The Gospel Exalted

Paul, a bond-servant of Christ Jesus, [a](A)called as an apostle, (B)set apart for (C)the gospel of God, which He (D)promised beforehand through His (E)prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning His Son, who was born (F)of a [b]descendant of David (G)according to the flesh, who was declared (H)the Son of God with power according to the [c]Spirit of holiness [d]by the resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and (I)apostleship [e]to bring about the (J)obedience of faith among (K)all the Gentiles in behalf of His name, among whom you also are the (L)called of Jesus Christ;

to all who are (M)beloved of God in Rome, called as [f](N)saints: (O)Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

First, (P)I thank my God through Jesus Christ [g]for you all, because (Q)your faith is being proclaimed throughout the world. For (R)God, whom I (S)serve in my spirit in the preaching of the gospel of His Son, is my witness as to how unceasingly (T)I make mention of you, 10 always in my prayers requesting if perhaps now, at last by (U)the will of God, I will succeed in coming to you. 11 For (V)I long to see you so that I may impart some spiritual gift to you, that you may be [h]established; 12 that is, that I may be encouraged together with you while among you, each of us by the other’s faith, both yours and mine. 13 (W)I do not want you to be unaware, (X)brothers and sisters, that often I (Y)have planned to come to you (and have been prevented so far) so that I may obtain some (Z)fruit among you also just as among the rest of the Gentiles. 14 (AA)I am [i]under obligation both to Greeks and to the [j](AB)uncultured, both to the wise and to the foolish. 15 So, for my part, I am eager to (AC)preach the gospel to you also who are in Rome.

16 For I am not (AD)ashamed of the gospel, for (AE)it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the (AF)Jew first and also to (AG)the Greek. 17 For in it (AH)the righteousness of God is revealed [k]from faith to faith; as it is written: “[l](AI)But the righteous one will live by faith.”

Unbelief and Its Consequences

18 For (AJ)the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of people who (AK)suppress the truth [m]in unrighteousness, 19 because (AL)that which is known about God is evident [n]within them; for God made it evident to them. 20 For (AM)since the creation of the world His invisible attributes, that is, His eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, (AN)being understood by what has been made, so that they are without excuse. 21 For even though they knew God, they did not [o]honor Him as God or give thanks, but they became (AO)futile in their reasonings, and their senseless hearts were darkened. 22 (AP)Claiming to be wise, they became fools, 23 and they (AQ)exchanged the glory of the incorruptible God for an image in the form of corruptible mankind, of birds, four-footed animals, and [p]crawling creatures.

24 Therefore (AR)God gave them up to vile impurity in the lusts of their hearts, so that their bodies would be (AS)dishonored among them. 25 For they exchanged the truth of God for [q](AT)falsehood, and worshiped and served the creature rather than the Creator, (AU)who is blessed [r]forever. Amen.

26 For this reason (AV)God gave them over to (AW)degrading passions; for their women exchanged natural relations for that which is contrary to nature, 27 and likewise the men, too, abandoned natural relations [s]with women and burned in their desire toward one another, (AX)males with males committing [t]shameful acts and receiving in [u]their own persons the due penalty of their error.

28 And just as they did not see fit [v]to acknowledge God, (AY)God gave them up to a depraved mind, to do those things that are not proper, 29 people having been filled with all unrighteousness, wickedness, greed, and evil; full of envy, murder, strife, deceit, and malice; they are (AZ)gossips, 30 slanderers, [w](BA)haters of God, insolent, arrogant, boastful, inventors of evil, (BB)disobedient to parents, 31 without understanding, untrustworthy, (BC)unfeeling, and unmerciful; 32 and although they know the ordinance of God, that those who practice such things are worthy of (BD)death, they not only do the same, but also (BE)approve of those who practice them.

