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18 Your thunderous voice was heard in the wind;
the lightning bolts lit up the world.
The earth trembled and shook.[a]
19 You walked through the sea;[b]
you passed through the surging waters,[c]
but left no footprints.[d]
20 You led your people like a flock of sheep,
by the hand of Moses and Aaron.

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  1. Psalm 77:18 tn The prefixed verbal form may be taken as a preterite or as an imperfect with past progressive Verses 16-18 depict the Lord coming in the storm to battle his enemies and subdue the sea. There is no record of such a storm in the historical account of the Red Sea crossing. The language the psalmist uses here is stereotypical and originates in Canaanite myth, where the storm god Baal subdues the sea in his quest for kingship. The psalmist has employed the stereotypical imagery to portray the exodus vividly and at the same time affirm that it is not Baal who subdues the sea, but Yahweh.
  2. Psalm 77:19 tn Heb “in the sea [was] your way.”
  3. Psalm 77:19 tn Heb “and your paths [were] in the mighty waters.”
  4. Psalm 77:19 tn Heb “and your footprints were not known.”