ‘The kingdom of heaven is near!’ Heal the sick, raise the dead,[r] cleanse lepers,[s] cast out demons. Freely you received, freely give. Do not take gold, silver, or copper[t] in your belts, 10 no bag[u] for the journey, or an extra tunic,[v] or sandals or staff,[w] for the worker deserves his provisions. 11 Whenever[x] you enter a town or village,[y] find out who is worthy there[z] and stay with them[aa] until you leave. 12 As you enter the house, greet those within it.[ab] 13 And if the house is worthy, let your peace come on it, but if it is not worthy, let your peace return to you.[ac] 14 And if anyone will not welcome you or listen to your message, shake the dust off[ad] your feet as you leave that house or that town. 15 I tell you the truth,[ae] it will be more bearable for the region of Sodom and Gomorrah[af] on the day of judgment than for that town!

Persecution of Disciples

16 “I[ag] am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves,[ah] so be wise as serpents[ai] and innocent as doves.[aj] 17 Beware[ak] of people, because they will hand you over to councils[al] and flog[am] you in their synagogues.[an] 18 And you will be brought before governors and kings[ao] because of me, as a witness to them and to the Gentiles. 19 Whenever[ap] they hand you over for trial,[aq] do not worry about how to speak or what to say,[ar] for what you should say will be given to you at that time.[as] 20 For it is not you speaking, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.

21 “Brother[at] will hand over brother to death, and a father his child. Children will rise against[au] parents and have them put to death. 22 And you will be hated by everyone because of my name. But the one who endures to the end will be saved! 23 Whenever[av] they persecute you in one town,[aw] flee to another! I tell you the truth,[ax] you will not finish going through all the towns[ay] of Israel before the Son of Man comes.

24 “A disciple is not greater than his teacher, nor a slave[az] greater than his master. 25 It is enough for the disciple to become like his teacher, and the slave like his master. If they have called the head of the house ‘Beelzebul,’ how much worse will they call[ba] the members of his household!

Fear God, Not Man

26 “Do[bb] not be afraid of them, for nothing is hidden[bc] that will not be revealed,[bd] and nothing is secret that will not be made known. 27 What I say to you in the dark, tell in the light, and what is whispered in your ear,[be] proclaim from the housetops.[bf] 28 Do[bg] not be afraid of those who kill the body[bh] but cannot kill the soul. Instead, fear the one who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell.[bi] 29 Aren’t two sparrows sold for a penny?[bj] Yet not one of them falls to the ground apart from your Father’s will.[bk] 30 Even all the hairs on your head are numbered. 31 So do not be afraid;[bl] you are more valuable than many sparrows.

32 “Whoever, then, acknowledges[bm] me before people, I will acknowledge[bn] before my Father in heaven. 33 But whoever denies me before people, I will deny him also before my Father in heaven.

Not Peace, but a Sword

34 “Do not think that I have come to bring[bo] peace to the earth. I have not come to bring peace but a sword![bp] 35 For I have come to set a man against his father, a daughter against her mother, and a daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law, 36 and a man’s enemies will be the members of his household.[bq]

37 “Whoever loves father or mother more than me is not worthy[br] of me, and whoever loves son or daughter more than me is not worthy of me. 38 And whoever does not take up his cross[bs] and follow me is not worthy of me. 39 Whoever finds his life[bt] will lose it,[bu] and whoever loses his life because of me[bv] will find it.


40 “Whoever receives you receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.[bw] 41 Whoever receives a prophet in the name of a prophet will receive a prophet’s reward. Whoever[bx] receives a righteous person in the name of a righteous person will receive a righteous person’s reward. 42 And whoever gives only a cup of cold water to one of these little ones[by] in the name of a disciple, I tell you the truth,[bz] he will never lose his reward.”


