Bible Book List

Zechariah 6-10 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 6

Seventh Vision: Four Chariots. Again I raised my eyes and saw four chariots[a] coming out from between two mountains; and the mountains were of bronze. The first chariot had red horses, the second chariot black horses, the third chariot white horses, and the fourth chariot dappled horses—all of them strong horses. I asked the angel who spoke with me, “What are these, my lord?” The angel answered me, “These are the four winds of the heavens,[b] which are coming forth after presenting themselves before the Lord of all the earth. The one with the black horses is going toward the land of the north, and the white horses go toward the west, and the dappled ones go toward the land of the south.” These strong horses went out, eager to set about patrolling the earth, for he said, “Go, patrol the earth!” So they patrolled the earth. Then he cried out to me and said, “See, those who go forth to the land of the north provide rest for my spirit in the land of the north.”[c]

The Crowning. Then the word of the Lord came to me: 10 Take from the exiles—Heldai, Tobijah, Jedaiah—and go the same day to the house of Josiah, son of Zephaniah. (These had come from Babylon.) 11 You will take silver and gold, and make crowns;[d] place one on the head of Joshua, son of Jehozadak, the high priest. 12 And say to him: Thus says the Lord of hosts: There is a man whose name is Branch[e]—and from his place he will branch out and he will build the temple of the Lord. 13 He will build the temple of the Lord, and taking up the royal insignia, he will sit as ruler upon his throne. The priest will be at his right hand, and between the two of them there will be peaceful understanding.[f] 14 The other crown will be in the temple of the Lord as a gracious reminder to Heldai, Tobijah, Jedaiah, and the son of Zephaniah. 15 And they who are from afar will come and build the temple of the Lord, and you will know that the Lord of hosts has sent me to you. This will happen if you truly obey the Lord your God.

Chapter 7

A Question About Fasting. In the fourth year of Darius the king, the word of the Lord came to Zechariah, on the fourth day of the ninth month, Kislev.[g] Bethelsarezer sent Regem-melech and his men to implore the favor of the Lord and to ask the priests of the house of the Lord of hosts, and the prophets, “Must I weep and abstain in the fifth month[h] as I have been doing these many years?” Then the word of the Lord of hosts came to me: Say to all the people of the land and to the priests: When you fasted and lamented in the fifth and in the seventh month[i] these seventy years, was it really for me that you fasted? When you were eating and drinking, was it not for yourselves that you ate and for yourselves that you drank?

Are these not the words which the Lord proclaimed through the earlier prophets,[j] when Jerusalem and its surrounding cities were inhabited and secure, when the Negeb and the Shephelah were inhabited? The word of the Lord came to Zechariah: Thus says the Lord of hosts: Judge with true justice, and show kindness and compassion toward each other. 10 Do not oppress the widow or the orphan, the resident alien or the poor;[k] do not plot evil against one another in your hearts. 11 But they refused to listen; they stubbornly turned their backs and stopped their ears so as not to hear. 12 And they made their hearts as hard as diamond so as not to hear the instruction and the words that the Lord of hosts had sent by his spirit through the earlier prophets. So great anger came from the Lord of hosts: 13 Just as when I called out and they did not listen, so they will call out and I will not listen, says the Lord of hosts. 14 And I will scatter them among all the nations that they do not know. So the land was left desolate behind them with no one moving about, and they made a pleasant land into a wasteland.

Chapter 8

Seven Oracles: Judah and Zion Restored. Then the word of the Lord of hosts came: Thus says the Lord of hosts:

I am intensely jealous for Zion,
    stirred to jealous wrath for her.

Thus says the Lord:

I have returned to Zion,
    and I will dwell within Jerusalem;
Jerusalem will be called the faithful city,[l]
    and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, the holy mountain.

Thus says the Lord of hosts:

Old men and old women will again sit in the streets of Jerusalem, each with staff in hand because of old age. The city will be filled with boys and girls playing in its streets.

Thus says the Lord of hosts:

Even if this should seem impossible in the eyes of the remnant of this people in those days, should it seem impossible in my eyes also?—oracle of the Lord of hosts.