The Impartiality of God

Therefore you have (BF)no excuse, [x]you foolish person, (BG)everyone of you who passes judgment; for [y]in that matter in which (BH)you judge someone else, you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things. And we know that the judgment of God [z]rightly falls upon those who practice such things. But do you suppose this, [aa](BI)you foolish person who passes judgment on those who practice such things, and yet does them as well, that you will escape the judgment of God? Or do you think lightly of (BJ)the riches of His (BK)kindness and [ab](BL)restraint and (BM)patience, not knowing that the kindness of God leads you to repentance? But [ac]because of your stubbornness and unrepentant heart (BN)you are storing up wrath for yourself (BO)on the day of wrath and revelation of the righteous judgment of God, (BP)who will repay each person according to his deeds: to those who by (BQ)perseverance in doing good seek (BR)glory, honor, and (BS)immortality, He will give (BT)eternal life; but to those who are (BU)self-serving and (BV)do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, He will give wrath and indignation. There will be (BW)tribulation and distress [ad]for every soul of mankind who does evil, [ae]for the Jew (BX)first and also [af]for the Greek, 10 but (BY)glory, honor, and peace to everyone who does what is good, to the Jew (BZ)first and also to the Greek. 11 For (CA)there is no partiality with God.

12 For all who have sinned [ag](CB)without the Law will also perish [ah]without the Law, and all who have sinned [ai]under the Law will be judged [aj]by the Law; 13 for it is (CC)not the hearers [ak]of the Law who are [al]righteous before God, but the doers [am]of the Law who will be justified. 14 For when Gentiles who do not have [an]the Law [ao](CD)instinctively perform the requirements of the Law, these, though not having [ap]the Law, are a law to themselves, 15 in that they show (CE)the work of the Law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying and their thoughts alternately accusing or else defending them, 16 on the day when, (CF)according to my gospel, (CG)God will judge the secrets of mankind through Christ Jesus.

The Jews under the Law

17 But if you call yourself a [aq]Jew and (CH)rely [ar]upon the Law and boast in God, 18 and know His will and [as](CI)distinguish the things that matter, being instructed from the Law, 19 and are confident that you yourself are a guide to people who are blind, a light to those in darkness, 20 a [at]corrector of the foolish, a teacher of [au]the immature, possessing in the Law (CJ)the embodiment of knowledge and of the truth— 21 you, therefore, (CK)who teach someone else, do you not teach yourself? You who [av]preach that one is not to steal, do you steal? 22 You who say that one is not to commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who loathe idols, do you (CL)rob temples? 23 You who (CM)boast [aw]in the Law, through your breaking the Law, do you dishonor God? 24 For “(CN)the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles (CO)because of you,” just as it is written.

25 For indeed circumcision is of value if you (CP)practice [ax]the Law; but if you are a violator [ay]of the Law, (CQ)your circumcision has turned into uncircumcision. 26 (CR)So if (CS)the [az]uncircumcised man (CT)keeps the requirements of the Law, will his uncircumcision not be regarded as circumcision? 27 And (CU)he who is physically uncircumcised, if he keeps the Law, will he not (CV)judge you who [ba]though having the letter of the Law and circumcision are a violator [bb]of the Law? 28 For (CW)he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, nor is circumcision that which is outward in the flesh. 29 But (CX)he is a Jew who is one inwardly; and (CY)circumcision is of the heart, by the (CZ)Spirit, not by the letter; (DA)and his praise is not from people, but from God.

All the World Guilty

Then what [bc]advantage does the Jew have? Or what is the benefit of circumcision? Great in every respect. First, that (DB)they were entrusted with the (DC)actual words of God. What then? If (DD)some [bd]did not believe, their [be]unbelief will not nullify the faithfulness of God, will it? [bf](DE)Far from it! Rather, God must prove to be true, though every person be found (DF)a liar, as it is written:

(DG)So that You are justified in Your words,
And prevail [bg]when You are judged.”

But if our unrighteousness [bh](DH)demonstrates the righteousness of God, (DI)what shall we say? The God who inflicts wrath is not unrighteous, is He? ((DJ)I am speaking from a human viewpoint.) (DK)Far from it! For otherwise, how will (DL)God judge the world? But if through my lie (DM)the truth of God abounded to His glory, (DN)why am I also still being judged as a sinner? And why not say (just as we are slanderously reported and as some claim that we say), “(DO)Let’s do evil that good may come of it”? [bi]Their condemnation is deserved.

What then? [bj](DP)Are we better than they? Not at all; for we have already charged that both (DQ)Jews and (DR)Greeks are (DS)all under sin; 10 as it is written:

(DT)There is no righteous person, not even one;
11 There is no one who understands,
There is no one who seeks out God;
12 They have all turned aside, together they have become [bk]corrupt;
There is no one who does good,
There is not even one.”
13 (DU)Their throat is an open grave,
With their tongues they keep deceiving,”
(DV)The venom of [bl]asps is under their lips”;
14 (DW)Their mouth is full of cursing and bitterness”;
15 (DX)Their feet are swift to shed blood,
16 Destruction and misery are in their paths,
17 And they have not known the way of peace.”
18 (DY)There is no fear of God before their eyes.”