  1. Matthew 10:1 tn Grk “And he.”
  2. Matthew 10:1 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits.
  3. Matthew 10:1 tn Grk “every [kind of] disease and every [kind of] sickness.” Here “every” was not repeated in the translation for stylistic reasons. The present translation, like several other translations (e.g., NASB, NKJV, CEV, NLT), has opted for “every kind of disease and sickness” here (KJV “all manner of sickness and all manner of disease”), understanding the Greek term πᾶς to refer to “everything belonging, in kind, to the class designated by the noun” (BDAG 784 s.v. 5).sn The same statement about healing was made concerning Jesus’ ministry in Matt 9:35, which likewise repeated Matt 4:23. By the choice of wording the evangelist thus links the ministry of the disciples with the ministry of Jesus himself.
  4. Matthew 10:2 sn The term apostles is rare in the gospels, found only here, Mark 3:14, and six more times in Luke (6:13; 9:10; 11:49; 17:5; 22:14; 24:10).
  5. Matthew 10:2 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Simon (that is, Peter) is always mentioned first (see also Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:13-16; Acts 1:13) and the first four individuals listed are always the same, although not in the same order following Peter.
  6. Matthew 10:3 sn Bartholomew means “son of Tolmai” in Aramaic. It has frequently been suggested that this is another name for Nathanael mentioned in John 1:45, although this is not certain.
  7. Matthew 10:3 sn This is the “doubting Thomas” mentioned in John 20:24-29.
  8. Matthew 10:3 sn See the note on tax collectors in 5:46.
  9. Matthew 10:3 tc Witnesses differ on the identification of the last disciple mentioned in v. 3: He is called Λεββαῖος (Lebbaios, “Lebbaeus”) in D and Judas Zelotes in the Old Latin witnesses. The Byzantine text, along with a few others (C(*),2 L N W Γ Δ Θ ƒ1 33 565 579 700 1424 M), conflates earlier readings by calling him “Lebbaeus, who was called Thaddaeus,” while codex 13 conflates by way of transposition (“Thaddaeus, who was called Lebbaeus”). But excellent and early witnesses (א B ƒ13 892 lat co) call him merely Θαδδαῖος (Thaddaios, “Thaddaeus”), a reading which, because of this support, is most likely correct.
  10. Matthew 10:4 tn Grk “the Cananean,” but according to both BDAG 507 s.v. Καναναῖος and L&N 11.88, this term has no relation at all to the geographical terms for Cana or Canaan, but is derived from the Aramaic term for “enthusiast, zealot” (see Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), possibly because of an earlier affiliation with the party of the Zealots (cf. TEV “Simon the Patriot”). He may not have been technically a member of the particular Jewish nationalistic party known as “Zealots” (since according to some scholars this party had not been organized at that time), but simply someone who was zealous for Jewish independence from Rome, in which case the term would refer to his temperament (cf. CEV “Simon, known as the Eager One”).
  11. Matthew 10:4 sn Just as Peter is always mentioned first in all the lists, Judas Iscariot is always mentioned last, presumably because he was considered unworthy. There is some debate about what the name Iscariot means. It probably alludes to a region in Judea and thus might make Judas the only non-Galilean in the group. Several explanations for the name Iscariot have been proposed, but it is probably transliterated Hebrew with the meaning “man of Kerioth” (there are at least two villages that had that name). For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 1:546; also D. A. Carson, John, 304.
  12. Matthew 10:4 tn Grk “who even betrayed him.”
  13. Matthew 10:5 tn Grk “instructing them, saying.”
  14. Matthew 10:5 tn Grk “on the way/road of the Gentiles.” The objective genitive “of the Gentiles” indicates the direction (BDAG 554 s.v. ὁδός 1.a); the restriction is on the territory to be visited rather than contact with individual Gentiles or Samaritans (compare the mission of the seventy-two in Luke 10:4 where even standard greetings along the road are prohibited). sn Since Galilee was surrounded on all sides by Gentile territory except the south, where it bordered on Samaria, this restriction effectively limited the mission of the twelve to Galilee on this occasion.
  15. Matthew 10:5 tn Grk “town [or city] of the Samaritans.”sn This is the only mention of Samaritans or Samaria in the Gospel of Matthew.
  16. Matthew 10:6 tn Grk “But go.” The Greek μᾶλλον (mallon, “rather, instead”) conveys the adversative nuance here so that δέ (de) has not been translated.
  17. Matthew 10:6 sn The imagery of lost sheep probably alludes to Jer 50:6, where the Jewish people have been abandoned by their leaders (“shepherds”) and allowed to go astray.
