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10 So[a] he took me away in the Spirit[b] to a huge, majestic mountain[c] and showed me the holy city, Jerusalem, descending out of heaven from God. 11 The city possesses[d] the glory of God; its brilliance is like a precious jewel, like a stone of crystal-clear jasper.[e] 12 It has[f] a massive, high wall[g] with twelve gates,[h] with twelve angels at the gates, and the names of the twelve tribes of the nation of Israel[i] are written on the gates.[j]

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  1. Revelation 21:10 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the angel’s invitation.
  2. Revelation 21:10 tn Or “in the spirit.” “Spirit” could refer either to the Holy Spirit or the human spirit, but in either case John was in “a state of spiritual exaltation best described as a trance” (R. H. Mounce, Revelation [NICNT], 75).
  3. Revelation 21:10 tn Grk “to a mountain great and high.”
  4. Revelation 21:11 tn Grk “from God, having the glory of God.” Here a new sentence was started in the translation by supplying the words “the city” to refer back to the previous clause and translating the participle (“having”) as a finite verb.
  5. Revelation 21:11 tn On the term ἰάσπιδι (iaspidi) BDAG 465 s.v. ἴασπις states, “jasper, a precious stone found in various colors, mostly reddish, somet. green…brown, blue, yellow, and white. In antiquity the name was not limited to the variety of quartz now called jasper, but could designate any opaque precious stone. Rv 21:18f. W. λίθος 4:3 (TestSol C 11:8). λίθος ἴασπις κρυσταλλίζων a stone of crystal-clear jasper 21:11 (cp. Is 54:12); perh. the opal is meant here; acc. to some, the diamond.”
  6. Revelation 21:12 tn Grk “jasper, having.” Here a new sentence was started in the translation.
  7. Revelation 21:12 tn Grk “a (city) wall great and high.”
  8. Revelation 21:12 tn On this term BDAG 897 s.v. πυλών 1 states, “gate, esp. of the large, impressive gateways at the entrance of temples and palaces…of the entrances of the heavenly Jerusalem…οἱ πυλῶνες αὐτῆς οὐ μὴ κλεισθῶσιν its entrances shall never be shut Rv 21:25; cp. vss. 12ab, 13abcd, 15, 21ab; 22:14.”
  9. Revelation 21:12 tn Grk “of the sons of Israel.” The translation “nation of Israel” is given in L&N 11.58.
  10. Revelation 21:12 tn Grk “on them”; the referent (the gates) has been specified in the translation for clarity.