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11 Mount Zion rejoices;
the towns[a] of Judah are happy,[b]
because of your acts of judgment.[c]
12 Walk around[d] Zion. Encircle it.
Count its towers.
13 Consider its defenses.[e]
Walk through[f] its fortresses,
so you can tell the next generation about it.[g]

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  1. Psalm 48:11 tn Heb “daughters.” The reference is to the cities of Judah surrounding Zion (see Ps 97:8 and H. Haag, TDOT 2:336).
  2. Psalm 48:11 tn The prefixed verbal forms are understood as generalizing imperfects. (For other examples of an imperfect followed by causal לְמַעַן [lemaʿan], see Ps 23:3; Isa 49:7; 55:5.) Another option is to interpret the forms as jussives, “Let Mount Zion rejoice! Let the towns of Judah be happy!” (cf. NASB, NRSV; note the imperatives in vv. 12-13.)
  3. Psalm 48:11 sn These acts of judgment are described in vv. 4-7.
  4. Psalm 48:12 tn The verb forms in vv. 12-13 are plural; the entire Judahite community is addressed.
  5. Psalm 48:13 tn Heb “set your heart to its rampart.”
  6. Psalm 48:13 tn The precise meaning of the Hebrew word translated “walk through,” which occurs only here in the OT, is uncertain. Cf. NEB “pass…in review”; NIV “view.”
  7. Psalm 48:13 sn The city’s towers, defenses, and fortresses are outward reminders and tangible symbols of the divine protection the city enjoys.