The mind governed by the flesh is death,(A) but the mind governed by the Spirit is life(B) and peace. The mind governed by the flesh is hostile to God;(C) it does not submit to God’s law, nor can it do so. Those who are in the realm of the flesh(D) cannot please God.

You, however, are not in the realm of the flesh(E) but are in the realm of the Spirit, if indeed the Spirit of God lives in you.(F) And if anyone does not have the Spirit of Christ,(G) they do not belong to Christ. 10 But if Christ is in you,(H) then even though your body is subject to death because of sin, the Spirit gives life[a] because of righteousness. 11 And if the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead(I) is living in you, he who raised Christ from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies(J) because of[b] his Spirit who lives in you.

12 Therefore, brothers and sisters, we have an obligation—but it is not to the flesh, to live according to it.(K) 13 For if you live according to the flesh, you will die;(L) but if by the Spirit you put to death the misdeeds of the body,(M) you will live.(N)

14 For those who are led by the Spirit of God(O) are the children of God.(P) 15 The Spirit(Q) you received does not make you slaves, so that you live in fear again;(R) rather, the Spirit you received brought about your adoption to sonship.[c] And by him we cry, “Abba,[d] Father.”(S) 16 The Spirit himself testifies with our spirit(T) that we are God’s children.(U) 17 Now if we are children, then we are heirs(V)—heirs of God and co-heirs with Christ, if indeed we share in his sufferings(W) in order that we may also share in his glory.(X)

Present Suffering and Future Glory

18 I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us.(Y) 19 For the creation waits in eager expectation for the children of God(Z) to be revealed. 20 For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it,(AA) in hope 21 that[e] the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay(AB) and brought into the freedom and glory of the children of God.(AC)

22 We know that the whole creation has been groaning(AD) as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time. 23 Not only so, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit,(AE) groan(AF) inwardly as we wait eagerly(AG) for our adoption to sonship, the redemption of our bodies.(AH) 24 For in this hope we were saved.(AI) But hope that is seen is no hope at all.(AJ) Who hopes for what they already have? 25 But if we hope for what we do not yet have, we wait for it patiently.(AK)

26 In the same way, the Spirit helps us in our weakness. We do not know what we ought to pray for, but the Spirit(AL) himself intercedes for us(AM) through wordless groans. 27 And he who searches our hearts(AN) knows the mind of the Spirit, because the Spirit intercedes(AO) for God’s people in accordance with the will of God.

28 And we know that in all things God works for the good(AP) of those who love him, who[f] have been called(AQ) according to his purpose.(AR) 29 For those God foreknew(AS) he also predestined(AT) to be conformed to the image of his Son,(AU) that he might be the firstborn(AV) among many brothers and sisters. 30 And those he predestined,(AW) he also called;(AX) those he called, he also justified;(AY) those he justified, he also glorified.(AZ)

More Than Conquerors

31 What, then, shall we say in response to these things?(BA) If God is for us,(BB) who can be against us?(BC) 32 He who did not spare his own Son,(BD) but gave him up for us all—how will he not also, along with him, graciously give us all things? 33 Who will bring any charge(BE) against those whom God has chosen? It is God who justifies. 34 Who then is the one who condemns?(BF) No one. Christ Jesus who died(BG)—more than that, who was raised to life(BH)—is at the right hand of God(BI) and is also interceding for us.(BJ) 35 Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?(BK) Shall trouble or hardship or persecution or famine or nakedness or danger or sword?(BL) 36 As it is written:

“For your sake we face death all day long;
    we are considered as sheep to be slaughtered.”[g](BM)

37 No, in all these things we are more than conquerors(BN) through him who loved us.(BO) 38 For I am convinced that neither death nor life, neither angels nor demons,[h] neither the present nor the future,(BP) nor any powers,(BQ) 39 neither height nor depth, nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God(BR) that is in Christ Jesus our Lord.(BS)

Paul’s Anguish Over Israel

I speak the truth in Christ—I am not lying,(BT) my conscience confirms(BU) it through the Holy Spirit— I have great sorrow and unceasing anguish in my heart. For I could wish that I myself(BV) were cursed(BW) and cut off from Christ for the sake of my people,(BX) those of my own race,(BY) the people of Israel.(BZ) Theirs is the adoption to sonship;(CA) theirs the divine glory,(CB) the covenants,(CC) the receiving of the law,(CD) the temple worship(CE) and the promises.(CF) Theirs are the patriarchs,(CG) and from them is traced the human ancestry of the Messiah,(CH) who is God over all,(CI) forever praised![i](CJ) Amen.

