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10 For if while we were enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son, how much more, since we have been reconciled, will we be saved by his life? 11 Not[a] only this, but we also rejoice[b] in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received this reconciliation.

The Amplification of Justification

12 So then, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all people[c] because[d] all sinned—

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Footnotes

  1. Romans 5:11 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  2. Romans 5:11 tn Or “exult, boast.”
  3. Romans 5:12 tn Here ἀνθρώπους (anthrōpous) has been translated as a generic (“people”) since both men and women are clearly intended in this context.
  4. Romans 5:12 tn The translation of the phrase ἐφ᾿ ᾧ (eph hō) has been heavily debated. For a discussion of all the possibilities, see C. E. B. Cranfield, “On Some of the Problems in the Interpretation of Romans 5.12,” SJT 22 (1969): 324-41. Only a few of the major options can be mentioned here: (1) the phrase can be taken as a relative clause in which the pronoun refers to Adam, “death spread to all people in whom [Adam] all sinned.” (2) The phrase can be taken with consecutive (resultative) force, meaning “death spread to all people with the result that all sinned.” (3) Others take the phrase as causal in force: “death spread to all people because all sinned.”

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