Israel’s Rejection of Christ

I speak the truth in Christ(A)—I am not lying; my conscience is testifying to me with the Holy Spirit[a] that I have intense sorrow and continual anguish in my heart. For I could almost wish(B) to be cursed(C) and cut off[b] from the Messiah for the benefit of my brothers, my own flesh and blood. They are Israelites,(D) and to them belong the adoption,(E) the glory,(F) the covenants,(G) the giving of the law,(H) the temple service,(I) and the promises.(J) The ancestors are theirs,(K) and from them, by physical descent,[c] came the Messiah,(L) who is God(M) over all,(N) praised forever.[d](O) Amen.

God’s Gracious Election of Israel

But it is not as though the word of God has failed.(P) For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.(Q) Neither are they all children because they are Abraham’s descendants.[e](R) On the contrary, your offspring will be traced[f] through Isaac.(S)[g] That is, it is not the children by physical descent[h] who are God’s children,(T) but the children of the promise(U) are considered to be the offspring. For this is the statement of the promise: At this time I will come, and Sarah will have a son.(V)[i] 10 And not only that,(W) but also Rebekah received a promise when she became pregnant[j](X) by one man, our ancestor Isaac. 11 For though her sons had not been born yet or done anything good or bad, so that God’s purpose according to election might stand—(Y) 12 not from works but from the One who calls—she was told: The older will serve the younger.(Z)[k] 13 As it is written: I have loved Jacob, but I have hated Esau.(AA)[l]

God’s Selection Is Just

14 What should we say then?(AB) Is there injustice with God?(AC) Absolutely not!(AD) 15 For He tells Moses:

I will show mercy
to whom I will show mercy,
and I will have compassion
on whom I will have compassion.(AE)[m]

16 So then it does not depend on human will or effort[n](AF) but on God who shows mercy.(AG) 17 For the Scripture tells Pharaoh:

I raised you up for this reason
so that I may display My power in you
and that My name may be proclaimed in all the earth.(AH)[o]

18 So then, He shows mercy to those He wants to, and He hardens those He wants to harden.(AI)

19 You will say to me,(AJ) therefore, “Why then does He still find fault?(AK) For who can resist His will?”(AL) 20 But who are you, a mere man, to talk back to God?(AM) Will what is formed say to the one who formed it, “Why did you make me like this?”(AN) 21 Or has the potter no right over the clay,(AO) to make from the same lump one piece of pottery for honor and another for dishonor? 22 And what if God, desiring to display His wrath and to make His power known, endured with much patience(AP) objects of wrath ready for destruction?(AQ) 23 And what if He did this to make known the riches of His glory(AR) on objects of mercy(AS) that He prepared beforehand for glory(AT) 24 on us, the ones He also called,(AU) not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?(AV) 25 As He also says in Hosea:

I will call Not My People, My People,
and she who is Unloved, Beloved.(AW)[p]
26 And it will be in the place where they were told,
you are not My people,
there they will be called sons of the living God.(AX)[q]

27 But Isaiah cries out concerning Israel:

Though the number of Israel’s sons
is like the sand of the sea,(AY)
only the remnant will be saved;(AZ)
28 for the Lord will execute His sentence
completely and decisively on the earth.[r](BA)[s]

29 And just as Isaiah predicted:

If the Lord of Hosts[t] had not left us offspring,(BB)
we would have become like Sodom,
and we would have been made like Gomorrah.(BC)[u]

Israel’s Present State

30 What should we say then?(BD) Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained righteousness—namely the righteousness that comes from faith.(BE) 31 But Israel, pursuing the law for righteousness,(BF) has not achieved the righteousness of the law.[v](BG) 32 Why is that? Because they did not pursue it by faith, but as if it were by works.[w] They stumbled over the stumbling stone.(BH) 33 As it is written:

Look! I am putting a stone in Zion to stumble over
and a rock to trip over,
yet the one who believes on Him(BI)
will not be put to shame.(BJ)[x]