  18. Matthew 10:8 tc The majority of Byzantine minuscules, along with a few other witnesses (C3 K L Γ Θ 579 700txt* 1424c sa mae), lack νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε (nekrous egeirete, “raise the dead”), most likely because of oversight due to a string of similar endings (-ετε in the second person imperatives, occurring five times in v. 8). The longer version of this verse is found in several diverse and ancient witnesses such as א B C* (D) N 0281vid ƒ1, 13 33 565 579mg lat bo; P W Δ 348 syh have a word-order variation, but nevertheless include νεκροὺς ἐγείρετε. Although some Byzantine-text proponents charge the Alexandrian witnesses with theologically-motivated alterations toward heterodoxy, it is interesting to find a variant such as this in which the charge could be reversed (do the Byzantine scribes have something against the miracle of resurrection?). In reality, such charges of wholesale theologically-motivated changes toward heterodoxy are immediately suspect due to lack of evidence of intentional changes (here the change is evidently due to accidental omission).
  19. Matthew 10:8 sn See the note on leper in Matt 8:2.
  20. Matthew 10:9 sn The gold, silver, and copper probably represent varying degrees of provision, with gold the most valuable and copper the least. Jesus’ point appears to be that not even minimal provision (copper) was to be taken along, forcing the disciple to be totally dependent on God.
  21. Matthew 10:10 tn Or “no traveler’s bag”; or possibly “no beggar’s bag” (L&N 6.145; BDAG 811 s.v. πήρα).
  22. Matthew 10:10 tn Grk “two tunics,” that is, wearing one and carrying one as a spare. See the note on the word “tunic” in Matt 5:40.
  23. Matthew 10:10 tn Mark 6:8 allows one staff. It is possible that Matthew’s “two” with regard to the tunics (NET “an extra tunic”) extends to cover the sandals and staff as well (although “staff” is singular), making this a summary (cf. Luke 9:3) meaning not taking an extra pair of sandals or an extra staff (like the tunics). It is also possible the expression is merely rhetorical for “traveling light” which has been rendered in two slightly different ways.sn The point of the prohibitions seems to be not so much urgency as total dependence on God. Lack of a staff, in particular, would leave the traveler extremely vulnerable to wild animals and robbers.
  24. Matthew 10:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  25. Matthew 10:11 tn Grk “Into whatever town or village you enter.” This acts as a distributive, meaning every town or village they enter; this is expressed more naturally in English as “whenever you enter a town or village.”
  26. Matthew 10:11 tn Grk “in it” (referring to the city or village).
  27. Matthew 10:11 tn Grk “there.” This was translated as “with them” to avoid redundancy in English and to clarify where the disciples were to stay.sn Jesus telling his disciples to stay with them in one house contrasts with the practice of religious philosophers in the ancient world who went from house to house begging. Staying in one location would give the disciples a base of operations for mission in the area as long as they were there.
  28. Matthew 10:12 tn Grk “give it greetings.” The expression “give it greetings” is a metonymy; the “house” is put for those who live in it. The translation clarifies this because it sounds odd in contemporary English to speak of greeting a building.
  29. Matthew 10:13 sn The response to these messengers determines how God’s blessing is bestowed—if the messengers are not welcomed, their blessing will return to them. Jesus shows just how important their mission is by this remark.
  30. Matthew 10:14 sn To shake the dust off represented, on one level, shaking off the uncleanness from one’s feet; see Luke 10:11; Acts 13:51; 18:6. At another level, however, it is similar to a prophetic sign, representing the termination of all fellowship with those individuals or localities that have rejected the messengers along with their message of the coming kingdom of heaven. This in essence constitutes a sign of eschatological judgment, as confirmed in the following verse.
  31. Matthew 10:15 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  32. Matthew 10:15 sn Sodom and Gomorrah were widely regarded as the most wicked of OT cities from the actions described in Gen 19:1-29; even in OT times their wickedness had become proverbial (Isa 1:9-10). The allusion to God’s judgment on these cities is not intended to indicate that they might be shown mercy on the day of judgment, but to warn that rejecting the messengers with their current message about the coming kingdom is even more serious than the worst sins of Sodom and Gomorrah and will result in even more severe punishment.
  33. Matthew 10:16 tn Grk “Behold I.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
  34. Matthew 10:16 sn This imagery of wolves is found in intertestamental Judaism (see Pss. Sol. 8:23, 30; also 1 Enoch 89:55). For more on the sheep imagery see H. Preisker and S. Schulz, TDNT 6:690. The imagery of sheep surrounded by wolves suggests violence, and prepares the hearers for the persecutions of disciples described in vv. 17-26.
  35. Matthew 10:16 sn The craftiness of serpents is proverbial and can be traced as far back as Gen 3:1. As for how it applies to Jesus’ disciples sent out with the message of the coming kingdom, interpreters have been far less certain, and there is a great diversity of opinion.
  36. Matthew 10:16 sn Doves were regarded in both Greek and Jewish culture of the first century as symbols of purity, integrity, and harmlessness (see H. Greeven, TDNT 6:65-67).
