Sarai and Hagar

16 Now (A)Sarai, Abram’s wife, had not borne him a child, but she had (B)an Egyptian slave woman whose name was Hagar. So Sarai said to Abram, “See now, the Lord has prevented me from bearing children. (C)Please have relations with my slave woman; perhaps I will [a]obtain children through her.” And Abram listened to the voice of Sarai. And so after Abram had lived (D)ten years in the land of Canaan, Abram’s wife Sarai took Hagar the Egyptian, her slave woman, and gave her to her husband Abram as his wife. Then he had relations with Hagar, and she conceived; and when Hagar became aware that she had conceived, her mistress was insignificant in her sight. So Sarai said to Abram, “(E)May the wrong done to me be upon you! I put my slave woman into your [b]arms, but when she saw that she had conceived, I was insignificant in her [c]sight. (F)May the Lord judge between [d]you and me.” But Abram said to Sarai, “Look, your slave woman is in your [e]power; do to her what is good in your [f]sight.” So Sarai treated her harshly, and (G)she fled from her presence.

Now (H)the angel of the Lord found her by a spring of water in the wilderness, by the spring on the way to (I)Shur. He said, “Hagar, Sarai’s slave woman, (J)from where have you come, and where are you going?” And she said, “I am fleeing from the presence of my mistress Sarai.” So the angel of the Lord said to her, “Return to your mistress, and submit [g]to her authority.” 10 The (K)angel of the Lord also said to her, “(L)I will greatly multiply your [h]descendants so that [i]they will be too many to count.” 11 The angel of the Lord said to her further,

“Behold, you are pregnant,
And you will give birth to a son;
And you shall name him [j]Ishmael,
Because (M)the Lord has heard your affliction.
12 But he will be a (N)wild donkey of a man;
His hand will be against everyone,
And everyone’s hand will be against him;
And he will live [k](O)in defiance of all his brothers.”

13 Then she called the name of the Lord who spoke to her, “[l]You are [m]a God who sees me”; for she said, “(P)Have I even seen Him here and lived after [n]He saw me?” 14 Therefore the well was called [o]Beer-lahai-roi; behold, it is between (Q)Kadesh and Bered.

15 So Hagar bore a son to Abram; and Abram named his son, to whom Hagar gave birth, Ishmael. 16 Abram was (R)eighty-six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael to [p]him.

Abraham and the Covenant of Circumcision

17 Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, (S)the Lord appeared to Abram and said to him,

“I am [q]God (T)Almighty;
Walk before Me, and be [r](U)blameless.
I will [s]make My (V)covenant between Me and you,
And I will (W)multiply you exceedingly.”

Abram (X)fell on his face, and God talked with him, saying,

“As for Me, behold, My covenant is with you,
And you will be the father of a (Y)multitude of nations.
No longer shall you be named [t]Abram,
But (Z)your name shall be [u]Abraham;
For (AA)I have made you the father of a multitude of nations.

I will make you exceedingly fruitful, and I will make nations of you, and (AB)kings will come from you. I will establish My covenant between Me and you and your [v]descendants after you throughout their generations as an (AC)everlasting covenant, (AD)to be God to you and (AE)to your [w]descendants after you. And (AF)I will give to you and to your [x]descendants after you the land where you live as a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and (AG)I will be their God.”

God said further to Abraham, “Now as for you, (AH)you shall keep My covenant, you and your [y]descendants after you throughout their generations. 10 (AI)This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and your [z]descendants after you: every male among you shall be circumcised. 11 And (AJ)you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be the sign of the covenant between Me and you. 12 And every male among you who is (AK)eight days old shall be circumcised throughout your generations, including a slave who is born in the house or who is bought with money from any foreigner, who is not of your [aa]descendants. 13 A slave who is born in your house or (AL)who is bought with your money shall certainly be circumcised; so My covenant shall be in your flesh as an everlasting covenant. 14 But as for an uncircumcised male, one who is not circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin, that person shall be (AM)cut off from his people; he has broken My covenant.”