Righteousness by Faith Alone

10 Brothers, my heart’s desire and prayer to God concerning them[y] is for their salvation! I can testify about them that they have zeal for God,(BK) but not according to knowledge. Because they disregarded the righteousness from God(BL) and attempted to establish their own righteousness, they have not submitted themselves to God’s righteousness. For Christ is the end[z] of the law for righteousness(BM) to everyone who believes.(BN) For Moses writes about the righteousness that is from the law: The one who does these things will live by them.(BO)[aa] But the righteousness that comes from faith(BP) speaks like this: Do not say in your heart, “Who will go up to heaven?”(BQ)[ab] that is, to bring Christ down or, “Who will go down into the abyss?”(BR)[ac] that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.(BS) On the contrary, what does it say? The message is near you, in your mouth and in your heart.(BT)[ad] This is the message of faith that we proclaim: If you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,”(BU) and believe in your heart(BV) that God raised Him from the dead,(BW) you will be saved. 10 One believes with the heart, resulting in righteousness, and one confesses with the mouth, resulting in salvation. 11 Now the Scripture says, Everyone who believes on Him will not be put to shame,(BX)[ae] 12 for there is no distinction between Jew and Greek,(BY) since the same Lord(BZ) of all(CA) is rich to all who call on Him. 13 For everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.(CB)[af]

Israel’s Rejection of the Message

14 But how can they call on Him they have not believed in? And how can they believe without hearing about Him?(CC) And how can they hear without a preacher?(CD) 15 And how can they preach unless they are sent? As it is written: How beautiful[ag] are the feet of those[ah] who announce the gospel of good things!(CE)[ai] 16 But all did not obey the gospel.(CF) For Isaiah says, Lord, who has believed our message?(CG)[aj] 17 So faith comes from what is heard,(CH) and what is heard comes through the message about Christ.[ak](CI) 18 But I ask, “Did they not hear?” Yes, they did:

Their voice has gone out to all the earth,
and their words to the ends of the inhabited world.(CJ)[al]

19 But I ask, “Did Israel not understand?” First, Moses said:

I will make you jealous
of those who are not a nation;(CK)
I will make you angry by a nation
that lacks understanding.(CL)[am]

20 And Isaiah says boldly:

I was found
by those who were not looking for Me;
I revealed Myself
to those who were not asking for Me.(CM)[an]

21 But to Israel he says: All day long I have spread out My hands to a disobedient and defiant people.(CN)[ao]

Israel’s Rejection Not Total

11 I ask, then, has God rejected His people?(CO) Absolutely not!(CP) For I too am an Israelite, a descendant of Abraham,(CQ) from the tribe of Benjamin. God has not rejected His people whom He foreknew.(CR) Or don’t you know(CS) what the Scripture says in the passage about Elijah—how he pleads with God against Israel?

Lord, they have killed Your prophets
and torn down Your altars.
I am the only one left,
and they are trying to take my life!(CT)[ap]

But what was God’s reply to him? I have left 7,000 men for Myself who have not bowed down to Baal.(CU)[aq] In the same way, then, there is also at the present time a remnant chosen by grace.(CV) Now if by grace,(CW) then it is not by works; otherwise grace ceases to be grace.[ar]

What then? Israel did not find what it was looking for,(CX) but the elect did find it. The rest were hardened,(CY) as it is written:

God gave them a spirit of insensitivity,[as]
eyes that cannot see
and ears that cannot hear,
to this day.(CZ)[at]

And David says:

Let their feasting[au] become a snare and a trap,
a pitfall and a retribution to them.
10 Let their eyes be darkened so they cannot see,
and their backs be bent continually.(DA)[av]

Israel’s Rejection Not Final

11 I ask, then, have they stumbled in order to fall? Absolutely not! On the contrary, by their stumbling,[aw] salvation has come to the Gentiles(DB) to make Israel jealous. 12 Now if their stumbling[ax] brings riches for the world, and their failure riches for the Gentiles, how much more will their full number bring!(DC)

13 Now I am speaking to you Gentiles. In view of the fact that I am an apostle to the Gentiles,(DD) I magnify my ministry, 14 if I can somehow make my own people[ay](DE) jealous and save some of them.(DF) 15 For if their rejection brings reconciliation(DG) to the world, what will their acceptance mean but life from the dead?(DH) 16 Now if the firstfruits offered up are holy,(DI) so is the whole batch. And if the root is holy, so are the branches.

