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Revelation 1:4 The Passion Translation (TPT)

From John to the seven churches[a] in western Turkey:[b] May the kindness of God’s grace and peace overflow to you from him who is, and who was, and who is to come,[c] and from the seven spirits[d] who are in front of his throne,


  1. Revelation 1:4 The seven churches become a representation of all the churches, for the number seven denotes completeness, fullness, wholeness, and perfection.
  2. Revelation 1:4 Or “Asia” (Minor), which is modern-day western Turkey.
  3. Revelation 1:4 The God who dwells in these three realms (present, past, and future) is described by John as “who is, who was, and who is to come.”
  4. Revelation 1:4 Or “the seven-fold Spirit”; that is, the Holy Spirit. If God is three in one, the Holy Spirit can be seven in one. See Isa. 11:2-3; Zech. 4:1-10; Rev. 3:1; 4:5; 5:6.
The Passion Translation (TPT)

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