Thus says the Lord of hosts:

I am going to rescue my people from the land of the rising sun, and from the land of the setting sun. I will bring them back to dwell within Jerusalem. They will be my people, and I will be their God, in faithfulness and justice.

Thus says the Lord of hosts:

Let your hands be strong, you who now hear these words which were spoken by the prophets when the foundation of the house of the Lord of hosts was laid[m] for the building of the temple. 10 For before those days, there were no wages for people, nor hire for animals. Those who came and went were not safe from the enemy, for I set neighbor against neighbor. 11 But now I will not deal with the remnant of this people as in former days—oracle of the Lord of hosts.

12 For there will be a sowing of peace:
    the vine will yield its fruit,
    the land will yield its crops,
    and the heavens[n] will yield their dew.

I will give all these things to the remnant of this people to possess. 13 Just as you became a curse among the nations, O house of Judah and house of Israel, so will I save you that you may be a blessing. Do not fear; let your hands be strong.

14 Thus says the Lord of hosts:

Just as I intended to harm you when your ancestors angered me—says the Lord of hosts—and I did not relent, 15 so again in these days I intend to favor Jerusalem and the house of Judah; do not fear! 16 These then are the things you must do: Speak the truth to one another; judge with honesty and complete justice in your gates.[o] 17 Let none of you plot evil against another in your heart, nor love a false oath. For all these things I hate—oracle of the Lord.

Three Oracles: Judah and the Nations. 18 The word of the Lord of hosts came to me:

19 Thus says the Lord of hosts:

The fast days of the fourth, the fifth, the seventh, and the tenth months[p] will become occasions of joy and gladness, and happy festivals for the house of Judah. So love faithfulness and peace!

20 Thus says the Lord of hosts:

There will yet come peoples and inhabitants of many cities; 21 and the inhabitants of one city will approach those of another, and say, “Come! let us go to implore the favor of the Lord and to seek the Lord of hosts. I too am going.” 22 Many peoples and strong nations will come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem and to implore the favor of the Lord.

23 Thus says the Lord of hosts:

In those days ten people from nations of every language will take hold, yes, will take hold of the cloak of every Judahite and say, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that God is with you.”

Chapter 9

Restoration of the Land of Israel[q]

An oracle:[r] the word of the Lord is against the land of Hadrach,
    and Damascus is its destination,
For the cities of Aram are the Lord’s,
    as are all the tribes of Israel.
Hamath also on its border,
    Tyre too, and Sidon, no matter how clever they be.
Tyre built itself a stronghold,
    and heaped up silver like dust,
    and gold like the mud of the streets.
But now the Lord will dispossess it,
    and cast its wealth into the sea,
    and it will be devoured by fire.
Ashkelon will see it and be afraid;
    Gaza too will be in great anguish;
    Ekron also, for its hope will wither.
The king will disappear from Gaza,
    Ashkelon will not be inhabited,
    and the illegitimate will rule in Ashdod.
I will destroy the pride of the Philistines
    and take from their mouths their bloody prey,
    their disgusting meat from between their teeth.
They will become merely a remnant for our God,
    and will be like a clan in Judah;
    Ekron will be like the Jebusites.[s]
I will encamp at my house,
    a garrison against invaders;
No oppressor will overrun them again,
    for now I have seen their affliction.

The King’s Entry into Jerusalem[t]

Exult greatly, O daughter Zion!
    Shout for joy, O daughter Jerusalem!
Behold: your king[u] is coming to you,
    a just savior is he,
Humble, and riding on a donkey,
    on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
10 He shall banish the chariot from Ephraim,
    and the horse from Jerusalem;
The warrior’s bow will be banished,
    and he will proclaim peace to the nations.
His dominion will be from sea to sea,
    and from the River[v] to the ends of the earth.