God’s Sovereign Choice

It is not as though God’s word(CK) had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel.(CL) Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, “It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned.”[j](CM) In other words, it is not the children by physical descent who are God’s children,(CN) but it is the children of the promise who are regarded as Abraham’s offspring.(CO) For this was how the promise was stated: “At the appointed time I will return, and Sarah will have a son.”[k](CP)

10 Not only that, but Rebekah’s children were conceived at the same time by our father Isaac.(CQ) 11 Yet, before the twins were born or had done anything good or bad(CR)—in order that God’s purpose(CS) in election might stand: 12 not by works but by him who calls—she was told, “The older will serve the younger.”[l](CT) 13 Just as it is written: “Jacob I loved, but Esau I hated.”[m](CU)

14 What then shall we say?(CV) Is God unjust? Not at all!(CW) 15 For he says to Moses,

“I will have mercy on whom I have mercy,
    and I will have compassion on whom I have compassion.”[n](CX)

16 It does not, therefore, depend on human desire or effort, but on God’s mercy.(CY) 17 For Scripture says to Pharaoh: “I raised you up for this very purpose, that I might display my power in you and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth.”[o](CZ) 18 Therefore God has mercy on whom he wants to have mercy, and he hardens whom he wants to harden.(DA)

19 One of you will say to me:(DB) “Then why does God still blame us?(DC) For who is able to resist his will?”(DD) 20 But who are you, a human being, to talk back to God?(DE) “Shall what is formed say to the one who formed it,(DF) ‘Why did you make me like this?’”[p](DG) 21 Does not the potter have the right to make out of the same lump of clay some pottery for special purposes and some for common use?(DH)

22 What if God, although choosing to show his wrath and make his power known, bore with great patience(DI) the objects of his wrath—prepared for destruction?(DJ) 23 What if he did this to make the riches of his glory(DK) known to the objects of his mercy, whom he prepared in advance for glory(DL) 24 even us, whom he also called,(DM) not only from the Jews but also from the Gentiles?(DN) 25 As he says in Hosea:

“I will call them ‘my people’ who are not my people;
    and I will call her ‘my loved one’ who is not my loved one,”[q](DO)

26 and,

“In the very place where it was said to them,
    ‘You are not my people,’
    there they will be called ‘children of the living God.’”[r](DP)

27 Isaiah cries out concerning Israel:

“Though the number of the Israelites be like the sand by the sea,(DQ)
    only the remnant will be saved.(DR)
28 For the Lord will carry out
    his sentence on earth with speed and finality.”[s](DS)

29 It is just as Isaiah said previously:

“Unless the Lord Almighty(DT)
    had left us descendants,
we would have become like Sodom,
    we would have been like Gomorrah.”[t](DU)

Israel’s Unbelief

30 What then shall we say?(DV) That the Gentiles, who did not pursue righteousness, have obtained it, a righteousness that is by faith;(DW) 31 but the people of Israel, who pursued the law as the way of righteousness,(DX) have not attained their goal.(DY) 32 Why not? Because they pursued it not by faith but as if it were by works. They stumbled over the stumbling stone.(DZ) 33 As it is written:

“See, I lay in Zion a stone that causes people to stumble
    and a rock that makes them fall,
    and the one who believes in him will never be put to shame.”[u](EA)

10 Brothers and sisters, my heart’s desire(EB) and prayer to God for the Israelites is that they may be saved. For I can testify about them that they are zealous(EC) for God, but their zeal is not based on knowledge. Since they did not know the righteousness of God and sought to establish their own, they did not submit to God’s righteousness.(ED) Christ is the culmination of the law(EE) so that there may be righteousness for everyone who believes.(EF)

Moses writes this about the righteousness that is by the law: “The person who does these things will live by them.”[v](EG) But the righteousness that is by faith(EH) says: “Do not say in your heart, ‘Who will ascend into heaven?’”[w](EI) (that is, to bring Christ down) “or ‘Who will descend into the deep?’”[x](EJ) (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead).(EK) But what does it say? “The word is near you; it is in your mouth and in your heart,”[y](EL) that is, the message concerning faith that we proclaim: If you declare(EM) with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,”(EN) and believe(EO) in your heart that God raised him from the dead,(EP) you will be saved.(EQ) 10 For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved. 11 As Scripture says, “Anyone who believes in him will never be put to shame.”[z](ER) 12 For there is no difference between Jew and Gentile(ES)—the same Lord is Lord of all(ET) and richly blesses all who call on him, 13 for, “Everyone who calls on the name of the Lord(EU) will be saved.”[aa](EV)

