Be Subject to Government

13 Every [a](A)person is to be (B)subject to the governing authorities. For (C)there is no authority except [b]from God, and those which exist are established by God. Therefore [c]whoever resists authority has opposed the ordinance of God; and they who have opposed will receive condemnation upon themselves. For (D)rulers are not a cause of fear for [d]good behavior, but for evil. Do you want to have no fear of authority? Do what is good and you will have praise from the same; for it is a servant of God to you for good. But if you do what is evil, be afraid; for it does not bear the sword for nothing; for it is a servant of God, an (E)avenger who brings wrath on the one who practices evil. Therefore it is necessary to be in subjection, not only because of wrath, but also (F)for the sake of conscience. For because of this you also pay taxes, for rulers are servants of God, devoting themselves to this very thing. (G)Pay to all what is due them: (H)tax to whom tax is due; (I)custom to whom custom; [e]respect to whom [f]respect; honor to whom honor.

Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another; for (J)the one who loves [g]his neighbor has fulfilled the Law. For this, “(K)You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet,” and if there is any other commandment, it is summed up in this saying, “(L)You shall love your neighbor as yourself.” 10 Love [h]does no wrong to a neighbor; therefore (M)love is the fulfillment of the Law.

11 Do this, knowing the time, that it is (N)already the hour for you to (O)awaken from sleep; for now [i]salvation is nearer to us than when we first believed. 12 (P)The night is almost gone, and (Q)the day is near. Therefore let’s rid ourselves of (R)the deeds of darkness and put on (S)the armor of light. 13 Let’s [j](T)behave properly as in the day, (U)not in carousing and drunkenness, not in sexual promiscuity and debauchery, not in strife and jealousy. 14 But (V)put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh (W)in regard to its lusts.

Principles of Conscience

14 Now (X)accept the one who is (Y)weak [k]in faith, but not [l]to have quarrels over opinions. (Z)One person has faith that he may eat all things, but the one who is (AA)weak eats only vegetables. The one who eats is not to (AB)regard with contempt the one who does not eat, and the one who does not eat is not to (AC)judge the one who eats, for God has (AD)accepted him. (AE)Who are you to judge the [m]servant of another? To his own [n]master he stands or falls; and he will stand, for the Lord is able to make him stand.

(AF)One person [o]values one day over another, another [p]values every day the same. Each person must be (AG)fully convinced in his own mind. The one who observes the day, observes it for the Lord, and the one who eats, [q]does so with regard to the Lord, for he (AH)gives thanks to God; and the one who does not eat, it is for the Lord that he does not eat, and he gives thanks to God. For not one of us (AI)lives for himself, and not one dies for himself; for if we live, we live for the Lord, or if we die, we die for the Lord; therefore (AJ)whether we live or die, we are the Lord’s. For to this end (AK)Christ died and lived again, that He might be (AL)Lord both of the dead and of the living.

10 But as for you, why do you judge your brother or sister? Or you as well, why do you (AM)regard your brother or sister with contempt? For (AN)we will all appear before the judgment seat of God. 11 For it is written:

(AO)As I live, says the Lord, (AP)to Me every knee will bow,
And every tongue will [r]give praise to God.”

12 So then (AQ)each one of us will give an account of himself to God.

13 Therefore let’s not (AR)judge one another anymore, but rather [s]determine this: (AS)not to put an obstacle or a stumbling block in a brother’s or sister’s way. 14 I know and am convinced [t]in the Lord Jesus that (AT)nothing is [u]unclean in itself; but to the one who (AU)thinks something is [v]unclean, to that person it is [w]unclean. 15 For if because of food your brother or sister is hurt, you are no longer (AV)walking in accordance with love. (AW)Do not destroy with your choice of food that person for whom Christ died. 16 Therefore (AX)do not let what is for you a good thing be [x]spoken of as evil; 17 for the kingdom of God (AY)is not eating and drinking, but righteousness and (AZ)peace and (BA)joy in the Holy Spirit. 18 For the one who (BB)serves Christ in this way is (BC)acceptable to God and approved by other people. 19 So then we (BD)pursue the things [y]which make for peace and the (BE)building up of one another. 20 (BF)Do not tear down the work of God for the sake of food. (BG)All things indeed are clean, but (BH)they are evil for the person who eats [z]and causes offense. 21 (BI)It is good not to eat meat or to drink wine, or to do anything by which your brother or sister stumbles. 22 The faith which you have, have [aa]as your own conviction before God. Happy is the one who (BJ)does not condemn himself in what he approves. 23 But (BK)the one who doubts is condemned if he eats, because his eating is not from faith; and whatever is not from faith is sin.

