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I say truth in Christ Jesus, I lie not, for my conscience beareth witnessing to me in the Holy Ghost, [I say truth in Christ Jesus, I lie not, my conscience bearing witness to me in the Holy Ghost,]

for great heaviness is to me, and continual sorrow to my heart.

For I myself desired to be separated from Christ for my brethren [Forsooth I myself desired to be cursed, or parted, from Christ for my brethren], that be my cousins after the flesh,

that be men of Israel [that be Israelites]; whose is adoption of sons, and glory, and testament, and giving of the law, and service, and promises;

whose be the fathers, and of which is Christ after the flesh[a], that is God above all things, blessed into worlds. Amen.

But not that the word of God hath fallen down [Soothly not that the word of God hath fallen down, or failed unfulfilled]. For not all that be of Israel, these be Israelites.

Neither they that be [the] seed of Abraham, all be sons; but in Isaac the seed shall be called to thee;

that is to say, not they that be sons of the flesh, be sons of God, but they that be sons of [the] promise be deemed in the seed.

For why this is the word of promise, After this time I shall come, and a son shall be to Sarah.

10 And not only she, but also Rebecca had two sons of one lying-by of Isaac, our father. [Forsooth not only she, but and Rebecca, of one lying-by, or of one knowing of man, having two sons of Isaac, our father.]

11 And when they were not yet born, neither had done any thing of good either evil [or evil], that the purpose of God should dwell by election [that the purpose of God should dwell after election], not of works, but of God calling,

12 it was said to him, That the more should serve the less, [it is said to her, For the more shall serve to the less,]

13 as it is written, I loved Jacob, but I hated Esau. [as it is written, I loved Jacob, forsooth Esau I had in hate.]

14 What therefore shall we say? Whether wickedness be with God? God forbid [Far be it].

15 For he saith to Moses, I shall have mercy on whom I shall have mercy; and I shall give mercy on whom I shall have mercy.

16 Therefore it is not neither of man willing [Therefore it is not neither of a man willing], neither running, but of God having mercy.

17 And the scripture saith to Pharaoh [Forsooth the scripture saith to Pharaoh], For to this thing I have stirred thee, that I show in thee my virtue, and that my name be told in all [the] earth.

18 Therefore of whom God will, he hath mercy; and whom he will, he endureth [and whom he will, he endureth, or hardeneth].

19 Then sayest thou to me, What is sought yet [What thing is yet sought]? for who withstandeth his will?

20 O! man, who art thou, that answerest to God? Whether a made thing saith to him that made it, What hast thou made me so?

21 Whether a potter of clay hath not power to make of the same gobbet one vessel into honour, another into despite? [Whether a potter of clay hath not power of the same gobbet to make soothly one vessel into honour, another forsooth into despite, or low office?]

22 And if God willing to show his wrath, and to make his power known, hath suffered in great patience vessels of wrath able into death, [That if God willing to show wrath, and to make his power known, sustained in great patience the vessels of wrath able into perdition, or damnation,]

23 to show the riches of his glory [that he should show the riches of his glory] into vessels of mercy, which he made ready into glory.

24 Which also he called [us,] not only of the Jews, but also of heathen men,

25 as he saith in Osee, I shall call not my people my people, and not my loved my loved, and not getting mercy getting mercy [and not having mercy having mercy];

26 and it shall be in the place, where it is said to them, Not ye my people, there they shall be called the sons of living God.

27 But Esaias crieth for Israel [Forsooth Esaias crieth for Israel], If the number of children of Israel shall be as [the] gravel of the sea, the remnants [the reliefs] shall be made safe.

28 Forsooth a word making an end, and abridging in equity, for the Lord shall make a word abridged on all the earth[b].

29 And as Esaias before-said, But God of hosts had left to us seed, we had been made as Sodom, and we had been like as Gomorrha.

30 Therefore what shall we say? That heathen men that followed not rightwiseness, have gotten rightwiseness [have caught rightwiseness], yea, the rightwiseness that is of faith.