Restoration of the People

11 As for you, by the blood of your covenant,[w]
    I have freed your prisoners from a waterless pit.
12 Return to a fortress,[x]
    O prisoners of hope;
This very day, I announce
    I am restoring double to you.
13 For I have bent Judah as my bow,
    I have set Ephraim as its arrow;
I will arouse your sons, O Zion,
    against your sons, O Yavan,[y]
    and I will use you as a warrior’s sword.
14 The Lord will appear over them,
    God’s arrow will shoot forth as lightning;
The Lord God will sound the ram’s horn,
    and come in a storm from the south.
15 The Lord of hosts will protect them;
    they will devour and conquer with sling stones,
    they will drink and become heated as with wine;
    they will be full like bowls—like the corners of the altar.
16 And the Lord their God will save them:
    the people, like a flock on that day;
For like gemstones of a crown[z]
    they will shine on the land.
17 Then how good and how lovely!
    Grain will make the young men flourish,
    and new wine the young women.

Chapter 10

The Lord Strengthens Judah and Rescues Ephraim

Ask the Lord for rain in the spring season,
    the Lord who brings storm clouds, and heavy rains,
    who gives to everyone grain in the fields.
For the teraphim[aa] have spoken nonsense,
    the diviners have seen false visions;
Deceitful dreams they have told,
    empty comfort they have offered.
This is why they wandered like sheep,
    wretched, for they have no shepherd.
My wrath is kindled against the shepherds,[ab]
    and I will punish the leaders.
For the Lord of hosts attends to the flock, the house of Judah,
    and will make them like a splendid horse in battle.
From them will come the tower,
    from them the tent peg,
    from them the bow of war,
    from them every officer.
Together they will be like warriors,
    trampling the mud of the streets in battle.
They will wage war because the Lord is with them,
    and will put the horsemen to shame.
I will strengthen the house of Judah,
    the house of Joseph[ac] I will save;
I will bring them back, because I have mercy on them;
    they will be as if I had never cast them off,
    for I am the Lord their God, and I will answer them.
Then Ephraim will be like a hero,
    and their hearts will be cheered as by wine.
Their children will see and rejoice—
    their hearts will exult in the Lord.
I will whistle for them and gather them in;
    for I will redeem them
    and they will be as numerous as before.[ad]
I sowed them among the nations,
    yet in distant lands they will remember me;
    they will bear their children and return.
10 I will bring them back from the land of Egypt,
    and gather them from Assyria.
To the land of Gilead and to Lebanon I will bring them,
    until no room is found for them.
11 I will cross over to Egypt
    and smite the waves of the sea,
    and all the depths of the Nile will dry up.
The pride of Assyria will be cast down,
    and the scepter of Egypt disappear.
12 I will strengthen them in the Lord,
    in whose name they will walk—oracle of the Lord.