15 Then God said to Abraham, “As for your wife Sarai, you shall not call her by the name [ab]Sarai, but [ac]Sarah shall be her name. 16 I will bless her, and indeed I will give you (AN)a son by her. Then I will bless her, and she shall be a mother of nations; (AO)kings of peoples will [ad]come from her.” 17 Then Abraham (AP)fell on his face and laughed, and said in his heart, “Will a child be born to a man a hundred years old? And (AQ)will Sarah, who is ninety years old, give birth to a child?” 18 And Abraham said to God, “Oh that Ishmael might live before You!” 19 But God said, “No, but your wife Sarah will bear you (AR)a son, and you shall name him [ae]Isaac; and (AS)I will establish My covenant with him as an everlasting covenant for his [af]descendants after him. 20 As for Ishmael, I have heard you; behold, I will bless him, and (AT)make him fruitful and multiply him exceedingly. (AU)He shall father twelve princes, and I will make him into a (AV)great nation. 21 But I will establish My covenant with (AW)Isaac, whom (AX)Sarah will bear to you at this season next year.” 22 When He finished talking with him, (AY)God went up from Abraham.

23 Then Abraham took his son Ishmael, and all the slaves who were (AZ)born in his house and all who were bought with his money, every male among the men of Abraham’s household, and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin on this very same day, (BA)as God had said to him. 24 Now Abraham was ninety-nine years old when (BB)he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 25 And his son (BC)Ishmael was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. 26 On this very same day Abraham was circumcised, as well as his son Ishmael. 27 And all the men of his household, those who were (BD)born in the house or bought with money from a foreigner, were circumcised with him.

Birth of Isaac Promised

18 Now (BE)the Lord appeared to [ag]Abraham by the [ah](BF)oaks of Mamre, while he was sitting at the tent door in the heat of the day. When he raised his eyes and looked, behold, three (BG)men were standing opposite him; and when he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed down to the ground, and said, “[ai]My Lord, if now I have found favor in Your sight, please do not [aj]pass Your servant by. Please let a little water be brought and (BH)wash [ak]your feet, and make yourselves comfortable under the tree; and I will [al](BI)bring a piece of bread, so that you may [am]refresh yourselves; after that you may go on, since you have [an]visited your servant.” And they said, “So do as you have said.” So Abraham hurried into the tent to Sarah, and said, “[ao]Quickly, prepare three [ap]measures of fine flour, knead it, and make bread cakes.” Abraham also ran to the herd, and took a tender and [aq]choice calf and gave it to the servant, and he hurried to prepare it. He took curds and milk and the calf which he had prepared, and set it before them; and he was standing by them under the tree [ar]as they ate.

Then they said to him, “Where is your wife Sarah?” And he said, “There, in the tent.” 10 He said, “(BJ)I will certainly return to you [as]at this time next year; and behold, your wife Sarah will have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door, which was behind him. 11 Now (BK)Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in age; Sarah was (BL)past [at]childbearing. 12 So Sarah laughed [au]to herself, saying, “(BM)After I have become old, am I to have pleasure, my (BN)lord being old also?” 13 But the Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh, saying, ‘Shall I actually give birth to a child, when I am so old?’ 14 (BO)Is anything too [av]difficult for the Lord? At the (BP)appointed time I will return to you, [aw]at this time next year, and Sarah will have a son.” 15 Sarah denied it, however, saying, “I did not laugh”; for she was afraid. And He said, “No, but you did laugh.”

16 Then (BQ)the men rose up from there, and looked down toward Sodom; and Abraham was walking with them to send them off. 17 (BR)The Lord said, “Shall I hide from Abraham (BS)what I am about to do, 18 since Abraham will certainly become a great and [ax]mighty nation, and in him (BT)all the nations of the earth will be blessed? 19 For I have [ay](BU)chosen him, so that he may (BV)command his children and his household after him to (BW)keep the way of the Lord by doing righteousness and justice, so that the Lord may bring upon Abraham (BX)what He has spoken about him.” 20 And the Lord said, “(BY)The outcry of Sodom and Gomorrah is indeed great, and their sin is exceedingly grave. 21 I will (BZ)go down now and see whether they have done entirely as the outcry, which has come to Me indicates; and if not, I will know.”

