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20 (Rejoice over her, O heaven,
and you saints and apostles and prophets,
for God has pronounced judgment[a] against her on your behalf!)[b]

21 Then[c] one powerful angel picked up a stone like a huge millstone, threw it into the sea, and said,

“With this kind of sudden violent force[d]
Babylon the great city will be thrown down[e]
and it will never be found again!
22 And the sound of the harpists, musicians,
flute players, and trumpeters
will never be heard in you[f] again.
No[g] craftsman[h] who practices any trade
will ever be found in you again;
the noise of a mill[i] will never be heard in you again.

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  1. Revelation 18:20 tn On the phrase “pronounced judgment” BDAG 567 s.v. κρίμα 4.b states, “The OT is the source of the expr. κρίνειν τὸ κρ. (cp. Zech 7:9; 8:16; Ezk 44:24) ἔκρινεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ κρίμα ὑμῶν ἐξ αὐτῆς God has pronounced judgment for you against her or God has pronounced on her the judgment she wished to impose on you (HHoltzmann, Hdb. 1893 ad loc.) Rv 18:20.”
  2. Revelation 18:20 tn Grk “God has judged a judgment of you of her.” Verse 20 is set in parentheses because in it the saints, etc. are addressed directly in the second person. sn This verse forms a parenthetical aside in the narrative.
  3. Revelation 18:21 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence within the narrative.
  4. Revelation 18:21 tn On ὅρμημα (hormēma) BDAG 724 s.v. states, “violent rush, onset ὁρμήματι βληθήσεται Βαβυλών Babylon will be thrown down with violence Rv 18:21.” L&N 68.82 refers to the suddenness of the force or violence.
  5. Revelation 18:21 sn Thrown down is a play on both the words and the action. The angel’s action with the stone illustrates the kind of sudden violent force with which the city will be overthrown.
  6. Revelation 18:22 tn The shift to a second person pronoun here corresponds to the Greek text.
  7. Revelation 18:22 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
  8. Revelation 18:22 tn On this term BDAG 1001 s.v. τεχνίτης states, “craftsperson, artisan, designer…Of a silversmith Ac 19:24, 25 v.l., 38….Of a potter 2 Cl 8:2 (metaph., cp. Ath. 15:2). πᾶς τεχνίτης πάσης τέχνης Rv 18:22.”
  9. Revelation 18:22 tn This is a different Greek word (μύλος, mulos) from the one for the millstone in v. 21 (μύλινος, mulinos). See L&N 7.68.