14 How, then, can they call on the one they have not believed in? And how can they believe in the one of whom they have not heard? And how can they hear without someone preaching to them? 15 And how can anyone preach unless they are sent? As it is written: “How beautiful are the feet of those who bring good news!”[ab](EW)

16 But not all the Israelites accepted the good news.(EX) For Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our message?”[ac](EY) 17 Consequently, faith comes from hearing the message,(EZ) and the message is heard through the word about Christ.(FA) 18 But I ask: Did they not hear? Of course they did:

“Their voice has gone out into all the earth,
    their words to the ends of the world.”[ad](FB)

19 Again I ask: Did Israel not understand? First, Moses says,

“I will make you envious(FC) by those who are not a nation;
    I will make you angry by a nation that has no understanding.”[ae](FD)

20 And Isaiah boldly says,

“I was found by those who did not seek me;
    I revealed myself to those who did not ask for me.”[af](FE)

21 But concerning Israel he says,

“All day long I have held out my hands
    to a disobedient and obstinate people.”[ag](FF)

The Remnant of Israel

11 I ask then: Did God reject his people? By no means!(FG) I am an Israelite myself, a descendant of Abraham,(FH) from the tribe of Benjamin.(FI) God did not reject his people,(FJ) whom he foreknew.(FK) Don’t you know what Scripture says in the passage about Elijah—how he appealed to God against Israel: “Lord, they have killed your prophets and torn down your altars; I am the only one left, and they are trying to kill me”[ah]?(FL) And what was God’s answer to him? “I have reserved for myself seven thousand who have not bowed the knee to Baal.”[ai](FM) So too, at the present time there is a remnant(FN) chosen by grace.(FO) And if by grace, then it cannot be based on works;(FP) if it were, grace would no longer be grace.

What then? What the people of Israel sought so earnestly they did not obtain.(FQ) The elect among them did, but the others were hardened,(FR) as it is written:

“God gave them a spirit of stupor,
    eyes that could not see
    and ears that could not hear,(FS)
to this very day.”[aj](FT)

And David says:

“May their table become a snare and a trap,
    a stumbling block and a retribution for them.
10 May their eyes be darkened so they cannot see,(FU)
    and their backs be bent forever.”[ak](FV)

Ingrafted Branches

11 Again I ask: Did they stumble so as to fall beyond recovery? Not at all!(FW) Rather, because of their transgression, salvation has come to the Gentiles(FX) to make Israel envious.(FY) 12 But if their transgression means riches for the world, and their loss means riches for the Gentiles,(FZ) how much greater riches will their full inclusion bring!

13 I am talking to you Gentiles. Inasmuch as I am the apostle to the Gentiles,(GA) I take pride in my ministry 14 in the hope that I may somehow arouse my own people to envy(GB) and save(GC) some of them. 15 For if their rejection brought reconciliation(GD) to the world, what will their acceptance be but life from the dead?(GE) 16 If the part of the dough offered as firstfruits(GF) is holy, then the whole batch is holy; if the root is holy, so are the branches.

17 If some of the branches have been broken off,(GG) and you, though a wild olive shoot, have been grafted in among the others(GH) and now share in the nourishing sap from the olive root, 18 do not consider yourself to be superior to those other branches. If you do, consider this: You do not support the root, but the root supports you.(GI) 19 You will say then, “Branches were broken off so that I could be grafted in.” 20 Granted. But they were broken off because of unbelief, and you stand by faith.(GJ) Do not be arrogant,(GK) but tremble.(GL) 21 For if God did not spare the natural branches, he will not spare you either.

22 Consider therefore the kindness(GM) and sternness of God: sternness to those who fell, but kindness to you, provided that you continue(GN) in his kindness. Otherwise, you also will be cut off.(GO) 23 And if they do not persist in unbelief, they will be grafted in, for God is able to graft them in again.(GP) 24 After all, if you were cut out of an olive tree that is wild by nature, and contrary to nature were grafted into a cultivated olive tree,(GQ) how much more readily will these, the natural branches, be grafted into their own olive tree!