  1. 6:1 Four chariots: vehicles with horses of four different colors (vv. 2–3) represent God’s presence throughout the world and correspond to the four horses of 1:7–11.
  2. 6:5 Four winds of the heavens: four compass directions and therefore the whole world.
  3. 6:8 Land of the north: the enemy (cf. 2:10). This emphasis on the land of the north refers to the fact that God will deal with Israel’s foes and order will be re-established.
  4. 6:11 Crowns: two crowns made of precious metals and representing two high offices (compare the symbolism of the two olive trees in 4:14). One crown is for the high priest Joshua, who, with the governor Zerubbabel, was one of the recognized rulers of the Persian province of Judah. The other crown would have been for a royal ruler, a Davidic descendant. Zerubbabel was a Davidide but could not be king because the Persians would not allow such autonomy. The second crown was thus put in storage in the Temple (v. 14) for the crowning of a future king, or “branch” (see 3:8), from the house of David.
  5. 6:12 Branch: future Davidic ruler. See note on 3:8.
  6. 6:13 Peaceful understanding: harmonious rule of both the high priest and the king.
  7. 7:1 The fourth year of Darius…the ninth month, Kislev: December 7, 518 B.C., the last chronological heading in Zechariah.
  8. 7:3 Weep…fifth month: a mourning ritual commemorating the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple on the seventh day of the fifth month in the nineteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar’s reign (ca. 587/586 B.C.; see 2 Kgs 25:8).
  9. 7:5 Seventh month: the time of a fast in memory of the murder of Gedaliah, the governor installed by the Babylonians after they conquered Jerusalem (see 2 Kgs 25:25; Jer 41:1–3). Seventy years: see note on 1:12.
  10. 7:7, 12 Earlier prophets: see note on 1:4.
  11. 7:10 Widow…orphan…resident alien…poor: four categories of socially and economically marginalized persons. Concern for their well-being is commanded in both pentateuchal and prophetic literature.
  12. 8:3 Faithful city: a unique biblical epithet for Jerusalem, signaling the importance of the holy city and its leaders for establishing justice in society (see also vv. 8, 16, 19). Holy mountain: Jerusalem and its Temple, the sacred center of the holy land (2:16) and of the whole world.
  13. 8:9 When the foundation…was laid: December 18, 520 B.C., the date of the Temple refoundation ceremony, marking the beginning of the project to restore the Temple (see Hg 2:10, 18, 20).
  14. 8:12 Vine…land…heavens: future prosperity, reversing the hardships of Hg 1:10.
  15. 8:16 Gates: important gathering places in ancient Near Eastern cities, where legal proceedings were often carried out.
  16. 8:19 Fast days of the fourth, the fifth, the seventh, and the tenth months: all these fast days were probably held in connection with Jerusalem’s demise. The fasts of the fourth month (commemorating the departure of Judahite leadership from Jerusalem, 2 Kgs 25:3–7) and of the tenth month (marking the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem, 2 Kgs 25:1) were added to the fasts of the fifth and seventh months mentioned in Zec 7:3 and 5 (see notes).
  17. 9:1–8 The opening verses of Second Zechariah delineate the ideal boundaries of a restored Israel. Echoing the ideas of Haggai and First Zechariah (chaps. 1–8), the prophet reiterates the notion that the rebuilt Temple will bring about peace. The areas to be returned to Israel include Syria (Aram), with the cities of Hadrach and Damascus; Phoenicia, with the cities of Tyre and Sidon; and Philistia, with the cities of Ashkelon, Gaza, Ekron, and Ashdod.
  18. 9:1 An oracle: this designation also introduces Zec 12:1 and Mal 1:1, suggesting a connection among the three units. The term functions as both a title to the larger literary unit (Zec 9–11) and a part of the message of the opening oracular statement.
  19. 9:7 The Jebusites: the pre-Israelite inhabitants of Jerusalem, conquered by David and incorporated into Israel.
  20. 9:9–10 These two verses form the centerpiece of chap. 9. The restoration of a royal figure connects the first part of the chapter (vv. 1–8), which depicts the restored land of Israel, with the second part (vv. 11–17), which concerns the restoration of the people Israel.
  21. 9:9 Your king: a just savior, a figure of humble demeanor, but riding on a donkey like royalty in the ancient Near East (Gn 49:11; Jgs 5:10; 10:4). The announcement of the coming of such a king marks a departure from the view of the royal figure as a conquering warrior. This depiction is in keeping with the tone of First Zechariah (3:8; 4:6–10; 6:12) but contrasts with Haggai (2:20–23). New Testament authors apply this prophecy to Jesus’ triumphant entry into Jerusalem (Mt 21:4–5; Jn 12:14–15).
  22. 9:10 The River: probably the Euphrates; see note on Ps 72:8.
  23. 9:11 The blood of your covenant: the covenant between the Lord and Israel sealed with sacrificial blood (Ex 24:8).
  24. 9:12 Fortress: the Hebrew word for “fortress” (bissaron) plays upon the Hebrew word for Zion (siyyon). Those who return to Zion will be protected by the Lord. O prisoners of hope: imagery of exile, conveying a sense that the future in Israel will be better.
  25. 9:13 Your sons, O Yavan: the reference is to the Greeks and their struggle with the Persians for control of Syria-Palestine and the eastern Mediterranean in the mid-fifth century B.C.
  26. 9:16 Like gemstones of a crown: imagery reminiscent of First Zechariah (3:9; 4:7, 10; 6:11, 14) and evocative of the Temple and the priestly headgear (cf. Ex 29:6 and Lv 8:9).
  27. 10:2 Teraphim: household idols or cult objects (see Gn 31:19, 30–35; Jgs 17:5; 1 Sm 19:11–17), or ancestor statuettes (see 2 Kgs 23:24; Hos 3:4).
  28. 10:3 Against the shepherds: bad leaders or false prophets.
  29. 10:6 The house of Joseph: represents the Northern Kingdom (Israel), as does Ephraim in v. 7 below.
  30. 10:8 Gather them in…be as numerous as before: God’s intention is to bring back the exiles and redeem them as at the time of the exodus. This image, resumed in vv. 10–11, anticipates an expanded population, echoes the ancestral promise (Gn 1:22, 28; 9:1, 7; 35:11), and also suggests an awareness of the acute demographic decline of Jews in Palestine in the Persian period.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Ben Sira 50:14-29 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