31 But Israel following the law of rightwiseness, came not perfectly to [into] the law of rightwiseness.

32 Why? For not of faith, but as of works. And they spurned against the stone of offence [Soothly they offended against the stone of offence, or spurning],

33 as it is written, Lo! I put a stone of offence in Sion, and a stone of stumbling; and each that shall believe in it, shall not be confounded. [as it is written, Lo! I put a stone of spurning in Sion, and a stone of offence; and each that shall believe into it, shall not be confounded, or shamed.]


  1. Romans 9:5 and of whom is Christ after the flesh
  2. Romans 9:28 for the Lord shall make a word abridged, or made short, upon earth

Paul’s Anguish Over Israel

I speak the truth in Christ—I am not lying,(A) my conscience confirms(B) it through the Holy Spirit— I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself(C) were cursed(D) and cut off from Christ for the sake of my people,(E) those of my own race,(F) the people of Israel.(G) Theirs is the adoption to sonship;(H) theirs the divine glory,(I) the covenants,(J) the receiving of the law,(K) the temple worship(L) and the promises.(M) Theirs are the patriarchs,(N) and from them is traced the human ancestry of the Messiah,(O) who is God over all,(P) forever praised![a](Q) Amen.

God’s Sovereign Choice

It is not as though God’s word(R) had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.(S) Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”[b](T) In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children,(U) but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.(V) For this was how the promise was stated: “At the appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son.”[c](W)

10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children were conceived at the same time by our father Isaac.(X) 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad(Y)—in order that God’s purpose(Z) in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”[d](AA) 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[e](AB)

14 What then shall we say?(AC) Is God unjust? Not at all!(AD) 15 For he says to Moses,

“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
    and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[f](AE)

16 It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.(AF) 17 For Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[g](AG) 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.(AH)

19 One of you will say to me:(AI) “Then why does God still blame us?(AJ) For who is able to resist his will?”(AK) 20 But who are you, a human being, to talk back to God?(AL) “Shall what is formed say to the one who formed it,(AM) ‘Why did you make me like this?’”[h](AN) 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for special purposes and some for common use?(AO)

22 What if God, although choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience(AP) the objects of his wrath—prepared for destruction?(AQ) 23 What if he did this to make the riches of his glory(AR) known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory(AS) 24 even us, whom he also called,(AT) not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?(AU) 25 As he says in Hosea:

“I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people;
    and I will call her ‘my loved one’ who is not my loved one,”[i](AV)

26 and,

“In the very place where it was said to them,
    ‘You are not my people,’
    there they will be called ‘children of the living God.’”[j](AW)

27 Isaiah cries out concerning Israel:

“Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea,(AX)
    only the remnant will be saved.(AY)
28 For the Lord will carry out
    his sentence on earth with speed and finality.”[k](AZ)

29 It is just as Isaiah said previously:

“Unless the Lord Almighty(BA)
    had left us descendants,
we would have become like Sodom,
    we would have been like Gomorrah.”[l](BB)

Israel’s Unbelief

30 What then shall we say?(BC) That the Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained it, a righteousness that is by faith;(BD) 31 but the people of Israel, who pursued the law as the way of righteousness,(BE) have not attained their goal.(BF) 32 Why not? Because they pursued it not by faith but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the stumbling stone.(BG) 33 As it is written:

“See, I lay in Zion a stone that causes people to stumble
    and a rock that makes them fall,
    and the one who believes in him will never be put to shame.”[m](BH)


  1. Romans 9:5 Or Messiah, who is over all. God be forever praised! Or Messiah. God who is over all be forever praised!
  2. Romans 9:7 Gen. 21:12
  3. Romans 9:9 Gen. 18:10,14
  4. Romans 9:12 Gen. 25:23
  5. Romans 9:13 Mal. 1:2,3
  6. Romans 9:15 Exodus 33:19
  7. Romans 9:17 Exodus 9:16
  8. Romans 9:20 Isaiah 29:16; 45:9
  9. Romans 9:25 Hosea 2:23
  10. Romans 9:26 Hosea 1:10
  11. Romans 9:28 Isaiah 10:22,23 (see Septuagint)
  12. Romans 9:29 Isaiah 1:9
  13. Romans 9:33 Isaiah 8:14; 28:16

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