All Israel Will Be Saved

25 I do not want you to be ignorant(GR) of this mystery,(GS) brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited:(GT) Israel has experienced a hardening(GU) in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in,(GV) 26 and in this way[al] all Israel will be saved.(GW) As it is written:

“The deliverer will come from Zion;
    he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.
27 And this is[am] my covenant with them
    when I take away their sins.”[an](GX)

28 As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies(GY) for your sake; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs,(GZ) 29 for God’s gifts and his call(HA) are irrevocable.(HB) 30 Just as you who were at one time disobedient(HC) to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience, 31 so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now[ao] receive mercy as a result of God’s mercy to you. 32 For God has bound everyone over to disobedience(HD) so that he may have mercy on them all.


33 Oh, the depth of the riches(HE) of the wisdom and[ap] knowledge of God!(HF)
    How unsearchable his judgments,
    and his paths beyond tracing out!(HG)
34 “Who has known the mind of the Lord?
    Or who has been his counselor?”[aq](HH)
35 “Who has ever given to God,
    that God should repay them?”[ar](HI)
36 For from him and through him and for him are all things.(HJ)
    To him be the glory forever! Amen.(HK)

A Living Sacrifice

12 Therefore, I urge you,(HL) brothers and sisters, in view of God’s mercy, to offer your bodies as a living sacrifice,(HM) holy and pleasing to God—this is your true and proper worship. Do not conform(HN) to the pattern of this world,(HO) but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.(HP) Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is(HQ)—his good, pleasing(HR) and perfect will.

Humble Service in the Body of Christ

For by the grace given me(HS) I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. For just as each of us has one body with many members, and these members do not all have the same function,(HT) so in Christ we, though many, form one body,(HU) and each member belongs to all the others. We have different gifts,(HV) according to the grace given to each of us. If your gift is prophesying,(HW) then prophesy in accordance with your[as] faith;(HX) if it is serving, then serve; if it is teaching, then teach;(HY) if it is to encourage, then give encouragement;(HZ) if it is giving, then give generously;(IA) if it is to lead,[at] do it diligently; if it is to show mercy, do it cheerfully.

Love in Action

Love must be sincere.(IB) Hate what is evil; cling to what is good.(IC) 10 Be devoted to one another in love.(ID) Honor one another above yourselves.(IE) 11 Never be lacking in zeal, but keep your spiritual fervor,(IF) serving the Lord. 12 Be joyful in hope,(IG) patient in affliction,(IH) faithful in prayer.(II) 13 Share with the Lord’s people who are in need.(IJ) Practice hospitality.(IK)

14 Bless those who persecute you;(IL) bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice; mourn with those who mourn.(IM) 16 Live in harmony with one another.(IN) Do not be proud, but be willing to associate with people of low position.[au] Do not be conceited.(IO)

17 Do not repay anyone evil for evil.(IP) Be careful to do what is right in the eyes of everyone.(IQ) 18 If it is possible, as far as it depends on you, live at peace with everyone.(IR) 19 Do not take revenge,(IS) my dear friends, but leave room for God’s wrath, for it is written: “It is mine to avenge; I will repay,”[av](IT) says the Lord. 20 On the contrary:

“If your enemy is hungry, feed him;
    if he is thirsty, give him something to drink.
In doing this, you will heap burning coals on his head.”[aw](IU)

21 Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good.

Submission to Governing Authorities

13 Let everyone be subject to the governing authorities,(IV) for there is no authority except that which God has established.(IW) The authorities that exist have been established by God. Consequently, whoever rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted,(IX) and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and you will be commended.(IY) For the one in authority is God’s servant for your good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for rulers do not bear the sword for no reason. They are God’s servants, agents of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer.(IZ) Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment but also as a matter of conscience.(JA)

This is also why you pay taxes,(JB) for the authorities are God’s servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe them: If you owe taxes, pay taxes;(JC) if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor.

