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The proverbs of Solomon son of David, king of Israel:

Prologue

For learning about wisdom and instruction,
    for understanding words of insight,
for gaining instruction in wise dealing,
    righteousness, justice, and equity;
to teach shrewdness to the simple,
    knowledge and prudence to the young—
let the wise also hear and gain in learning,
    and the discerning acquire skill,
to understand a proverb and a figure,
    the words of the wise and their riddles.

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge;
    fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Warnings against Evil Companions

Hear, my child, your father’s instruction,
    and do not reject your mother’s teaching;
for they are a fair garland for your head,
    and pendants for your neck.
10 My child, if sinners entice you,
    do not consent.
11 If they say, “Come with us, let us lie in wait for blood;
    let us wantonly ambush the innocent;
12 like Sheol let us swallow them alive
    and whole, like those who go down to the Pit.
13 We shall find all kinds of costly things;
    we shall fill our houses with booty.
14 Throw in your lot among us;
    we will all have one purse”—
15 my child, do not walk in their way,
    keep your foot from their paths;
16 for their feet run to evil,
    and they hurry to shed blood.
17 For in vain is the net baited
    while the bird is looking on;
18 yet they lie in wait—to kill themselves!
    and set an ambush—for their own lives!
19 Such is the end[a] of all who are greedy for gain;
    it takes away the life of its possessors.

The Call of Wisdom

20 Wisdom cries out in the street;
    in the squares she raises her voice.
21 At the busiest corner she cries out;
    at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:
22 “How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple?
How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing
    and fools hate knowledge?
23 Give heed to my reproof;
I will pour out my thoughts to you;
    I will make my words known to you.
24 Because I have called and you refused,
    have stretched out my hand and no one heeded,
25 and because you have ignored all my counsel
    and would have none of my reproof,
26 I also will laugh at your calamity;
    I will mock when panic strikes you,
27 when panic strikes you like a storm,
    and your calamity comes like a whirlwind,
    when distress and anguish come upon you.
28 Then they will call upon me, but I will not answer;
    they will seek me diligently, but will not find me.
29 Because they hated knowledge
    and did not choose the fear of the Lord,
30 would have none of my counsel,
    and despised all my reproof,
31 therefore they shall eat the fruit of their way
    and be sated with their own devices.
32 For waywardness kills the simple,
    and the complacency of fools destroys them;
33 but those who listen to me will be secure
    and will live at ease, without dread of disaster.”

Footnotes

  1. Proverbs 1:19 Gk: Heb are the ways

I. Title and Introduction

Chapter 1

Purpose of the Proverbs of Solomon[a]

The proverbs[b] of Solomon,(A) the son of David,
    king of Israel:
That people may know wisdom and discipline,[c]
    may understand intelligent sayings;
May receive instruction in wise conduct,
    in what is right, just and fair;
That resourcefulness may be imparted to the naive,[d]
    knowledge and discretion to the young.
The wise by hearing them will advance in learning,
    the intelligent will gain sound guidance,
To comprehend proverb and byword,
    the words of the wise and their riddles.
Fear of the Lord[e] is the beginning of knowledge;(B)
    fools despise wisdom and discipline.

II. Instructions of Parents and of Woman Wisdom

The Path of the Wicked: Greed and Violence[f]

Hear, my son, your father’s instruction,
    and reject not your mother’s teaching;
A graceful diadem will they be for your head;
    a pendant for your neck.
10 My son, should sinners entice you,
11     do not go if they say, “Come along with us!
Let us lie in wait for blood,
    unprovoked, let us trap the innocent;
12 Let us swallow them alive, like Sheol,
    whole, like those who go down to the pit!
13 All kinds of precious wealth shall we gain,
    we shall fill our houses with booty;
14 Cast in your lot with us,
    we shall all have one purse!”
15 My son, do not walk in the way with them,
    hold back your foot from their path!
16 [For their feet run to evil,
    they hasten to shed blood.(C)]
17 In vain a net is spread[g]
    right under the eyes of any bird—
18 They lie in wait for their own blood,
    they set a trap for their own lives.
19 This is the way of everyone greedy for loot:
    it takes away their lives.

Wisdom in Person Gives a Warning[h]

20 Wisdom cries aloud in the street,
    in the open squares she raises her voice;(D)
21 Down the crowded ways she calls out,
    at the city gates she utters her words:
22 [i]“How long, you naive ones, will you love naivete,
23     How long will you turn away at my reproof?
[The arrogant delight in their arrogance,
    and fools hate knowledge.]
    Lo! I will pour out to you my spirit,
    I will acquaint you with my words:
24 ‘Because I called and you refused,
    extended my hand and no one took notice;(E)
25 Because you disdained all my counsel,
    and my reproof you ignored—
26 I, in my turn, will laugh at your doom;
    will mock when terror overtakes you;
27 When terror comes upon you like a storm,
    and your doom approaches like a whirlwind;
    when distress and anguish befall you.’
28 Then they will call me, but I will not answer;
    they will seek me, but will not find me,
29 Because they hated knowledge,
    and the fear of the Lord they did not choose.
30 They ignored my counsel,
    they spurned all my reproof;
31 Well, then, they shall eat the fruit[j] of their own way,
    and with their own devices be glutted.
32 For the straying of the naive kills them,
    the smugness of fools destroys them.
33 But whoever obeys me dwells in security,
    in peace, without fear of harm.”(F)

