10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children were conceived at the same time by our father Isaac.(A) 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad(B)—in order that God’s purpose(C) in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”[a](D) 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[b](E)

14 What then shall we say?(F) Is God unjust? Not at all!(G) 15 For he says to Moses,

“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
    and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[c](H)

16 It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.(I) 17 For Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[d](J) 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.(K)

Read full chapter


  1. Romans 9:12 Gen. 25:23
  2. Romans 9:13 Mal. 1:2,3
  3. Romans 9:15 Exodus 33:19
  4. Romans 9:17 Exodus 9:16

Bible Gateway Recommends