19 Now we know that whatever the (DZ)Law says, it speaks to (EA)those who are [bm]under the Law, so that every mouth may be closed and (EB)all the world may become accountable to God; 20 because (EC)by the works [bn]of the Law [bo]none of mankind will be justified in His sight; for [bp](ED)through the Law comes [bq]knowledge of sin.

Justification by Faith

21 But now apart [br]from the Law (EE)the righteousness of God has been revealed, being (EF)witnessed by the [bs]Law and the Prophets, 22 but it is the (EG)righteousness of God through (EH)faith (EI)in Jesus Christ for (EJ)all those [bt]who believe; for (EK)there is no distinction, 23 for all [bu](EL)have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 being justified as a gift (EM)by His grace through (EN)the redemption which is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God displayed publicly as (EO)a [bv]propitiation [bw](EP)in His blood through faith. This was to demonstrate His righteousness, [bx]because in God’s merciful (EQ)restraint He (ER)let the sins previously committed go unpunished; 26 for the demonstration, that is, of His righteousness at the present time, so that He would be just and the justifier of the one who [by]has faith in Jesus.

27 Where then is (ES)boasting? It has been excluded. By (ET)what kind of law? Of works? No, but by a law of faith. 28 [bz]For (EU)we maintain that a person is justified by faith apart from works [ca]of the Law. 29 Or (EV)is God the God of Jews only? Is He not the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 30 since indeed (EW)God (EX)who will justify the [cb]circumcised [cc]by faith and the [cd]uncircumcised through faith (EY)is one.

31 Do we then nullify [ce]the Law through faith? (EZ)Far from it! On the contrary, we (FA)establish the Law.

Abraham’s Justification by Faith

What then shall we say that Abraham, [cf]our forefather (FB)according to the flesh, has found? For if Abraham was justified [cg]by works, he has something to boast about; but (FC)not [ch]before God. For what does the Scripture say? “(FD)Abraham believed God, and it was credited to him as righteousness.” Now to the one who (FE)works, the wages are not credited as a favor, but as what is due. But to the one who does not work, but (FF)believes in Him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is credited as righteousness, just as David also speaks of the blessing of the person to whom God credits righteousness apart from works:

(FG)Blessed are those whose lawless deeds have been forgiven,
And whose sins have been covered.
(FH)Blessed is the man whose sin the Lord will not (FI)take into account.”

Is this blessing then on [ci](FJ)the circumcised, or on [cj]the uncircumcised also? For (FK)we say, “(FL)Faith was credited to Abraham as righteousness.” 10 How then was it credited? While he was [ck]circumcised, or [cl]uncircumcised? Not while [cm]circumcised, but while [cn]uncircumcised; 11 and he (FM)received the sign of circumcision, (FN)a seal of the righteousness of the faith which [co]he had while uncircumcised, so that he might be (FO)the father of (FP)all who believe without being circumcised, that righteousness might be credited to them, 12 and the father of circumcision to those who not only are of the circumcision, but who also follow in the steps of the faith of our father Abraham which [cp]he had while uncircumcised.

13 For (FQ)the promise to Abraham or to his [cq]descendants (FR)that he would be heir of the world was not [cr]through the Law, but through the righteousness of faith. 14 For (FS)if those who are [cs]of the Law are heirs, then faith is made void and the promise is nullified; 15 for (FT)the Law brings about wrath, but (FU)where there is no law, there also is no violation.

16 For this reason it is [ct]by faith, in order that it may be in accordance with (FV)grace, so that the promise will be guaranteed to (FW)all the [cu]descendants, not only to [cv]those who are of the Law, but also to [cw](FX)those who are of the faith of Abraham, who is (FY)the father of us all, 17 (as it is written: “I have made you (FZ)a father of many nations”) in the presence of Him whom he believed, that is, God, (GA)who gives life to the dead and (GB)calls into being (GC)things that do not exist. 18 In hope against hope he believed, so that he might become (GD)a father of many nations according to that which had been spoken, “(GE)So shall your [cx]descendants be.” 19 Without becoming weak in faith he contemplated his own body, now (GF)as good as dead since (GG)he was about a hundred years old, and (GH)the deadness of Sarah’s womb; 20 yet, with respect to the promise of God, he did not waver in unbelief but grew strong in faith, (GI)giving glory to God, 21 and (GJ)being fully assured that (GK)what God had promised, He was able also to perform. 22 Therefore (GL)it was also credited to him as righteousness. 23 Now (GM)not for his sake only was it written that it was credited to him, 24 but for our sake also, to whom it will be credited, to us (GN)who believe in Him who (GO)raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 He who was (GP)delivered over because of our wrongdoings, and was (GQ)raised because of our justification.

