Epilogue: The Wife of Noble Character

10 [a]A wife of noble character(A) who can find?(B)
    She is worth far more than rubies.
11 Her husband(C) has full confidence in her
    and lacks nothing of value.(D)
12 She brings him good, not harm,
    all the days of her life.
13 She selects wool and flax
    and works with eager hands.(E)
14 She is like the merchant ships,
    bringing her food from afar.
15 She gets up while it is still night;
    she provides food for her family
    and portions for her female servants.
16 She considers a field and buys it;
    out of her earnings she plants a vineyard.
17 She sets about her work vigorously;
    her arms are strong for her tasks.
18 She sees that her trading is profitable,
    and her lamp does not go out at night.
19 In her hand she holds the distaff
    and grasps the spindle with her fingers.
20 She opens her arms to the poor
    and extends her hands to the needy.(F)
21 When it snows, she has no fear for her household;
    for all of them are clothed in scarlet.
22 She makes coverings for her bed;
    she is clothed in fine linen and purple.
23 Her husband is respected at the city gate,
    where he takes his seat among the elders(G) of the land.
24 She makes linen garments and sells them,
    and supplies the merchants with sashes.
25 She is clothed with strength and dignity;
    she can laugh at the days to come.
26 She speaks with wisdom,
    and faithful instruction is on her tongue.(H)
27 She watches over the affairs of her household
    and does not eat the bread of idleness.
28 Her children arise and call her blessed;
    her husband also, and he praises her:
29 “Many women do noble things,
    but you surpass them all.”
30 Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting;
    but a woman who fears the Lord is to be praised.
31 Honor her for all that her hands have done,
    and let her works bring her praise(I) at the city gate.

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  1. Proverbs 31:10 Verses 10-31 are an acrostic poem, the verses of which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

[a]How deserted(A) lies the city,
    once so full of people!(B)
How like a widow(C) is she,
    who once was great(D) among the nations!
She who was queen among the provinces
    has now become a slave.(E)

Bitterly she weeps(F) at night,
    tears are on her cheeks.
Among all her lovers(G)
    there is no one to comfort her.
All her friends have betrayed(H) her;
    they have become her enemies.(I)

After affliction and harsh labor,
    Judah has gone into exile.(J)
She dwells among the nations;
    she finds no resting place.(K)
All who pursue her have overtaken her(L)
    in the midst of her distress.

The roads to Zion mourn,(M)
    for no one comes to her appointed festivals.
All her gateways are desolate,(N)
    her priests groan,
her young women grieve,
    and she is in bitter anguish.(O)

Her foes have become her masters;
    her enemies are at ease.
The Lord has brought her grief(P)
    because of her many sins.(Q)
Her children have gone into exile,(R)
    captive before the foe.(S)

All the splendor has departed
    from Daughter Zion.(T)
Her princes are like deer
    that find no pasture;
in weakness they have fled(U)
    before the pursuer.

In the days of her affliction and wandering
    Jerusalem remembers all the treasures
    that were hers in days of old.
When her people fell into enemy hands,
    there was no one to help her.(V)
Her enemies looked at her
    and laughed(W) at her destruction.

Jerusalem has sinned(X) greatly
    and so has become unclean.(Y)
All who honored her despise her,
    for they have all seen her naked;(Z)
she herself groans(AA)
    and turns away.

Her filthiness clung to her skirts;
    she did not consider her future.(AB)
Her fall(AC) was astounding;
    there was none to comfort(AD) her.
“Look, Lord, on my affliction,(AE)
    for the enemy has triumphed.”

10 The enemy laid hands
    on all her treasures;(AF)
she saw pagan nations
    enter her sanctuary(AG)
those you had forbidden(AH)
    to enter your assembly.

11 All her people groan(AI)
    as they search for bread;(AJ)
they barter their treasures for food
    to keep themselves alive.
“Look, Lord, and consider,
    for I am despised.”

12 “Is it nothing to you, all you who pass by?(AK)
    Look around and see.
Is any suffering like my suffering(AL)
    that was inflicted on me,
that the Lord brought on me
    in the day of his fierce anger?(AM)

13 “From on high he sent fire,
    sent it down into my bones.(AN)
He spread a net(AO) for my feet
    and turned me back.
He made me desolate,(AP)
    faint(AQ) all the day long.

14 “My sins have been bound into a yoke[b];(AR)
    by his hands they were woven together.
They have been hung on my neck,
    and the Lord has sapped my strength.
He has given me into the hands(AS)
    of those I cannot withstand.