Self-denial in behalf of Others

15 Now we who are strong ought to bear the weaknesses of (BL)those without strength, and not just please ourselves. Each of us is to (BM)please his neighbor [ab]for his good, to his (BN)edification. For even (BO)Christ did not please Himself, but as it is written: “(BP)The taunts of those who taunt You have fallen on Me.” For (BQ)whatever was written in earlier times was written for our instruction, so that through perseverance and the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. Now may the (BR)God [ac]who gives perseverance and encouragement grant you (BS)to be of the same mind with one another, according to Christ Jesus, so that with one purpose and one [ad]voice you may glorify (BT)the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.

Therefore, [ae](BU)accept one another, just as Christ also accepted [af]us, for the glory of God. For I say that Christ has become a servant to (BV)the circumcision in behalf of the truth of God, to confirm (BW)the promises given to the fathers, and for (BX)the Gentiles to (BY)glorify God for His mercy; as it is written:

(BZ)Therefore I will [ag]give praise to You among the Gentiles,
And I will sing praises to Your name.”

10 Again he says,

(CA)Rejoice, you Gentiles, with His people.”

11 And again,

(CB)Praise the Lord all you Gentiles,
And let all the peoples praise Him.”

12 Again Isaiah says,

(CC)There shall come (CD)the root of Jesse,
And He who arises to rule over the Gentiles,
(CE)In Him will the Gentiles hope.”

13 Now may the God of hope fill you with all (CF)joy and peace in believing, so that you will abound in hope (CG)by the power of the Holy Spirit.

14 And concerning you, my brothers and sisters, I myself also am convinced that you yourselves are full of (CH)goodness, filled with (CI)all knowledge and able also to admonish one another. 15 But I have written very boldly to you on some points so as to remind you again, because of (CJ)the grace that was given to me [ah]from God, 16 to be (CK)a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles, ministering as a priest the (CL)gospel of God, so that my (CM)offering of the Gentiles may become acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit. 17 Therefore in Christ Jesus I have found (CN)reason for boasting in (CO)things pertaining to God. 18 (CP)For I will not presume to speak of anything [ai]except what (CQ)Christ has accomplished through me, [aj]resulting in the obedience of the Gentiles by word and deed, 19 in the power of [ak](CR)signs and wonders, (CS)in the power of the Spirit; so that (CT)from Jerusalem and all around as (CU)far as Illyricum I have [al]fully preached the gospel of Christ. 20 And in this way I aspired to (CV)preach the gospel, not where Christ was already known by name, (CW)so that I would not build on another person’s foundation; 21 but just as it is written:

(CX)They who have not been told about Him will see,
And they who have not heard will understand.”

22 For this reason (CY)I have often been prevented from coming to you; 23 but now, with no further place for me in these regions, and since I (CZ)have had for many years a longing to come to you 24 whenever I (DA)go to Spain—for I hope to see you in passing, and to be (DB)helped on my way there by you, when I have first (DC)enjoyed your company [am]for a while— 25 but now, (DD)I am going to Jerusalem, (DE)serving the [an]saints. 26 For (DF)Macedonia and (DG)Achaia have been pleased to make a contribution for the poor among the [ao]saints in Jerusalem. 27 For they were pleased to do so, and they are indebted to them. For (DH)if the Gentiles have shared in their spiritual things, they are indebted to do them a service also in material things. 28 Therefore, when I have finished this, and (DI)have [ap]put my seal on this fruit of theirs, I will (DJ)go on by way of you to Spain. 29 I know that when (DK)I come to you, I will come in the fullness of the blessing of Christ.

30 Now I urge you, brothers and sisters, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by (DL)the love of the Spirit, to (DM)strive together with me in your prayers to God for me, 31 that I may be (DN)rescued from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my (DO)service for Jerusalem may prove acceptable to the [aq](DP)saints; 32 so that (DQ)I may come to you in joy by (DR)the will of God and relax in your company. 33 Now (DS)the God of peace be with you all. Amen.

Greetings and Love Expressed

16 I (DT)recommend to you our sister Phoebe, who is a [ar]servant of the church which is at (DU)Cenchrea, that you (DV)receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the [as](DW)saints, and that you help her in whatever matter she may have need of you; for she herself has also been a helper of many, [at]and of myself as well.