Results of Justification

(GR)Therefore, having been justified by faith, [cy](GS)we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we also have (GT)obtained our introduction by faith into this grace (GU)in which we stand; and [cz]we celebrate in hope of the glory of God. (GV)And not only this, but [da]we also (GW)celebrate in our tribulations, knowing that tribulation brings about (GX)perseverance; and (GY)perseverance, (GZ)proven character; and proven character, hope; and hope (HA)does not disappoint, because the love of God has been (HB)poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.

For while we were still (HC)helpless, (HD)at the right time (HE)Christ died for the ungodly. For one will hardly die for a righteous person; [db]though perhaps for the good person someone would even dare to die. But God (HF)demonstrates (HG)His own love toward us, in that while we were still sinners, (HH)Christ died for us. Much more then, having now been justified [dc](HI)by His blood, we shall be saved (HJ)from the wrath of God through Him. 10 For if while we were (HK)enemies we were reconciled to God through the death of His Son, much more, having been reconciled, we shall be saved [dd](HL)by His life. 11 (HM)And not only this, but [de]we also celebrate in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received (HN)the reconciliation.

12 Therefore, just as through (HO)one man sin entered into the world, and (HP)death through sin, and (HQ)so death spread to all mankind, because all sinned— 13 for [df]until the Law sin was in the world, but (HR)sin is not [dg]counted against anyone when there is no law. 14 Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those who had not sinned (HS)in the likeness of the [dh]violation committed by Adam, who is a [di](HT)type of Him who was to come.

15 But [dj]the gracious gift is not like the offense. For if by the offense of (HU)the one (HV)the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by (HW)the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many. 16 The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand (HX)the judgment arose from one offense, [dk]resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the gracious gift arose from many offenses, [dl]resulting in justification. 17 For if by the offense of the one, death reigned (HY)through the one, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness (HZ)reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.

18 So then, as through (IA)one offense [dm]the result was condemnation to all mankind, so also through one (IB)act of righteousness [dn]the result was (IC)justification of life to all mankind. 19 For as through the one man’s disobedience (ID)the many (IE)were made sinners, so also through (IF)the obedience of the One (IG)the many will be made righteous. 20 [do](IH)The Law came in so that the offense would increase; but where sin increased, (II)grace abounded all the more, 21 so that, as (IJ)sin reigned in death, so also (IK)grace would reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.