15 “The Lord has rejected
    all the warriors in my midst;(AT)
he has summoned an army(AU) against me
    to[c] crush my young men.(AV)
In his winepress(AW) the Lord has trampled(AX)
    Virgin Daughter(AY) Judah.

16 “This is why I weep
    and my eyes overflow with tears.(AZ)
No one is near to comfort(BA) me,
    no one to restore my spirit.
My children are destitute
    because the enemy has prevailed.”(BB)

17 Zion stretches out her hands,(BC)
    but there is no one to comfort her.
The Lord has decreed for Jacob
    that his neighbors become his foes;(BD)
Jerusalem has become
    an unclean(BE) thing(BF) among them.

18 “The Lord is righteous,(BG)
    yet I rebelled(BH) against his command.
Listen, all you peoples;
    look on my suffering.(BI)
My young men and young women
    have gone into exile.(BJ)

19 “I called to my allies(BK)
    but they betrayed me.
My priests and my elders
    perished(BL) in the city
while they searched for food
    to keep themselves alive.

20 “See, Lord, how distressed(BM) I am!
    I am in torment(BN) within,
and in my heart I am disturbed,(BO)
    for I have been most rebellious.(BP)
Outside, the sword bereaves;
    inside, there is only death.(BQ)

21 “People have heard my groaning,(BR)
    but there is no one to comfort me.(BS)
All my enemies have heard of my distress;
    they rejoice(BT) at what you have done.
May you bring the day(BU) you have announced
    so they may become like me.

22 “Let all their wickedness come before you;
    deal with them
as you have dealt with me
    because of all my sins.(BV)
My groans(BW) are many
    and my heart is faint.”

[d]How the Lord has covered Daughter Zion
    with the cloud of his anger[e]!(BX)
He has hurled down the splendor of Israel
    from heaven to earth;
he has not remembered his footstool(BY)
    in the day of his anger.(BZ)

Without pity(CA) the Lord has swallowed(CB) up
    all the dwellings of Jacob;
in his wrath he has torn down
    the strongholds(CC) of Daughter Judah.
He has brought her kingdom and its princes
    down to the ground(CD) in dishonor.

In fierce anger he has cut off
    every horn[f][g](CE) of Israel.
He has withdrawn his right hand(CF)
    at the approach of the enemy.
He has burned in Jacob like a flaming fire
    that consumes everything around it.(CG)

Like an enemy he has strung his bow;(CH)
    his right hand is ready.
Like a foe he has slain
    all who were pleasing to the eye;(CI)
he has poured out his wrath(CJ) like fire(CK)
    on the tent(CL) of Daughter Zion.

The Lord is like an enemy;(CM)
    he has swallowed up Israel.
He has swallowed up all her palaces
    and destroyed her strongholds.(CN)
He has multiplied mourning and lamentation(CO)
    for Daughter Judah.(CP)

He has laid waste his dwelling like a garden;
    he has destroyed(CQ) his place of meeting.(CR)
The Lord has made Zion forget
    her appointed festivals and her Sabbaths;(CS)
in his fierce anger he has spurned
    both king and priest.(CT)

The Lord has rejected his altar
    and abandoned his sanctuary.(CU)
He has given the walls of her palaces(CV)
    into the hands of the enemy;
they have raised a shout in the house of the Lord
    as on the day of an appointed festival.(CW)

The Lord determined to tear down
    the wall around Daughter Zion.(CX)
He stretched out a measuring line(CY)
    and did not withhold his hand from destroying.
He made ramparts(CZ) and walls lament;
    together they wasted away.(DA)

Her gates(DB) have sunk into the ground;
    their bars(DC) he has broken and destroyed.
Her king and her princes are exiled(DD) among the nations,
    the law(DE) is no more,
and her prophets(DF) no longer find
    visions(DG) from the Lord.

10 The elders of Daughter Zion
    sit on the ground in silence;(DH)
they have sprinkled dust(DI) on their heads(DJ)
    and put on sackcloth.(DK)
The young women of Jerusalem
    have bowed their heads to the ground.(DL)

11 My eyes fail from weeping,(DM)
    I am in torment within(DN);
my heart(DO) is poured out(DP) on the ground
    because my people are destroyed,(DQ)
because children and infants faint(DR)
    in the streets of the city.

12 They say to their mothers,
    “Where is bread and wine?”(DS)
as they faint like the wounded
    in the streets of the city,
as their lives ebb away(DT)
    in their mothers’ arms.(DU)

13 What can I say for you?(DV)
    With what can I compare you,
    Daughter(DW) Jerusalem?
To what can I liken you,
    that I may comfort you,
    Virgin Daughter Zion?(DX)
Your wound is as deep as the sea.(DY)
    Who can heal you?