17 Now if some of the branches were broken off,(DJ) and you, though a wild olive branch, were grafted in among them(DK) and have come to share in the rich root[az] of the cultivated olive tree, 18 do not brag that you are better than those branches. But if you do brag—you do not sustain the root, but the root sustains you.(DL) 19 Then you will say,(DM) “Branches were broken off so that I might be grafted in.” 20 True enough; they were broken off by unbelief, but you stand by faith.(DN) Do not be arrogant, but be afraid.(DO) 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, He will not spare you either. 22 Therefore, consider God’s kindness and severity: severity toward those who have fallen but God’s kindness(DP) toward you—if you remain in His kindness.(DQ) Otherwise you too will be cut off.(DR) 23 And even they, if they do not remain in unbelief,(DS) will be grafted in, because God has the power to graft them in again. 24 For if you were cut off from your native wild olive and against nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree, how much more will these—the natural branches—be grafted into their own olive tree?

25 So that you will not be conceited,(DT) brothers, I do not want you to be unaware(DU) of this mystery:(DV) A partial hardening has come to Israel(DW) until the full number of the Gentiles has come in.(DX) 26 And in this way all[ba] Israel will be saved, as it is written:

The Liberator will come from Zion;
He will turn away godlessness from Jacob.
27 And this will be My covenant with them(DY)[bb]
when I take away their sins.(DZ)[bc]

28 Regarding the gospel, they are enemies for your advantage,(EA) but regarding election, they are loved because of the patriarchs,(EB) 29 since God’s gracious gifts and calling(EC) are irrevocable.[bd](ED) 30 As you once disobeyed God, but now have received mercy through their disobedience, 31 so they too have now disobeyed, resulting in mercy to you, so that they also now[be] may receive mercy. 32 For God has imprisoned all in disobedience,(EE) so that He may have mercy on all.

A Hymn of Praise

33 Oh, the depth of the riches(EF)
both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God!(EG)
How unsearchable His judgments(EH)
and untraceable His ways!
34 For who has known the mind of the Lord?(EI)
Or who has been His counselor?
35 Or who has ever first given to Him,
and has to be repaid?(EJ)[bf]
36 For from Him and through Him
and to Him are all things.(EK)
To Him be the glory forever. Amen.

A Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God, I urge you(EL) to present your bodies as a living sacrifice,(EM) holy and pleasing to God; this is your spiritual worship.[bg] Do not be conformed(EN) to this age,(EO) but be transformed by the renewing of your mind,(EP) so that you may discern what is the good, pleasing, and perfect will(EQ) of God.

Many Gifts but One Body

For by the grace(ER) given to me, I tell everyone among you not to think of himself more highly than he should think.(ES) Instead, think sensibly, as God has distributed a measure of faith(ET) to each one. Now as we have many parts in one body,(EU) and all the parts do not have the same function, in the same way we who are many(EV) are one body in Christ(EW) and individually members of one another. According to the grace given to us, we have different gifts:(EX)

If prophecy,(EY)
use it according to the standard of one’s[bh] faith;
if service,(EZ) in service;
if teaching,(FA) in teaching;
if exhorting,(FB) in exhortation;
giving, with generosity;(FC)
leading,(FD) with diligence;
showing mercy, with cheerfulness.(FE)

Christian Ethics

Love must be without hypocrisy.(FF) Detest evil;(FG) cling to what is good. 10 Show family affection to one another with brotherly love.(FH) Outdo one another in showing honor.(FI) 11 Do not lack diligence; be fervent in spirit;(FJ) serve the Lord.(FK) 12 Rejoice in hope;(FL) be patient in affliction;(FM) be persistent in prayer.(FN) 13 Share with the saints in their needs;(FO) pursue hospitality.(FP) 14 Bless those who persecute you;(FQ) bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice;(FR) weep with those who weep. 16 Be in agreement with one another.(FS) Do not be proud;(FT) instead, associate with the humble. Do not be wise in your own estimation.(FU) 17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil.(FV) Try to do what is honorable(FW) in everyone’s eyes. 18 If possible, on your part, live at peace with everyone.(FX) 19 Friends, do not avenge yourselves; instead, leave room for His[bi] wrath. For it is written: Vengeance belongs to Me; I will repay,(FY)[bj] says the Lord. 20 But

