11 1 Lest the casting off of the Jews should be limited according to the outward appearance, 4 he showeth that Elijah was in times past decieved: 16 and that, seeing they have an holy root, 23 many of them likewise shall be holy. 18, 24 He exhorteth the Gentiles to be humble, 33 and crieth out, that God’s judgments are unsearchable.

I Demand then, [a]Hath God cast away his people? God forbid: for [b]I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin.

[c]God hath not cast away his people which he [d]knew before. [e]Know ye not what the Scripture saith of Elijah, how he communeth with God against Israel, saying,

(A)Lord, they have killed thy Prophets, and dug down thine Altars: and I am left alone, and they seek my life?

But what saith the answer of God to him? (B)I have [f]reserved unto myself seven thousand men, which have not bowed the knee to [g]Baal.

Even so then, at this present time is there a remnant according to the [h]election of grace.

[i]And if it be of grace, it is [j]no more of works: or else were grace no more grace: but if it be of works, it is no more grace: or else were work no more work.

What then? Israel hath not obtained that he sought: but the election hath obtained it, and the rest have been [k]hardened,

[l]According as it is written, (C)God hath given them the spirit of [m]slumber: eyes that they [n]should not see, and ears that they should not hear unto this day.

And David saith, (D)[o]Let their table be made a snare, and a net, and a stumbling block, even for a recompense unto them.

10 Let their eyes be darkened that they see not, and bow down their back always.

11 [p]I demand then, Have they stumbled, that they should fall? God forbid: but through their fall, salvation cometh unto the Gentiles, to provoke them to follow them.

12 Wherefore if the fall of them be the [q]riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles, how much more shall their [r]abundance be?

13 [s]For in that I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the Apostle of the Gentiles, I [t]magnify mine office,

14 To try if by any means I might provoke them of my flesh to follow them, and might save some of them.

15 For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving be, [u]but life from the dead?

16 [v]For if the [w]firstfruits be holy, so is the whole lump: and if the [x]root be holy, so are the branches.

17 (E)[y]And though some of the branches be broken off, and thou being a wild Olive tree, wast grafted in [z]for them, and made [aa]partaker of the root and fatness of the Olive tree:

18 [ab]Boast not thyself against the branches: and if thou boast thyself, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee.

19 Thou wilt say then, The branches are broken off, that I might be grafted in.

20 Well: through unbelief they are broken off, and thou standest by faith: be not high-minded, but [ac]fear.

21 For if God spared not the [ad]natural branches, take heed, lest he also spare not thee.

22 [ae]Behold therefore the [af]bountifulness, and severity of God: toward them which have fallen, severity: but toward thee, bountifulness, if thou continue in his [ag]bountifulness: or else thou shalt also be cut off.

23 [ah]And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be grafted in: for God is able to graft them in again.

24 For if thou wast cut out of the Olive tree, which was wild by [ai]nature, and was grafted contrary to nature in a [aj]right Olive tree, how much more shall they that are by nature, be grafted in their own Olive tree?

25 [ak]For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this secret (lest ye should be arrogant in [al]yourselves) that partly obstinacy is come to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be [am]come in.

26 And so all Israel shall be saved, as it is written, (F)The deliverer shall come out of Zion, and shall turn away the ungodliness from Jacob.

27 And this is my covenant to them, (G)When I shall take away their sins.

28 [an]As concerning the [ao]Gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the [ap]election, they are beloved for the fathers’ sakes.

29 [aq]For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance.

30 [ar]For even as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy through their unbelief:

31 Even so now have they not believed by the mercy showed unto you, that they also may obtain mercy.

32 For God hath shut up [as]all in unbelief, that he might have mercy on all.

33 [at]O the deepness of the riches, both of the wisdom, and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his [au]judgments, and his [av]ways past finding out!

34 (H)[aw]For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who was his counselor?

