Add parallel Print Page Options

18 So then,[a] God[b] has mercy on whom he chooses to have mercy, and he hardens whom he chooses to harden.[c]

19 You will say to me then, “Why does he still find fault? For who has ever resisted his will?” 20 But who indeed are you—a mere human being[d]—to talk back to God?[e] Does what is molded say to the molder, “Why have you made me like this?[f]

Read full chapter


  1. Romans 9:18 sn There is a double connective here that cannot be easily preserved in English: “consequently therefore,” emphasizing the conclusion of what he has been arguing.
  2. Romans 9:18 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  3. Romans 9:18 tn Grk “So then, he has mercy on whom he desires, and he hardens whom he desires.”
  4. Romans 9:20 tn Grk “O man.”
  5. Romans 9:20 tn Grk “On the contrary, O man, who are you to talk back to God?”
  6. Romans 9:20 sn A quotation from Isa 29:16; 45:9.