14 Once he had completed the service at the altar
    and arranged the sacrificial hearth for the Most High,
15 And had stretched forth his hand for the cup,
    to offer blood of the grape,
And poured it out at the foot of the altar,
    a sweet-smelling odor to God the Most High,
16 Then the sons of Aaron would sound a blast,
    the priests, on their trumpets of beaten metal;
A blast to resound mightily
    as a reminder before the Most High.
17 All the people with one accord
    would fall with face to the ground
In adoration before the Most High,
    before the Holy One of Israel.

18 Then hymns would re-echo,
    and over the throng sweet strains of praise resound.
19 All the people of the land would shout for joy,
    praying to the Merciful One,
As the high priest completed the service at the altar
    by presenting to God the fitting sacrifice.
20 Then coming down he would raise his hands
    over all the congregation of Israel;
The blessing of the Lord would be upon his lips,
    the name of the Lord would be his glory.
21 The people would again fall down
    to receive the blessing of the Most High.

22 And now, bless the God of all,[a]
    who has done wonders on earth;
Who fosters growth from the womb,
    fashioning it according to his will!
23 May he grant you a wise heart
    and abide with you in peace;
24 May his goodness toward Simeon last forever;
    may he fulfill for him the covenant with Phinehas
So that it may not be abrogated for him
    or his descendants while the heavens last.


25 My whole being loathes two nations,
    the third is not even a people:[b]
26 The inhabitants of Seir[c] and Philistia,
    and the foolish people who dwell in Shechem.

27 Wise instruction, appropriate proverbs,[d]
    I have written in this book—
I, Yeshua Ben Eleazar Ben Sira—
    as they poured forth from my heart’s understanding.
28 Happy those who meditate upon these things;
    wise those who take them to heart!
29 If they put them into practice, they can cope with anything,
    for the fear of the Lord is their lamp.


  1. 50:22–24 Ben Sira urges the reader to praise and bless God for his wondrous works and then invokes a blessing on all that they may enjoy peace and gladness of heart and the abiding goodness of the Most High.
  2. 50:25 Not even a people: the Samaritans.
  3. 50:26 Seir: Mount Seir in the territory of the Edomites. Shechem: a city in Samaria.
  4. 50:27 This colophon may have been the original ending of the book. It is unusual for a biblical writer to append his name.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Colossians 1:15-23 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

II. The Preeminence of Christ

His Person and Work

15 [a]He is the image[b] of the invisible God,
    the firstborn of all creation.
16 For in him[c] were created all things in heaven and on earth,
    the visible and the invisible,
    whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers;
    all things were created through him and for him.
17 He is before all things,
    and in him all things hold together.
18 He is the head of the body, the church.[d]
    He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead,
    that in all things he himself might be preeminent.
19 For in him all the fullness[e] was pleased to dwell,
20 and through him to reconcile all things for him,
    making peace by the blood of his cross[f]
    [through him], whether those on earth or those in heaven.