Greet (DX)Prisca and Aquila, my fellow workers (DY)in (DZ)Christ Jesus, who risked their own necks for my life, to whom not only do I give thanks, but also all the churches of the Gentiles; also greet (EA)the church that is in their house. Greet Epaenetus, my beloved, who is the (EB)first convert to Christ from [au](EC)Asia. Greet Mary, who has worked hard for you. Greet Andronicus and [av]Junia, my (ED)kinsfolk and my (EE)fellow prisoners, who are outstanding in the view of the apostles, who also [aw]were (EF)in Christ before me. Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. Greet Urbanus, our fellow worker (EG)in Christ, and Stachys my beloved. 10 Greet Apelles, the approved (EH)in Christ. Greet those who are of the household of Aristobulus. 11 Greet Herodion, my (EI)kinsman. Greet those of the household of Narcissus, who are in the Lord. 12 Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, workers in the Lord. Greet Persis the beloved, who has worked hard in the Lord. 13 Greet (EJ)Rufus, a choice man in the Lord, also his mother and mine. 14 Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers and sisters with them. 15 Greet Philologus and Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all (EK)the [ax]saints who are with them. 16 (EL)Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.

17 Now I urge you, brothers and sisters, keep your eye on those who cause dissensions and [ay]hindrances (EM)contrary to the teaching which you learned, and (EN)turn away from them. 18 For such people are (EO)slaves, not of our Lord Christ but of (EP)their own [az]appetites; and by their (EQ)smooth and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the unsuspecting. 19 For the report of your obedience (ER)has reached everyone; therefore I am rejoicing over you, but (ES)I want you to be wise in what is good, and innocent in what is evil. 20 (ET)The God of peace will soon crush (EU)Satan under your feet.

(EV)The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.

21 (EW)Timothy, my fellow worker, greets you, and so do (EX)Lucius, (EY)Jason, and (EZ)Sosipater, my (FA)kinsmen.

22 I, Tertius, who have (FB)written this letter, greet you in the Lord.

23 (FC)Gaius, host to me and to the whole church, greets you. (FD)Erastus, the city treasurer, greets you, and Quartus, the brother.[ba]

25 (FE)Now to Him who is able to establish you (FF)according to my gospel and the preaching of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of (FG)the mystery which has been kept secret for (FH)long ages past, 26 but now has been disclosed, and through (FI)the Scriptures of the prophets, in accordance with the commandment of the eternal God, has been made known to all the nations, leading to (FJ)obedience of faith; 27 to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ, (FK)be the glory forever. Amen.


  1. Romans 13:1 Or soul
  2. Romans 13:1 Lit by
  3. Romans 13:2 Lit the one who
  4. Romans 13:3 Lit good work
  5. Romans 13:7 I.e., for authority; lit fear
  6. Romans 13:7 I.e., for authority; lit fear
  7. Romans 13:8 Lit the other
  8. Romans 13:10 Lit works no evil
  9. Romans 13:11 Or our salvation is nearer than when
  10. Romans 13:13 Lit walk
  11. Romans 14:1 Or in the faith
  12. Romans 14:1 Lit for quarrels
  13. Romans 14:4 Or house servant
  14. Romans 14:4 Lit lord
  15. Romans 14:5 Lit judges
  16. Romans 14:5 Lit judges
  17. Romans 14:6 Lit eats
  18. Romans 14:11 Or confess
  19. Romans 14:13 Lit judge
  20. Romans 14:14 Lit through
  21. Romans 14:14 I.e., ceremonially unclean; lit common
  22. Romans 14:14 I.e., ceremonially unclean; lit common
  23. Romans 14:14 I.e., ceremonially unclean; lit common
  24. Romans 14:16 Lit blasphemed
  25. Romans 14:19 Lit of peace and the things of the building up
  26. Romans 14:20 Lit by offense
  27. Romans 14:22 Lit according to yourself
  28. Romans 15:2 Lit for what is good to edification
  29. Romans 15:5 Lit of perseverance
  30. Romans 15:6 Lit mouth
  31. Romans 15:7 I.e., accept into fellowship
  32. Romans 15:7 One early ms you
  33. Romans 15:9 Or confess
  34. Romans 15:15 One early ms by God
  35. Romans 15:18 Lit which Christ has not accomplished
  36. Romans 15:18 Lit to the obedience
  37. Romans 15:19 Or confirming miracles
  38. Romans 15:19 Lit fulfilled
  39. Romans 15:24 Lit in part
  40. Romans 15:25 Lit holy ones; i.e., God’s people
  41. Romans 15:26 See note v 25
  42. Romans 15:28 Lit sealed to them this fruit
  43. Romans 15:31 See note v 25
  44. Romans 16:1 Or deaconess
  45. Romans 16:2 Lit holy ones; i.e., God’s people
  46. Romans 16:2 Lit and of me, myself
  47. Romans 16:5 I.e., west coast province of Asia Minor
  48. Romans 16:7 Or possibly Junias (masc)
  49. Romans 16:7 Lit have become
  50. Romans 16:15 See note 1 v 2
  51. Romans 16:17 Lit occasions of stumbling
  52. Romans 16:18 Lit belly
  53. Romans 16:23 Late mss add as v 24: The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.

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