Footnotes

  1. 1:1–7 The prologue explains the purpose of the book. The book has a sapiential, ethical, and religious dimension: to bring the inexperienced to knowledge and right conduct, to increase the facility of those already wise for interpreting proverbs, parables and riddles, and to encourage the fulfillment of one’s duties to God.
  2. 1:1 Proverbs: the Hebrew word mashal is broader than English “proverb,” embracing the instructions of chaps. 1–9 and the sayings, observations, and comparisons of chaps. 10–31.
  3. 1:2 Discipline: education or formation which dispels ignorance and corrects vice. Note the reprise of v. 2a in v. 7b.
  4. 1:4 Naive: immature, inexperienced, sometimes the young, hence easily influenced for good or evil.
  5. 1:7 Fear of the Lord: primarily a disposition rather than the emotion of fear; reverential awe and respect toward God combined with obedience to God’s will.
  6. 1:8–19 A parental warning to a young person leaving home, for them to avoid the company of the greedy and violent. Two ways lie before the hearer, a way that leads to death and a way that leads to life. The trap which the wicked set for the innocent (v. 11) in the end takes away the lives of the wicked themselves (v. 19). This theme will recur especially in chaps. 1–9. A second theme introduced here is that of founding (or managing) a household and choosing a spouse. A third theme is the human obstacles to attaining wisdom. Here (and in 2:12–15 and 4:10–19), the obstacle is men (always in the plural); in 2:16–19; 5:1–6; 6:20–35; chap. 7; 9:13–18, the obstacle to the quest is the “foreign” woman (always in the singular).
  7. 1:17 A difficult verse. The most probable interpretation is that no fowler lifts up the net so the bird can see it. The verse might be paraphrased: God does not let those who walk on evil paths see the net that will entrap them. The passive construction (“a net is spread”) is sometimes used to express divine activity. Verse 16 is a later attempt to add clarity. It is a quotation from Is 59:7 and is not in the best Greek manuscripts.
  8. 1:20–33

    Wisdom is personified as in chaps. 8 and 9:1–6. With divine authority she proclaims the moral order, threatening to leave to their own devices those who disregard her invitation. All three speeches of Woman Wisdom have common features: a setting in city streets; an audience of simple or naive people; a competing appeal (chap. 7 is the competing appeal for chap. 8); an invitation to a relationship that brings long life, riches, repute.

    The structure of the speeches is: A: setting (vv. 20–21); B: Wisdom’s withdrawal, rebuke and announcement (vv. 22–23); reason and rejection I (vv. 24–27); reason and rejection II (vv. 28–31); summary (v. 32); C: the effects of Wisdom’s presence (v. 33). Wisdom’s opening speech is an extended threat ending with a brief invitation (v. 33). Her second speech is an extended invitation ending with a brief threat (8:36). The surprisingly abrupt and harsh tone of her speech is perhaps to be explained as a response to the arrogant words of the men in the previous scene (1:8–19).

  9. 1:22–23 There is textual confusion. Verse 22bc (in the third person) is an addition, interrupting vv. 22a and 23a (in the second person). The addition has been put in brackets, to separate it from the original poem. The original verses do not ask for a change of heart but begin to detail the consequences of disobedience to Wisdom.
  10. 1:31 Eat the fruit: sinners are punished by the consequences of their sins. Wisdom’s voice echoes that of the parents in vv. 8–19. The parents mediate wisdom in vv. 8–19, but here Wisdom herself speaks.

The proverbs of Solomon son of David, king of Israel:

Prologue

For learning about wisdom and instruction,
    for understanding words of insight,
for gaining instruction in wise dealing,
    righteousness, justice, and equity;
to teach shrewdness to the simple,
    knowledge and prudence to the young—
let the wise also hear and gain in learning,
    and the discerning acquire skill,
to understand a proverb and a figure,
    the words of the wise and their riddles.

The fear of the Lord is the beginning of knowledge;
    fools despise wisdom and instruction.

Warnings against Evil Companions

Hear, my child, your father’s instruction,
    and do not reject your mother’s teaching;
for they are a fair garland for your head,
    and pendants for your neck.
10 My child, if sinners entice you,
    do not consent.
11 If they say, ‘Come with us, let us lie in wait for blood;
    let us wantonly ambush the innocent;
12 like Sheol let us swallow them alive
    and whole, like those who go down to the Pit.
13 We shall find all kinds of costly things;
    we shall fill our houses with booty.
14 Throw in your lot among us;
    we will all have one purse’—
15 my child, do not walk in their way,
    keep your foot from their paths;
16 for their feet run to evil,
    and they hurry to shed blood.
17 For in vain is the net baited
    while the bird is looking on;
18 yet they lie in wait—to kill themselves!
    and set an ambush—for their own lives!
19 Such is the end[a] of all who are greedy for gain;
    it takes away the life of its possessors.

The Call of Wisdom

20 Wisdom cries out in the street;
    in the squares she raises her voice.
21 At the busiest corner she cries out;
    at the entrance of the city gates she speaks:
22 ‘How long, O simple ones, will you love being simple?
How long will scoffers delight in their scoffing
    and fools hate knowledge?
23 Give heed to my reproof;
I will pour out my thoughts to you;
    I will make my words known to you.
24 Because I have called and you refused,
    have stretched out my hand and no one heeded,
25 and because you have ignored all my counsel
    and would have none of my reproof,
26 I also will laugh at your calamity;
    I will mock when panic strikes you,
27 when panic strikes you like a storm,
    and your calamity comes like a whirlwind,
    when distress and anguish come upon you.
28 Then they will call upon me, but I will not answer;
    they will seek me diligently, but will not find me.
29 Because they hated knowledge
    and did not choose the fear of the Lord,
30 would have none of my counsel,
    and despised all my reproof,
31 therefore they shall eat the fruit of their way
    and be sated with their own devices.
32 For waywardness kills the simple,
    and the complacency of fools destroys them;
33 but those who listen to me will be secure
    and will live at ease, without dread of disaster.’

Footnotes

  1. Proverbs 1:19 Gk: Heb are the ways

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