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16 But not all have obeyed the good news, for Isaiah says, “Lord, who has believed our report?”[a] 17 Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word[b] of Christ.[c]

18 But I ask, have they[d] not heard?[e] Yes, they have:[f] Their voice has gone out to all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.[g]

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  1. Romans 10:16 sn A quotation from Isa 53:1.
  2. Romans 10:17 tn The Greek term here is ῥῆμα (rhēma), which often (but not exclusively) focuses on the spoken word.
  3. Romans 10:17 tc Most mss (א1 A D1 Ψ 33 1175 1241 1505 1881 2464 M sy) have θεοῦ (theou) here rather than Χριστοῦ (Christou; found in א* B C D* 6 81 629 1506 1739 lat co). Although the Nestle-Aland apparatus includes P46vid for this reading, more recent photographs by CSNTM reveal it to be κυρίου (“Lord”), a singular reading. External evidence strongly favors the reading “Christ” here. Internal evidence is also on its side, for the expression ῥῆμα Χριστοῦ (rhēma Christou) occurs nowhere else in the NT; thus scribes would be prone to change it to a known The genitive could be understood as either subjective (“Christ does the speaking”) or objective (“Christ is spoken about”), but the latter is more likely here.
  4. Romans 10:18 tn That is, Israel (see the following verse).
  5. Romans 10:18 tn Grk “they have not ‘not heard,’ have they?” This question is difficult to render in English. The basic question is a negative sentence (“Have they not heard?”), but it is preceded by the particle μή () which expects a negative response. The end result in English is a double negative (“They have not ‘not heard,’ have they?”). This has been changed to a positive question in the translation for clarity. See BDAG 646 s.v. μή 3.a.; D. Moo, Romans (NICNT), 666, fn. 32; and C. E. B. Cranfield, Romans (ICC), 537, for discussion.
  6. Romans 10:18 tn Here the particle μενοῦνγε (menounge) is correcting the negative response expected by the particle μή () in the preceding question. Since the question has been translated positively, the translation was changed here to reflect that rendering.
  7. Romans 10:18 sn A quotation from Ps 19:4.