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15 His feet were like polished bronze[a] refined[b] in a furnace, and his voice was like the roar[c] of many waters. 16 He held[d] seven stars in his right hand, and a sharp double-edged sword extended out of his mouth. His[e] face shone like the sun shining at full strength. 17 When[f] I saw him I fell down at his feet as though I were dead, but[g] he placed his right hand on me and said: “Do not be afraid! I am the first and the last,

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  1. Revelation 1:15 tn The precise meaning of the term translated “polished bronze” (χαλκολιβάνῳ, chalkolibanō), which appears nowhere else in Greek literature outside of the book of Revelation (see 2:18), is uncertain. Without question it is some sort of metal. BDAG 1076 s.v. χαλκολίβανον suggests “fine brass/bronze.” L&N 2.57 takes the word to refer to particularly valuable or fine bronze, but notes that the emphasis here and in Rev 2:18 is more on the lustrous quality of the metal.
  2. Revelation 1:15 tn Or “that has been heated in a furnace until it glows.”
  3. Revelation 1:15 tn Grk “sound,” but the idea is closer to the roar of a waterfall or rapids.
  4. Revelation 1:16 tn Grk “and having.” In the Greek text this is a continuation of the previous sentence, but because contemporary English style employs much shorter sentences, a new sentence was started here in the translation by supplying the pronoun “he.”
  5. Revelation 1:16 tn This is a continuation of the previous sentence in the Greek text, but a new sentence was started here in the translation.
  6. Revelation 1:17 tn Grk “And when.” Because of the difference between Greek style, which often begins sentences or clauses with “and,” and English style, which generally does not, καί (kai) has not been translated here.
  7. Revelation 1:17 tn Here the Greek conjunction καί (kai) has been translated as a contrastive (“but”) due to the contrast between the two clauses.