  37. Matthew 10:17 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  38. Matthew 10:17 sn Councils in this context has a non-technical sense referring to local judicial bodies (courts) attached to the Jewish synagogue (cf. BDAG 967 s.v. συνέδριον 1.a). These courts would be responsible for meting out justice and discipline within the Jewish community.
  39. Matthew 10:17 tn Or “and have you flogged” (a causative sense). BDAG 620 s.v. μαστιγόω 1.a states, “of flogging as a punishment decreed by the synagogue (Dt 25:2f; s. the Mishna Tractate Sanhedrin-Makkoth, edited w. notes by SKrauss ’33) w. acc. of pers. Mt 10:17; 23:34.”
  40. Matthew 10:17 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:23.
  41. Matthew 10:18 sn These statements look at persecution both from a Jewish context as the mention of councils and synagogues suggests, and from a Gentile one as the reference to governors and kings suggests. Some fulfillment of Jewish persecution can be seen in Acts 4:3; 5:17-18, 40-41; 6:12; 7:1-60; 8:1-3, and of Gentile persecution in Acts 25:2-12, 24-27.
  42. Matthew 10:19 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  43. Matthew 10:19 tn Or “hand you over into custody,” in particular “as a t.t. of police and courts ‘hand over into [the] custody [of]’” (BDAG 762 s.v. παραδίδωμι 1.b). In context some sort of trial is implied (cf. Luke 12:11).
  44. Matthew 10:19 tn Grk “how or what you might speak.”
  45. Matthew 10:19 tn Grk “in that hour.”
  46. Matthew 10:21 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.sn The mention of father and child in the following clause indicates that brother here refers to actual siblings, the members of one’s own family.
  47. Matthew 10:21 tn Or “will rebel against.”
  48. Matthew 10:23 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  49. Matthew 10:23 tn The Greek word πόλις (polis) can mean either “town” or “city” depending on the context (BDAG 844 s.v. 1, “population center of varying size, city, town”).
  50. Matthew 10:23 tn Grk “For truly (ἀμήν, amēn) I say to you.” Here γάρ (gar, “for”) has not been translated.
  51. Matthew 10:23 tn The Greek word πόλις (polis), can mean either “town” or “city” (see previous note in this verse). “Town” was employed here to emphasize the large number of places to visit (not just the largest cities) and thus the extensive nature of the disciples’ ministry.
  52. Matthew 10:24 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
  53. Matthew 10:25 tn The words “will they call” are not in the Greek text but are implied, and have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
  54. Matthew 10:26 tn Grk “Therefore do not.” Here οὖν (oun) has not been translated.
  55. Matthew 10:26 tn Or “concealed.”
  56. Matthew 10:26 tn The passive voice here and with the next verb is probably used for rhetorical effect. Although it is common to understand such usage, particularly in the gospels, as examples of the so-called “divine passive” where God is the unstated performer of the action, according to Wallace (ExSyn 438) this category is overused.sn The passive verbs revealed and made known suggest the revelation comes from God. The text is both a warning about bad things being revealed and an encouragement that good things will be made known.
  57. Matthew 10:27 tn Grk “what you hear in the ear,” an idiom meaning “say someth. into someone’s ear, i.e., secretly or in confidence, whisper” (BDAG 739 s.v. οὖς 1).
  58. Matthew 10:27 tn The expression “proclaim from the housetops” is an idiom for proclaiming something publicly (L&N 7.51; BDAG 266 s.v. δῶμα). Roofs of many first century Jewish houses in Judea and Galilee were flat and had access either from outside or from within the house. Something shouted from atop a house would be heard by everyone in the street below.
  59. Matthew 10:28 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  60. Matthew 10:28 sn A similar exhortation is found in 4 Macc 13:14-15, reflecting the view of Judaism in the intertestamental period. The statement here assumes there is more to a person than a body. As J. Nolland states, “Fear of God is to displace fear of death-dealing persecutors. The stakes are higher with God” (Matthew [NIGTC], 436).
  61. Matthew 10:28 sn While destroy is sometimes taken to mean annihilation, it does not necessarily have to imply that here (“Of eternal death… Mt 10:28, ” BDAG 116 s.v. ἀπόλλυμι 1.a.α). There are some Jewish intertestamental texts that appear to reflect a belief in everlasting punishment for the wicked (Jdt 16:17; 1QS 2:8) as well as Rev 14:11 in the NT. See also the note on the word hell in 5:22.
  62. Matthew 10:29 sn The penny refers to an assarion, a small Roman copper coin. One of them was worth one-sixteenth of a denarius or less than a half hour’s average wage. Sparrows were the cheapest items sold in the market. The point of Jesus’ statement is that God knows about even the most financially insignificant things; see Isa 49:15.
  63. Matthew 10:29 tn Or “to the ground without the knowledge and consent of your Father.”sn This is a typical form of rabbinic argumentation, from the lesser to the greater: If God cares about the lesser thing (sparrows) how much more does he care about the greater thing (people).