14 The visions of your prophets
    were false(DZ) and worthless;
they did not expose your sin
    to ward off your captivity.(EA)
The prophecies they gave you
    were false and misleading.(EB)

15 All who pass your way
    clap their hands at you;(EC)
they scoff(ED) and shake their heads(EE)
    at Daughter Jerusalem:(EF)
“Is this the city that was called
    the perfection of beauty,(EG)
    the joy of the whole earth?”(EH)

16 All your enemies open their mouths
    wide against you;(EI)
they scoff and gnash their teeth(EJ)
    and say, “We have swallowed her up.(EK)
This is the day we have waited for;
    we have lived to see it.”(EL)

17 The Lord has done what he planned;
    he has fulfilled(EM) his word,
    which he decreed long ago.(EN)
He has overthrown you without pity,(EO)
    he has let the enemy gloat over you,(EP)
    he has exalted the horn[h] of your foes.(EQ)

18 The hearts of the people
    cry out to the Lord.(ER)
You walls of Daughter Zion,(ES)
    let your tears(ET) flow like a river
    day and night;(EU)
give yourself no relief,
    your eyes no rest.(EV)

19 Arise, cry out in the night,
    as the watches of the night begin;
pour out your heart(EW) like water
    in the presence of the Lord.(EX)
Lift up your hands(EY) to him
    for the lives of your children,
who faint(EZ) from hunger
    at every street corner.

20 “Look, Lord, and consider:
    Whom have you ever treated like this?
Should women eat their offspring,(FA)
    the children they have cared for?(FB)
Should priest and prophet be killed(FC)
    in the sanctuary of the Lord?(FD)

21 “Young and old lie together
    in the dust of the streets;
my young men and young women
    have fallen by the sword.(FE)
You have slain them in the day of your anger;
    you have slaughtered them without pity.(FF)

22 “As you summon to a feast day,
    so you summoned against me terrors(FG) on every side.
In the day of the Lord’s anger
    no one escaped(FH) or survived;
those I cared for and reared(FI)
    my enemy has destroyed.”

[i]I am the man who has seen affliction(FJ)
    by the rod of the Lord’s wrath.(FK)
He has driven me away and made me walk
    in darkness(FL) rather than light;
indeed, he has turned his hand against me(FM)
    again and again, all day long.

He has made my skin and my flesh grow old(FN)
    and has broken my bones.(FO)
He has besieged me and surrounded me
    with bitterness(FP) and hardship.(FQ)
He has made me dwell in darkness
    like those long dead.(FR)

He has walled me in so I cannot escape;(FS)
    he has weighed me down with chains.(FT)
Even when I call out or cry for help,(FU)
    he shuts out my prayer.(FV)
He has barred(FW) my way with blocks of stone;
    he has made my paths crooked.(FX)

10 Like a bear lying in wait,
    like a lion(FY) in hiding,(FZ)
11 he dragged me from the path and mangled(GA) me
    and left me without help.
12 He drew his bow(GB)
    and made me the target(GC) for his arrows.(GD)

13 He pierced(GE) my heart
    with arrows from his quiver.(GF)
14 I became the laughingstock(GG) of all my people;(GH)
    they mock me in song(GI) all day long.
15 He has filled me with bitter herbs
    and given me gall to drink.(GJ)

16 He has broken my teeth with gravel;(GK)
    he has trampled me in the dust.(GL)
17 I have been deprived of peace;
    I have forgotten what prosperity is.
18 So I say, “My splendor is gone
    and all that I had hoped from the Lord.”(GM)

19 I remember my affliction and my wandering,
    the bitterness(GN) and the gall.(GO)
20 I well remember them,
    and my soul is downcast(GP) within me.(GQ)
21 Yet this I call to mind
    and therefore I have hope:

22 Because of the Lord’s great love(GR) we are not consumed,(GS)
    for his compassions never fail.(GT)
23 They are new every morning;
    great is your faithfulness.(GU)
24 I say to myself, “The Lord is my portion;(GV)
    therefore I will wait for him.”

25 The Lord is good to those whose hope is in him,
    to the one who seeks him;(GW)
26 it is good to wait quietly(GX)
    for the salvation of the Lord.(GY)
27 It is good for a man to bear the yoke
    while he is young.