Abraham Appeals for Sodom

22 Then (CA)the men turned away from there and went toward Sodom, while Abraham was still standing before (CB)the Lord. 23 Abraham approached and said, “(CC)Will You indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked? 24 Suppose there are fifty righteous people within the city; will You indeed sweep it away and not [az]spare the place for the sake of the fifty righteous who are in it? 25 Far be it from You to do [ba]such a thing, to kill the righteous with the wicked, so that the righteous and the wicked are treated alike. Far be it from You! Shall not (CD)the Judge of all the earth [bb]deal justly?” 26 So the Lord said, “(CE)If I find in Sodom fifty righteous within the city, then I will [bc]spare the entire place on their account.” 27 And Abraham replied, “Now behold, I have [bd]ventured to speak to the Lord, although I am only (CF)dust and ashes. 28 Suppose the fifty righteous are lacking five, will You destroy the entire city because of five?” And He said, “I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there.” 29 And he spoke to Him yet again and said, “Suppose forty are found there?” And He said, “I will not do it on account of the forty.” 30 Then he said, “Oh may the Lord not be angry, and I shall speak; suppose thirty are found there?” And He said, “I will not do it if I find thirty there.” 31 And he said, “Now behold, I have [be]ventured to speak to the Lord; suppose twenty are found there?” And He said, “I will not destroy it on account of the twenty.” 32 Then he said, “(CG)Oh may the Lord not be angry, and I shall speak only this once: suppose ten are found there?” And He said, “I will not destroy it on account of the ten.” 33 As soon as He had finished speaking to Abraham (CH)the Lord departed, and Abraham returned to his place.


  1. Genesis 16:2 Lit be built from her
  2. Genesis 16:5 Lit breast
  3. Genesis 16:5 Lit eyes
  4. Genesis 16:5 Lit me and you
  5. Genesis 16:6 Lit hand
  6. Genesis 16:6 Lit eyes
  7. Genesis 16:9 Lit under her hands
  8. Genesis 16:10 Lit seed
  9. Genesis 16:10 Lit they shall not be counted for multitude
  10. Genesis 16:11 I.e., God hears
  11. Genesis 16:12 Lit before the face of; or opposite
  12. Genesis 16:13 Or You, God, see me
  13. Genesis 16:13 Heb Elroi
  14. Genesis 16:13 Lit His seeing me
  15. Genesis 16:14 I.e., the well of the living one who sees me
  16. Genesis 16:16 Lit Abram
  17. Genesis 17:1 Heb El Shaddai
  18. Genesis 17:1 Lit complete, perfect; or having integrity
  19. Genesis 17:2 Lit give
  20. Genesis 17:5 I.e., exalted father
  21. Genesis 17:5 I.e., father of a multitude
  22. Genesis 17:7 Lit seed
  23. Genesis 17:7 Lit seed
  24. Genesis 17:8 Lit seed
  25. Genesis 17:9 Lit seed
  26. Genesis 17:10 Lit seed
  27. Genesis 17:12 Lit seed
  28. Genesis 17:15 I.e., princess
  29. Genesis 17:15 I.e., princess (in another dialect)
  30. Genesis 17:16 Lit be
  31. Genesis 17:19 I.e., he laughs
  32. Genesis 17:19 Lit seed
  33. Genesis 18:1 Lit him
  34. Genesis 18:1 Or terebinths
  35. Genesis 18:3 Or O Lord
  36. Genesis 18:3 Lit pass away from Your servant
  37. Genesis 18:4 I.e., referring to the three visitors
  38. Genesis 18:5 Lit take
  39. Genesis 18:5 Lit sustain your heart
  40. Genesis 18:5 Lit come to
  41. Genesis 18:6 Lit Hasten three measures
  42. Genesis 18:6 Heb seah; one seah is about 7 qt. or 7.7 liters
  43. Genesis 18:7 Lit good
  44. Genesis 18:8 Lit and
  45. Genesis 18:10 Lit when the time revives
  46. Genesis 18:11 Lit the way of women
  47. Genesis 18:12 Lit within
  48. Genesis 18:14 Or wonderful
  49. Genesis 18:14 Lit when the time revives
  50. Genesis 18:18 Or populous
  51. Genesis 18:19 Lit known
  52. Genesis 18:24 Or forgive
  53. Genesis 18:25 Lit like this thing
  54. Genesis 18:25 Lit do justice
  55. Genesis 18:26 Or forgive
  56. Genesis 18:27 Or resolved
  57. Genesis 18:31 Or resolved

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