129 “Many times they have persecuted me (Israel) from my youth,” Let Israel now say, 2 “Many times they have persecuted me from my youth, Yet they have not prevailed against me. 3 “The [enemies, like] plowers plowed on my back; They made their furrows [of suffering] long [in Israel].” 4 The Lord is righteous; He has cut in two the [thick] cords of the wicked [which enslaved the people of Israel].
5 May all who hate Zion Be put to shame and turned backward [in defeat]. 6 Let them be like the grass on the housetops, Which withers before it grows up, 7 With which the reaper does not fill his hand, Nor the binder of sheaves his arms, 8 Nor do those who pass by say, “The blessing of the Lord be upon you; We bless you in the name of the Lord.”
130 Out of the [c]depths [of distress] I have cried to You, O Lord. 2 Lord, hear my voice! Let Your ears be attentive To the voice of my supplications. 3 If You, Lord, should keep an account of our sins and treat us accordingly, O Lord, who could stand [before you in judgment and claim innocence]? 4 But there is forgiveness with You, That You may be feared and worshiped [with submissive wonder].
5 I wait [patiently] for the Lord, my soul [expectantly] waits, And in His word do I hope. 6 My soul waits for the Lord More than the watchmen for the morning; More than the watchmen for the morning. 7 O Israel, hope in the Lord; For with the Lord there is lovingkindness, And with Him is abundant redemption. 8 And He will redeem Israel From all his sins.
131 Lord, my heart is not proud, nor my eyes haughty; Nor do I involve myself in great matters, Or in things too difficult for me. 2 Surely I have calmed and quieted my soul; Like a weaned child [resting] with his mother, My soul is like a weaned child within me [composed and freed from discontent]. 3 O Israel, hope in the Lord From this time forth and forever.
2 I praise and appreciate you because you remember me in everything and you firmly hold to the [a]traditions [the substance of my instructions], just as I have passed them on to you. 3 But I want you to understand that Christ is the head (authority over) of every man, and man is the head of woman, and God is the head of Christ. 4 Every man who prays or [b]prophesies with something on his head dishonors his head [and the One who is his head]. 5 And every woman who prays or prophesies when she has her [c]head uncovered disgraces her head; for she is one and the same as the [d]woman whose head is shaved [in disgrace]. 6 If a woman does not cover her head, she should have her hair cut off; and [e]if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, she should cover her head. 7 A man ought not have his head covered [during worship], since he is the image and [reflected] glory of God; but the woman is [the expression of] man’s glory.8 For man does not originate from woman, but woman from man;9 for indeed man was not created for the sake of woman, but woman for the sake of man.10 Therefore the woman ought to have a sign of authority on her head, [f]for the sake of the angels [so as not to offend them]. 11 Nevertheless, woman is not independent of man, nor is man independent of woman. 12 For as the woman originates from the man, so also man is born through the woman; and all things [whether male or female] originate from God [as their Creator]. 13 [g]Judge for yourselves; is it proper for a woman to offer prayer to God [publicly] with her head uncovered? 14 Does not common sense itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor to him, 15 but if a woman has long hair, it is her ornament and glory? For her long hair is given to her as a covering. 16 Now if anyone is inclined to be contentious [about this], we have no other practice [in worship than this], nor do the churches of God [in general].
1 Corinthians 11:2The following discourse covers appropriate conduct and relationships within the church, as well as within church-related activities.
1 Corinthians 11:4The references to men or women prophesying (here and v 5) indicate that Paul has church meetings in mind, where the speaker is leading the congregation in prayer or addressing them.
1 Corinthians 11:5In public, respectable women wore their hair done up in a modest style. In the Greco-Roman-Jewish culture of the time, hair worn down and loose would suggest a woman of questionable morals.
1 Corinthians 11:5Possibly the mark of an adulteress or prostitute, but likely a sign of disgrace for any number of reasons. In one of Aristophanes’ comedies, for example, head shaving is recommended for a woman whose son is cowardly or otherwise worthless.
1 Corinthians 11:6There is little doubt that this would appear disgraceful and embarrassing, but Paul is essentially providing his readers a simple way to determine for themselves if a woman should cover her head while prophesying or leading prayer in church.
1 Corinthians 11:10This may be an indication that angels are present at gatherings of believers.
1 Corinthians 11:13This verse acknowledges custom as another, separate argument for a woman’s head covering (v 5).
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