If your enemy is hungry, feed him.(FZ)
If he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
For in so doing
you will be heaping fiery coals on his head.(GA)[bk]

21 Do not be conquered by evil, but conquer evil with good.


  1. Romans 9:1 Or testifying with me by the Holy Spirit
  2. Romans 9:3 Lit were anathema
  3. Romans 9:5 Lit them, according to the flesh
  4. Romans 9:5 Or the Messiah, the One who is over all, the God who is blessed forever, or Messiah. God, who is over all, be blessed forever
  5. Romans 9:7 Lit seed
  6. Romans 9:7 Lit called
  7. Romans 9:7 Gn 21:12
  8. Romans 9:8 Lit children of the flesh
  9. Romans 9:9 Gn 18:10,14
  10. Romans 9:10 Or Rebekah conceived by the one act of sexual intercourse
  11. Romans 9:12 Gn 25:23
  12. Romans 9:13 Mal 1:2-3
  13. Romans 9:15 Ex 33:19
  14. Romans 9:16 Or on the one running; lit on the one willing
  15. Romans 9:17 Ex 9:16
  16. Romans 9:25 Hs 2:23
  17. Romans 9:26 Hs 1:10
  18. Romans 9:28 Or land
  19. Romans 9:28 Is 10:22-23; 28:22; Hs 1:10
  20. Romans 9:29 Gk Sabaoth; this word is a transliteration of the Hb word for Hosts, or Armies.
  21. Romans 9:29 Is 1:9
  22. Romans 9:31 Other mss read the law for righteousness
  23. Romans 9:32 Other mss add of the law
  24. Romans 9:33 Is 8:14; 28:16
  25. Romans 10:1 Other mss read God for Israel
  26. Romans 10:4 Or goal
  27. Romans 10:5 Lv 18:5
  28. Romans 10:6 Dt 9:4; 30:12
  29. Romans 10:7 Dt 30:13
  30. Romans 10:8 Dt 30:14
  31. Romans 10:11 Is 28:16
  32. Romans 10:13 Jl 2:32
  33. Romans 10:15 Or welcome, or timely
  34. Romans 10:15 Other mss read feet of those who announce the gospel of peace, of those
  35. Romans 10:15 Is 52:7; Nah 1:15
  36. Romans 10:16 Is 53:1
  37. Romans 10:17 Other mss read God
  38. Romans 10:18 Ps 19:4
  39. Romans 10:19 Dt 32:21
  40. Romans 10:20 Is 65:1
  41. Romans 10:21 Is 65:2
  42. Romans 11:3 1Kg 19:10,14
  43. Romans 11:4 1Kg 19:18
  44. Romans 11:6 Other mss add But if of works it is no longer grace; otherwise work is no longer work.
  45. Romans 11:8 Lit stupification
  46. Romans 11:8 Dt 29:4; Is 29:10
  47. Romans 11:9 Lit table
  48. Romans 11:10 Ps 69:22-23
  49. Romans 11:11 Or transgression
  50. Romans 11:12 Or transgression
  51. Romans 11:14 Lit flesh
  52. Romans 11:17 Other mss read the root and the richness
  53. Romans 11:26 Or And then all
  54. Romans 11:27 Is 59:20-21
  55. Romans 11:27 Jr 31:31-34
  56. Romans 11:29 Or are not taken back
  57. Romans 11:31 Other mss omit now
  58. Romans 11:35 Jb 41:11; Is 40:13; Jr 23:18
  59. Romans 12:1 Or your reasonable service
  60. Romans 12:6 Or the
  61. Romans 12:19 Lit the
  62. Romans 12:19 Dt 32:35
  63. Romans 12:20 Pr 25:21-22

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