15 For (A)you did not receive (B)the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of (C)adoption as sons, by whom we cry, (D)“Abba! Father!”

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15 For you did not receive the spirit of slavery leading again to fear,[a] but you received the Spirit of adoption,[b] by whom[c] we cry, “Abba,[d] Father.”

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Footnotes

  1. Romans 8:15 tn Grk “slavery again to fear.”
  2. Romans 8:15 tn The Greek term υἱοθεσία (huiothesia) was originally a legal technical term for adoption as a son with full rights of inheritance. BDAG 1024 s.v. notes, “a legal t.t. of ‘adoption’ of children, in our lit., i.e. in Paul, only in a transferred sense of a transcendent filial relationship between God and humans (with the legal aspect, not gender specificity, as major semantic component).”
  3. Romans 8:15 tn Or “in that.”
  4. Romans 8:15 tn The term “Abba” is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic אַבָּא (’abba’), literally meaning “my father” but taken over simply as “father,” used in prayer and in the family circle, and later taken over by the early Greek-speaking Christians (BDAG 1 s.v. ἀββα).sn This Aramaic word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom 8:15; Gal 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated “father.” It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in English. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, “abbot.” Over the past fifty years a lot has been written about this term and Jesus’ use of it. Joachim Jeremias argued that Jesus routinely addressed God using this Aramaic word, and he also noted this was a “child’s word,” leading many to conclude its modern equivalent was “Daddy.” This conclusion Jeremias soon modified (the term on occasion is used of an adult son addressing his father) but the simplistic equation of abba with “Daddy” is still heard in some circles today. Nevertheless, the term does express a high degree of closeness with reverence, and in addition to the family circle could be used by disciples of a much loved and revered teacher.

He who has prepared us for this very thing is God, (A)who has given us the Spirit as a guarantee.

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Now the one who prepared us for this very purpose[a] is God, who gave us the Spirit as a down payment.[b]

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Footnotes

  1. 2 Corinthians 5:5 tn Grk “for this very thing.”
  2. 2 Corinthians 5:5 tn Or “first installment,” “pledge,” “deposit” (see the note on the phrase “down payment” in 1:22).

13 In him you also, when you heard (A)the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation, and believed in him, (B)were sealed with the (C)promised Holy Spirit, 14 who is (D)the guarantee[a] of our (E)inheritance until (F)we acquire (G)possession of it,[b] (H)to the praise of his glory.

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Footnotes

  1. Ephesians 1:14 Or down payment
  2. Ephesians 1:14 Or until God redeems his possession

13 And when[a] you heard the word of truth (the gospel of your salvation)—when you believed in Christ[b]—you were marked with the seal[c] of the promised Holy Spirit,[d] 14 who is the down payment[e] of our inheritance, until the redemption of God’s own possession,[f] to the praise of his glory.

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Footnotes

  1. Ephesians 1:13 tn Grk “in whom you also, when…” (continuing the sentence from v. 12).
  2. Ephesians 1:13 tn Grk “in whom also having believed.” The relative pronoun “whom” has been replaced in the translation with its antecedent (“Christ”) to improve the clarity.
  3. Ephesians 1:13 tn Or “you were sealed.”
  4. Ephesians 1:13 tn Grk “the Holy Spirit of promise.” Here ἐπαγγελίας (epangelias, “of promise”) has been translated as an attributive genitive.
  5. Ephesians 1:14 tn Or “first installment,” “pledge,” “deposit.”sn Down payment. The Greek word ἀρραβών (arrabōn) denotes the first payment or first installment of money or goods which serves as a guarantee or pledge for the completion of the transaction. In the NT the term is used only figuratively of the Holy Spirit as the down payment of the blessings promised by God (it is used also in 2 Cor 1:22 and 5:5). In the “already—not yet” scheme of the NT the possession of the Spirit now by believers (“already”) can be viewed as a guarantee that God will give them the balance of the promised blessings in the future (“not yet”).
  6. Ephesians 1:14 tn Grk “until the redemption of the possession.”