21 [g]And you who once were alienated and hostile in mind because of evil deeds 22 he has now reconciled in his fleshly body through his death, to present you holy, without blemish, and irreproachable before him, 23 provided that you persevere in the faith, firmly grounded, stable, and not shifting from the hope of the gospel that you heard, which has been preached to every creature under heaven, of which I, Paul, am a minister.

Christ in Us.[h]


  1. 1:15–20 As the poetic arrangement indicates, these lines are probably an early Christian hymn, known to the Colossians and taken up into the letter from liturgical use (cf. Phil 2:6–11; 1 Tm 3:16). They present Christ as the mediator of creation (Col 1:15–18a) and of redemption (Col 1:18b–20). There is a parallelism between firstborn of all creation (Col 1:15) and firstborn from the dead (Col 1:18). While many of the phrases were at home in Greek philosophical use and even in gnosticism, the basic ideas also reflect Old Testament themes about Wisdom found in Prv 8:22–31; Wis 7:22–8:1; and Sir 1:4. See also notes on what is possibly a hymn in Jn 1:1–18.
  2. 1:15 Image: cf. Gn 1:27. Whereas the man and the woman were originally created in the image and likeness of God (see also Gn 1:26), Christ as image (2 Cor 4:4) of the invisible God (Jn 1:18) now shares this new nature in baptism with those redeemed (cf. Col 3:10–11).
  3. 1:16–17 Christ (though not mentioned by name) is preeminent and supreme as God’s agent in the creation of all things (cf. Jn 1:3), as prior to all things (Col 1:17; cf. Hb 1:3).
  4. 1:18 Church: such a reference seemingly belongs under “redemption” in the following lines, not under the “creation” section of the hymn. Stoic thought sometimes referred to the world as “the body of Zeus.” Pauline usage is to speak of the church as the body of Christ (1 Cor 12:12–27; Rom 12:4–5). Some think that the author of Colossians has inserted the reference to the church here so as to define “head of the body” in Paul’s customary way. See Col 1:24. Preeminent: when Christ was raised by God as firstborn from the dead (cf. Acts 26:23; Rev 1:5), he was placed over the community, the church, that he had brought into being, but he is also indicated as crown of the whole new creation, over all things. His further role is to reconcile all things (Col 1:20) for God or possibly “to himself.”
  5. 1:19 Fullness: in gnostic usage this term referred to a spiritual world of beings above, between God and the world; many later interpreters take it to refer to the fullness of the deity (Col 2:9); the reference could also be to the fullness of grace (cf. Jn 1:16).
  6. 1:20 The blood of his cross: the most specific reference in the hymn to redemption through Christ’s death, a central theme in Paul; cf. Col 2:14–15; 1 Cor 1:17, 18, 23. [Through him]: the phrase, lacking in some manuscripts, seems superfluous but parallels the reference to reconciliation through Christ earlier in the verse.
  7. 1:21–23 Paul, in applying this hymn to the Colossians, reminds them that they have experienced the reconciling effect of Christ’s death. He sees the effects of the cross in the redemption of human beings, not of cosmic powers such as those referred to in Col 1:16, 20 (all things). Paul also urges adherence to Christ in faith and begins to point to his own role as minister (Col 1:23), sufferer (Col 1:24), and proclaimer (Col 1:27–28) of this gospel.
  8. 1:24–2:3 As the community at Colossae was not personally known to Paul (see Introduction), he here invests his teaching with greater authority by presenting a brief sketch of his apostolic ministry and sufferings as they reflect those of Christ on behalf of the church (24). The preaching of God’s word (Col 1:25) carries out the divine plan (the mystery, Col 1:26) to make Christ known to the Gentiles (Col 1:27). It teaches the God-given wisdom about Christ (Col 1:28), whose power works mightily in the apostle (Col 1:29). Even in those communities that do not know him personally (Col 2:1), he can increase the perception of God in Christ, unite the faithful more firmly in love, and so bring encouragement to them (Col 2:2). He hopes that his apostolic authority will make the Colossians perceive more readily the defects in the teaching of others who have sought to delude them, the next concern in the letter.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.


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