35 Or who hath given unto him [ax]first, and he shall be recompensed?

36 For of him, and through him, and for [ay]him are all things: to him be glory forever. Amen.


  1. Romans 11:1 Now the Apostle showeth how this doctrine is to be applied to others, abiding still in his propounded cause. Therefore he teacheth us that all the Jews in particular are not cast away, and therefore we ought not to pronounce rashly of private persons, whether they be of the number of the elect or not.
  2. Romans 11:1 The first proof, I am a Jew, and yet elected, therefore we may and ought fully to resolve upon our election, as hath been before said: but of another man’s we cannot be so certainly resolved, and yet ours may cause us to hope well of others.
  3. Romans 11:2 The second proof: Because that God is faithful in his league or Covenant, although men be unfaithful: So then seeing that God hath said, that he will be the God of his unto a thousand generations, we must take heed, that we think not that the whole race and offspring is cast off, by reason of the unbelief of a few, but rather, that we hope well of every member of the Church, because of God’s league and Covenant.
  4. Romans 11:2 Which he loved and chose from everlasting.
  5. Romans 11:2 The third proof, taken from the answer that was made to Elijah: even then also, when there appeared openly to the face of the world no elect, yet God knew his elect and chosen, and of them also good store and number. Whereupon this also is concluded, that we ought not rashly to pronounce of any man as of a reprobate, seeing that the Church is oftentimes brought to that state, that even the most watchful and sharp-sighted pastors think it to be clean extinct and put out.
  6. Romans 11:4 He speaketh of remnants and reserved people which were chosen from everlasting, and not of remnants that should be chosen afterward: for they are not chosen, because they were not idolaters, but therefore they were not idolaters, because they were chosen and elect.
  7. Romans 11:4 Baal signifieth as much as Master or patron, or one in whose power another is, which name the idolaters at this day give their idols, naming them patrons, and patronesses or Ladies.
  8. Romans 11:5 The election of grace, is not whereby men chose grace, but whereby God chose us of his grace and goodness.
  9. Romans 11:6 Although that all be not elect and chosen, yet let them that are elected, remember that they are freely chosen, and let them that stubbornly refuse the grace and free mercy of God, impute it unto themselves.
  10. Romans 11:6 This saying beateth down flat to the ground all the doctrine of all kinds and manner of works, whereby our justifiers of themselves do teach, that works are either wholly or partly the cause of our justification.
  11. Romans 11:7 See Mark 3:5.
  12. Romans 11:8 And yet this hardness of heart cometh not but by God’s just decree and judgment, and yet without fault, whom as he so punisheth the unthankful by taking from them all sense and perseverance and by doubling their darkness, that the benefits of God which are offered unto them, do redound to their just destruction.
  13. Romans 11:8 A very dead sleep which taketh away all sense.
  14. Romans 11:8 That is, eyes unjust to see.
  15. Romans 11:9 As unhappy birds are enticed to death by that which is their sustenance, so did that only thing turn to the Jews’ destruction, out of which they sought life, to wit, the Law of God, for the preposterous zeal whereof they refused the Gospel.
  16. Romans 11:11 God appointed this casting out of the Jews, that it might be an occasion to call the Gentiles: and again might turn this calling of the Gentiles, to be an occasion to restore the Jews, to wit, that they being inflamed and provoked by emulation of the Gentiles, might themselves at length embrace the Gospel. And hereby we may learn, that the severity of God serveth as well for the setting forth of his glory as his mercy doth, and also that God prepares himself a way to mercy, by his severity, so that we ought not rashly to despair of any man, nor proudly triumph over other men, but rather provoke them to an holy emulation, that God may be glorified in them also.
  17. Romans 11:12 By riches he meaneth the knowledge of the Gospel to everlasting life: and by the world, all nations dispersed throughout the whole world.
  18. Romans 11:12 Of the Jews, when the whole nation without exception shall come to Christ.
  19. Romans 11:13 He witnesseth by his own example, that he goeth before all others in this behalf.
  20. Romans 11:13 I make noble and famous.
  21. Romans 11:15 It shall come to pass that when the Jews come to the Gospel, the world shall as it were come quicken again, and rise up from death to life.
  22. Romans 11:16 The nation of the Jews being considered in their stock and root, that is, in Abraham, is holy, although that many of the branches be cut off. Therefore in judging of our brethren, we must not stick in their unworthiness, to think that they are at once all cast off, but we ought to consider the root of the Covenant, and rather go back to their ancestors which were faithful, that we may know that the blessing of the Covenant resteth in some of their posterity, as we also find proof hereof in ourselves.
  23. Romans 11:16 He alludeth to the firstfruits of the loaves by the offering whereof all the whole crop of corn was sanctified, and they might vie the rest of the year following with good conscience.
  24. Romans 11:16 Abraham.
