17 [a]For the [b]Scripture saith unto Pharaoh, (A)For this same purpose have [c]I stirred thee up, that I might [d]show my power in thee, and that my Name might be declared throughout all the earth.

18 [e]Therefore he hath mercy on whom he [f]will, and whom he will he hardeneth.

19 [g]Thou wilt say then unto me, Why doth he yet complain? for who hath resisted his will?

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Footnotes

  1. Romans 9:17 Now he answereth concerning the reprobate or them whom God hateth being not yet born, and hath appointed to destruction, without any respect of unworthiness. And first of all he proveth this to be true, by alleging the testimony of God himself touching Pharaoh, whom he stirred up to this purpose, that he might be glorified in his hardening and just punishing.
  2. Romans 9:17 God so speaketh unto Pharaoh in the Scripture, or, the Scripture bringeth in God, so speaking to Pharaoh, Exodus 9:16.
  3. Romans 9:17 Brought thee into this world.
  4. Romans 9:17 Secondly, he bringeth the end of God’s counsel, to show that there is no unrighteousness in him. Now this chiefest end, is not properly and simply the destruction of the wicked, but God’s glory which appeareth in their rightful punishment.
  5. Romans 9:18 A conclusion of the full answer to the first objection: therefore seeing that God doth not save them whom he freely chose according to his good will and pleasure, but by justifying and sanctifying them by his grace, his counsel in saving them cannot seem unjust. And again, there is not injustice in the everlasting counsel of God touching the destruction of them whom he listeth to destroy, for that he hardeneth before he destroyeth: Therefore the third answer for the maintenance of God’s justice is the everlasting counsel of reprobation, consisteth in this word Hardening: which notwithstanding he concealed in the former verse, because the History of Pharaoh was well known. But the force of the word is great: for Hardening, which is set against Mercy, presupposeth the same things that mercy did, to wit, a voluntary corruption, wherein the reprobate are hardened: and again corruption presupposeth a perfect state of creation. Moreover, this hardening also is voluntary, for God so hardeneth being offended with corruption, that he useth their own will whom he hardeneth, to the executing of that judgment. Then follow the fruits of Hardening, to wit, unbelief and sin, which are the true and proper causes of the condemnation of the reprobate. Why doth he then appoint to destruction? because he will: why doth he harden? because they are corrupt: why doth he condemn? because they are sinners. Where is then unrighteousness? Nay, if he should destroy all after this same sort, to whom should he do injury?
  6. Romans 9:18 Whom it pleased him to appoint, to show his favor upon.
  7. Romans 9:19 Another objection but only for the reprobate, rising upon the former answer. If God do appoint to everlasting destruction, such as he listeth, and if that cannot be hindered notwithstanded that he hath once decreed, how doth he justly condemn them, which perish by his will?

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