Love Fulfills the Law

Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for whoever loves others has fulfilled the law.(JD) The commandments, “You shall not commit adultery,” “You shall not murder,” “You shall not steal,” “You shall not covet,”[ax](JE) and whatever other command there may be, are summed up(JF) in this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.”[ay](JG) 10 Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law.(JH)

The Day Is Near

11 And do this, understanding the present time: The hour has already come(JI) for you to wake up from your slumber,(JJ) because our salvation is nearer now than when we first believed. 12 The night is nearly over; the day is almost here.(JK) So let us put aside the deeds of darkness(JL) and put on the armor(JM) of light. 13 Let us behave decently, as in the daytime, not in carousing and drunkenness,(JN) not in sexual immorality and debauchery, not in dissension and jealousy.(JO) 14 Rather, clothe yourselves with the Lord Jesus Christ,(JP) and do not think about how to gratify the desires of the flesh.[az](JQ)

The Weak and the Strong

14 Accept the one whose faith is weak,(JR) without quarreling over disputable matters. One person’s faith allows them to eat anything, but another, whose faith is weak, eats only vegetables.(JS) The one who eats everything must not treat with contempt(JT) the one who does not, and the one who does not eat everything must not judge(JU) the one who does, for God has accepted them. Who are you to judge someone else’s servant?(JV) To their own master, servants stand or fall. And they will stand, for the Lord is able to make them stand.

One person considers one day more sacred than another;(JW) another considers every day alike. Each of them should be fully convinced in their own mind. Whoever regards one day as special does so to the Lord. Whoever eats meat does so to the Lord, for they give thanks to God;(JX) and whoever abstains does so to the Lord and gives thanks to God.


  1. Romans 8:10 Or you, your body is dead because of sin, yet your spirit is alive
  2. Romans 8:11 Some manuscripts bodies through
  3. Romans 8:15 The Greek word for adoption to sonship is a term referring to the full legal standing of an adopted male heir in Roman culture; also in verse 23.
  4. Romans 8:15 Aramaic for father
  5. Romans 8:21 Or subjected it in hope. 21 For
  6. Romans 8:28 Or that all things work together for good to those who love God, who; or that in all things God works together with those who love him to bring about what is good—with those who
  7. Romans 8:36 Psalm 44:22
  8. Romans 8:38 Or nor heavenly rulers
  9. Romans 9:5 Or Messiah, who is over all. God be forever praised! Or Messiah. God who is over all be forever praised!
  10. Romans 9:7 Gen. 21:12
  11. Romans 9:9 Gen. 18:10,14
  12. Romans 9:12 Gen. 25:23
  13. Romans 9:13 Mal. 1:2,3
  14. Romans 9:15 Exodus 33:19
  15. Romans 9:17 Exodus 9:16
  16. Romans 9:20 Isaiah 29:16; 45:9
  17. Romans 9:25 Hosea 2:23
  18. Romans 9:26 Hosea 1:10
  19. Romans 9:28 Isaiah 10:22,23 (see Septuagint)
  20. Romans 9:29 Isaiah 1:9
  21. Romans 9:33 Isaiah 8:14; 28:16
  22. Romans 10:5 Lev. 18:5
  23. Romans 10:6 Deut. 30:12
  24. Romans 10:7 Deut. 30:13
  25. Romans 10:8 Deut. 30:14
  26. Romans 10:11 Isaiah 28:16 (see Septuagint)
  27. Romans 10:13 Joel 2:32
  28. Romans 10:15 Isaiah 52:7
  29. Romans 10:16 Isaiah 53:1
  30. Romans 10:18 Psalm 19:4
  31. Romans 10:19 Deut. 32:21
  32. Romans 10:20 Isaiah 65:1
  33. Romans 10:21 Isaiah 65:2
  34. Romans 11:3 1 Kings 19:10,14
  35. Romans 11:4 1 Kings 19:18
  36. Romans 11:8 Deut. 29:4; Isaiah 29:10
  37. Romans 11:10 Psalm 69:22,23
  38. Romans 11:26 Or and so
  39. Romans 11:27 Or will be
  40. Romans 11:27 Isaiah 59:20,21; 27:9 (see Septuagint); Jer. 31:33,34
  41. Romans 11:31 Some manuscripts do not have now.
  42. Romans 11:33 Or riches and the wisdom and the
  43. Romans 11:34 Isaiah 40:13
  44. Romans 11:35 Job 41:11
  45. Romans 12:6 Or the
  46. Romans 12:8 Or to provide for others
  47. Romans 12:16 Or willing to do menial work
  48. Romans 12:19 Deut. 32:35
  49. Romans 12:20 Prov. 25:21,22
  50. Romans 13:9 Exodus 20:13-15,17; Deut. 5:17-19,21
  51. Romans 13:9 Lev. 19:18
  52. Romans 13:14 In contexts like this, the Greek word for flesh (sarx) refers to the sinful state of human beings, often presented as a power in opposition to the Spirit.

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