  25. Romans 11:17 There is no cause why the Gentiles which have obtained mercy, should triumph over the Jews which condemn the grace of God, seeing they are grafted into the Jews’ ancestors. But let them rather take heed that that also be not found in them which is worthily condemned in the Jews. And hereof also this general doctrine may be gathered and taken, that we ought to be studious of God’s glory, even in respect of our neighbors: so far ought we to be from bragging and glorying, for that, that we are preferred before others by a singular grace.
  26. Romans 11:17 In place of those boughs which are broken off.
  27. Romans 11:17 It is against the common course of husbandry, that the barren juice of the imp is changed with the juice of the good tree.
  28. Romans 11:18 We may rejoice in the Lord, but so that we despise not the Jews, whom we ought rather to provoke to that good striving with us.
  29. Romans 11:20 See that thou stand in awe of God modestly and carefully.
  30. Romans 11:21 He calleth them natural, not because they had any holiness of nature, but because they were born of them, whom the Lord set apart for himself from, other nations, by his league and covenant which he freely made with them.
  31. Romans 11:22 Seeing the matter itself declareth that election cometh not by inheritance (although the fault be in men, and not in God, why the blessing of God is not perpetual) we must take good heed, that that be not found in ourselves, which we think blameworthy in others, for the election is sure, but they that are truly elect and ingrafted, are not proud in themselves with contempt of others, but with due reverence to God, and love towards their neighbor, run to the mark which is set before them.
  32. Romans 11:22 The tender and loving heart.
  33. Romans 11:22 In that state which God’s bountifulness hath advanced thee unto: and we must mark here, that he speaketh not of the election of every private man, which remaineth steadfast forever, but of the election of the whole nation.
  34. Romans 11:23 Many are now for a season cut off, that is, are without the root, which in their time shall be grafted in: and again there are a great sort, which after a sort, and touching the outward show, seem to be ingrafted, which notwithstanding through their own fault afterward are cut off and clean cast away: which thing is especially to be considered in nations and peoples, as in the Gentiles and Jews.
  35. Romans 11:24 Understand nature, not as it was first made, but as it was corrupted in Adam, and so derived from him to his posterity.
  36. Romans 11:24 Into the people of the Jews which God had sanctified of his mere grace: and he speaketh of the whole nation, not of every one part.
  37. Romans 11:25 The blindness of the Jews is neither so universal that the Lord hath no elect in that nation, neither shall it be continual: for there shall be a time wherein they also (as the Prophets have forewarned) shall effectually embrace that which they do now so stubbornly for the most part reject and refuse.
  38. Romans 11:25 That ye be not proud within yourselves.
  39. Romans 11:25 Into the Church.
  40. Romans 11:28 Again, that he may join the Jews and Gentiles together as it were in one body, and especially may teach what duty the Gentiles owe to the Jews, he beateth this into their heads, that the nation of the Jews is not utterly cast off without hope of recovery.
  41. Romans 11:28 Forasmuch as they received it not.
  42. Romans 11:28 In that, that God respecteth not what they deserve, but what he promised to Abraham.
  43. Romans 11:29 The reason or proof: because the covenant made with that nation of life everlasting, cannot be frustrate and vain.
  44. Romans 11:30 Another reason, because that although that they which are hardened, are worthily punished, yet hath not this stubbornness of the Jews so come to pass properly for an hatred to that nation, but that an entry might as it were be opened to bring in the Gentiles, and afterward the Jews being inflamed with emulation of this mercy which is showed to the Gentiles, might themselves also be partakers of the same benefit, and so it might appear that both Jews and Gentiles are saved, only by the free mercy and grace of God, which could not have been so manifest, if at the beginning, God had brought all together into the Church, or if he had saved the nation of the Jews without this interruption.
  45. Romans 11:32 Both Jews and Gentiles.
  46. Romans 11:33 The Apostle crieth not as astonished with this wonderful wisdom of God, which he teacheth us, ought to be religiously reverenced, and not curiously and profanely to be searched beyond the compass of that that God hath revealed unto us.
  47. Romans 11:33 The course that he holdeth in governing all things both generally and particularly.
  48. Romans 11:33 The order of his counsels and doings.
  49. Romans 11:34 He bridleth three manner of ways, the wicked boldness of man: First, because that God is above all, most wise, and therefore it is very absurd, and plainly godless to measure him by our folly. Moreover, because he is debtor to no man, and therefore no man can complain of injury done unto him. Thirdly, because all things are made for his glory, and therefore we must refer all things to his glory, much less may we contend and debate the matter with him.
  50. Romans 11:35 This saying overthroweth the doctrine of foreseen works and merits.
  51. Romans 11:36 To wit, for God, to whose glory all things are referred, not only things that were made, but especially his new works which he worketh in his elect.