  1. Romans 1:1 Lit a called apostle
  2. Romans 1:3 Lit seed
  3. Romans 1:4 Or spirit
  4. Romans 1:4 Or as a result of
  5. Romans 1:5 Lit for obedience
  6. Romans 1:7 Lit holy ones; i.e., God’s people
  7. Romans 1:8 Or concerning you all, that...
  8. Romans 1:11 Or strengthened
  9. Romans 1:14 Lit debtor
  10. Romans 1:14 I.e., non-Hellenes
  11. Romans 1:17 Or by
  12. Romans 1:17 Or But the one who is righteous by faith shall live
  13. Romans 1:18 Or by
  14. Romans 1:19 Or among
  15. Romans 1:21 Lit glorify
  16. Romans 1:23 Or reptiles
  17. Romans 1:25 Lit the lie
  18. Romans 1:25 Lit unto the ages
  19. Romans 1:27 Lit of the female
  20. Romans 1:27 Lit shamelessness
  21. Romans 1:27 Lit themselves
  22. Romans 1:28 Lit to have God in knowledge
  23. Romans 1:30 Or hateful to God
  24. Romans 2:1 Lit O
  25. Romans 2:1 Or when you judge
  26. Romans 2:2 Lit is according to truth against
  27. Romans 2:3 Lit O
  28. Romans 2:4 I.e., from inflicting punishment
  29. Romans 2:5 Or in accordance with
  30. Romans 2:9 Lit upon
  31. Romans 2:9 Lit of the
  32. Romans 2:9 Lit of the
  33. Romans 2:12 Or without law
  34. Romans 2:12 Or without law
  35. Romans 2:12 Or under law
  36. Romans 2:12 Or by law
  37. Romans 2:13 Or of law
  38. Romans 2:13 Or just
  39. Romans 2:13 Or of law
  40. Romans 2:14 Or law
  41. Romans 2:14 Lit by nature
  42. Romans 2:14 Or law
  43. Romans 2:17 Or Judean
  44. Romans 2:17 Or upon law
  45. Romans 2:18 Or approve
  46. Romans 2:20 Or instructor
  47. Romans 2:20 Lit infants
  48. Romans 2:21 Or proclaim
  49. Romans 2:23 Or in law
  50. Romans 2:25 Or law
  51. Romans 2:25 Or of law
  52. Romans 2:26 Lit uncircumcision
  53. Romans 2:27 Lit through the letter
  54. Romans 2:27 Or of law
  55. Romans 3:1 Lit is the advantage of the Jew
  56. Romans 3:3 Or were unfaithful
  57. Romans 3:3 Or unfaithfulness
  58. Romans 3:4 Lit May it never happen! And so throughout the ch
  59. Romans 3:4 Or in Your judging
  60. Romans 3:5 I.e., by requiring His judgment
  61. Romans 3:8 Lit Whose
  62. Romans 3:9 Or Are we worse
  63. Romans 3:12 Or depraved
  64. Romans 3:13 I.e., venomous snakes
  65. Romans 3:19 Lit in
  66. Romans 3:20 Or of law
  67. Romans 3:20 Lit no flesh
  68. Romans 3:20 Or through law
  69. Romans 3:20 Or recognition
  70. Romans 3:21 Or from law
  71. Romans 3:21 I.e., the Old Testament
  72. Romans 3:22 Or who believe. For there is
  73. Romans 3:23 Or sinned
  74. Romans 3:25 I.e., a means of reconciliation between God and mankind by paying the penalty for sin
  75. Romans 3:25 Or by
  76. Romans 3:25 Lit because of the passing over of the sins previously committed, in the restraint of God
  77. Romans 3:26 Lit is of the faith of Jesus
  78. Romans 3:28 One early ms Therefore
  79. Romans 3:28 Or of law
  80. Romans 3:30 Lit circumcision
  81. Romans 3:30 Lit out of
  82. Romans 3:30 Lit uncircumcision
  83. Romans 3:31 Or law
  84. Romans 4:1 Or our forefather, has found according to the flesh
  85. Romans 4:2 Lit out of
  86. Romans 4:2 Lit toward
  87. Romans 4:9 Lit circumcision
  88. Romans 4:9 Lit uncircumcision
  89. Romans 4:10 Lit in circumcision
  90. Romans 4:10 Lit in uncircumcision
  91. Romans 4:10 Lit in circumcision
  92. Romans 4:10 Lit in uncircumcision
  93. Romans 4:11 Lit was in uncircumcision
  94. Romans 4:12 Lit was in uncircumcision
  95. Romans 4:13 Lit seed
  96. Romans 4:13 Or through law
  97. Romans 4:14 Or of law
  98. Romans 4:16 Or out of
  99. Romans 4:16 Lit seed
  100. Romans 4:16 Lit that which is
  101. Romans 4:16 Lit that which is
  102. Romans 4:18 Lit seed
  103. Romans 5:1 Two early mss let’s have
  104. Romans 5:2 Lit we boast; or let’s
  105. Romans 5:3 Lit we also boast; or let’s also boast
  106. Romans 5:7 Lit for
  107. Romans 5:9 Or in
  108. Romans 5:10 Or in
  109. Romans 5:11 Lit also boasting
  110. Romans 5:13 Or until law
  111. Romans 5:13 Lit credited to
  112. Romans 5:14 I.e., of God’s command
  113. Romans 5:14 Or foreshadowing
  114. Romans 5:15 Lit not as the offense, so also is the gracious gift
  115. Romans 5:16 Lit to condemnation
  116. Romans 5:16 Lit to an act of righteousness
  117. Romans 5:18 Lit to condemnation
  118. Romans 5:18 Lit to justification
  119. Romans 5:20 Or law

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