  64. Matthew 10:31 sn This represents the third call by Jesus not to be afraid in the section (previously in vv. 26, 28). Since these two previous references were related to fear of persecution, it is probable that this one does as well. Once again the sparrows are mentioned and the argument is from lesser to greater (if God cares about individual hairs on the head and about sparrows, how much more does he care about people).
  65. Matthew 10:32 tn Or “confesses”; cf. BDAG 708 s.v. ὁμολογέω 4, “to acknowledge someth., ordinarily in public, acknowledge, claim, profess, praise.”
  66. Matthew 10:32 tn Grk “I will acknowledge [or, confess] him also.”sn This acknowledgment will take place at the judgment. On Jesus and judgment, see Luke 22:69; Acts 10:42-43; 17:31.
  67. Matthew 10:34 tn Grk “cast.” For βάλλω (ballō) in the sense of bringing about (or causing) a state or condition, see L&N 13.14; BDAG 163-64 s.v. 4.
  68. Matthew 10:34 sn For rhetorical reasons, Jesus’ statement is deliberately paradoxical (seeming to state the opposite of Matt 10:13 where the messengers are to bring peace). The conflict implied by the sword is not primarily eschatological in this context, however, but immediate, and concerns the division and discord even among family members that a person’s allegiance to Jesus would bring (vv. 35-39).
  69. Matthew 10:36 tn Matt 10:35-36 are an allusion to Mic 7:6.
  70. Matthew 10:37 tn Here “worthy” (ἄξιος, axios) means “does not deserve to belong to me” (BDAG 94 s.v. 2.a), i.e., “is not worthy to be my disciple” (cf. Luke 14:26) or perhaps “is not worthy to participate in the kingdom” (to be undeserving of Jesus is to be undeserving of the kingdom he brings).sn The statement demands uncompromising, radical loyalty to Jesus, a loyalty so powerful that it surpasses normal human relationships, even familial ones.
  71. Matthew 10:38 sn According to Plutarch, “Every criminal who is executed carries his own cross” (De sera numinus vindicta 9.554b). Jesus is speaking figuratively here in the context of rejection. If one’s allegiance to Jesus does not have absolute priority, then one will not follow him in the face of possible rejection and persecution.
  72. Matthew 10:39 tn Grk “his soul.” The Greek ψυχή (psuchē) has many different meanings depending on the context. The two primary meanings here are the earthly life (animate life, sometimes called “physical life”) and the inner life (the life that transcends the earthly life, sometimes called “the soul”). The fact that the Greek term can have both meanings creates in this verse both a paradox and a wordplay. The desire to preserve both aspects of ψυχή (psuchē) for oneself creates the tension here (cf. BDAG 1099 s.v. 1.a; 2.d,e). Translation of the Greek term ψυχή (psuchē) presents a particularly difficult problem in this verse. Most English versions since the KJV have translated the term “life.” This preserves the paradox of finding one’s “life” (in the sense of earthly life) while at the same time really losing it (in the sense of “soul” or transcendent inner life) and vice versa, but at the same time it obscures the wordplay that results from the same Greek word having multiple meanings. To translate as “soul,” however, gives the modern English reader the impression of the immortal soul at the expense of the earthly life. On the whole it is probably best to use the translation “life” and retain the paradox at the expense of the wordplay.
  73. Matthew 10:39 sn The Greek word translated life can refer to both earthly, physical life and inner, transcendent life (one’s “soul”). In the context, if a person is not willing to suffer the world’s rejection and persecution in order to follow Jesus but instead seeks to retain his physical life, then that person will lose both physical life and inner, transcendent life (at the judgment). On the other hand, the one who willingly gives up earthly, physical life to follow Jesus (“loses his life because of me”) will ultimately find one’s “soul” (note that the parallel in John’s Gospel speaks of “guarding one’s ‘soul’ for eternal life” (John 12:25).
  74. Matthew 10:39 tn Or “for my sake.” The traditional rendering “for my sake” can be understood in the sense of “for my benefit,” but the Greek term ἕνεκα (heneka) indicates the cause or reason for something (BDAG 334 s.v. 1).
  75. Matthew 10:40 sn The one who sent me refers to God. Reception of the messengers (and by implication, the message they bring) is equivalent to reception of both Jesus and God the Father himself.
  76. Matthew 10:41 tn Grk “And whoever.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  77. Matthew 10:42 sn Mention of these little ones in the context seems slightly odd since Jesus is addressing disciples, and this seems to refer to disciples. Probably it is another reference to the itinerant messengers mentioned previously (v. 40). Even a minimal act of kindness shown to one of these (a cup of cold water) will not go unacknowledged and unrewarded.
  78. Matthew 10:42 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”

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