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O Lord God of Heaven’s Armies,[a]
how long will you remain angry at your people while they pray to you?[b]
You have given them tears as food;[c]
you have made them drink tears by the measure.[d]
You have made our neighbors dislike us,[e]
and our enemies insult us.

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  1. Psalm 80:4 tn HebLord, God, hosts.” One expects the construct form אֱלֹהֵי (ʾelohe) before צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot; “hosts”; see Ps 89:9), but יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים (yehvah ʾelohim) precedes צְבָאוֹת (tsevaʾot) in Pss 59:5 and 84:8 as well. In this context the term “hosts” has been rendered “Heaven’s Armies.”
  2. Psalm 80:4 tn Heb “How long will you remain angry during the prayer of your people.” Some take the preposition ב (bet) in an adversative sense here (“at/against the prayer of your people”), but the temporal sense is preferable. The psalmist expects persistent prayer to pacify God.
  3. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “you have fed them the food of tears.”
  4. Psalm 80:5 tn Heb “[by] the third part [of a measure].” The Hebrew term שָׁלִישׁ (shalish, “third part [of a measure]”) occurs only here and in Isa 40:12.
  5. Psalm 80:6 tn Heb “you have made us an object of contention to our neighbors.”