28 Let him sit alone in silence,(GZ)
    for the Lord has laid it on him.
29 Let him bury his face in the dust(HA)
    there may yet be hope.(HB)
30 Let him offer his cheek to one who would strike him,(HC)
    and let him be filled with disgrace.(HD)

31 For no one is cast off
    by the Lord forever.(HE)
32 Though he brings grief, he will show compassion,
    so great is his unfailing love.(HF)
33 For he does not willingly bring affliction
    or grief to anyone.(HG)

34 To crush underfoot
    all prisoners in the land,
35 to deny people their rights
    before the Most High,(HH)
36 to deprive them of justice—
    would not the Lord see such things?(HI)

37 Who can speak and have it happen
    if the Lord has not decreed it?(HJ)
38 Is it not from the mouth of the Most High
    that both calamities and good things come?(HK)
39 Why should the living complain
    when punished for their sins?(HL)

40 Let us examine our ways and test them,(HM)
    and let us return to the Lord.(HN)
41 Let us lift up our hearts and our hands
    to God in heaven,(HO) and say:
42 “We have sinned and rebelled(HP)
    and you have not forgiven.(HQ)

43 “You have covered yourself with anger and pursued(HR) us;
    you have slain without pity.(HS)
44 You have covered yourself with a cloud(HT)
    so that no prayer(HU) can get through.(HV)
45 You have made us scum(HW) and refuse
    among the nations.

46 “All our enemies have opened their mouths
    wide(HX) against us.(HY)
47 We have suffered terror and pitfalls,(HZ)
    ruin and destruction.(IA)
48 Streams of tears(IB) flow from my eyes(IC)
    because my people are destroyed.(ID)

49 My eyes will flow unceasingly,
    without relief,(IE)
50 until the Lord looks down
    from heaven and sees.(IF)
51 What I see brings grief to my soul
    because of all the women of my city.

52 Those who were my enemies without cause
    hunted me like a bird.(IG)
53 They tried to end my life in a pit(IH)
    and threw stones at me;
54 the waters closed over my head,(II)
    and I thought I was about to perish.(IJ)

55 I called on your name, Lord,
    from the depths(IK) of the pit.(IL)
56 You heard my plea:(IM) “Do not close your ears
    to my cry for relief.”
57 You came near(IN) when I called you,
    and you said, “Do not fear.”(IO)

58 You, Lord, took up my case;(IP)
    you redeemed my life.(IQ)
59 Lord, you have seen the wrong done to me.(IR)
    Uphold my cause!(IS)
60 You have seen the depth of their vengeance,
    all their plots against me.(IT)

61 Lord, you have heard their insults,(IU)
    all their plots against me—
62 what my enemies whisper and mutter
    against me all day long.(IV)
63 Look at them! Sitting or standing,
    they mock me in their songs.(IW)

64 Pay them back what they deserve, Lord,
    for what their hands have done.(IX)
65 Put a veil over their hearts,(IY)
    and may your curse be on them!
66 Pursue(IZ) them in anger and destroy them
    from under the heavens of the Lord.

[j]How the gold has lost its luster,
    the fine gold become dull!
The sacred gems are scattered
    at every street corner.(JA)

How the precious children of Zion,(JB)
    once worth their weight in gold,
are now considered as pots of clay,
    the work of a potter’s hands!

Even jackals offer their breasts
    to nurse their young,
but my people have become heartless
    like ostriches in the desert.(JC)

Because of thirst(JD) the infant’s tongue
    sticks to the roof of its mouth;(JE)
the children beg for bread,
    but no one gives it to them.(JF)

Those who once ate delicacies
    are destitute in the streets.
Those brought up in royal purple(JG)
    now lie on ash heaps.(JH)

The punishment of my people
    is greater than that of Sodom,(JI)
which was overthrown in a moment
    without a hand turned to help her.

Their princes were brighter than snow
    and whiter than milk,
their bodies more ruddy than rubies,
    their appearance like lapis lazuli.

But now they are blacker(JJ) than soot;
    they are not recognized in the streets.
Their skin has shriveled on their bones;(JK)
    it has become as dry as a stick.

Those killed by the sword are better off
    than those who die of famine;(JL)
racked with hunger, they waste away
    for lack of food from the field.(JM)

10 With their own hands compassionate women
    have cooked their own children,(JN)
who became their food
    when my people were destroyed.

11 The Lord has given full vent to his wrath;(JO)
    he has poured out(JP) his fierce anger.(JQ)
He kindled a fire(JR) in Zion
    that consumed her foundations.(JS)

12 The kings of the earth did not believe,
    nor did any of the peoples of the world,
that enemies and foes could enter
    the gates of Jerusalem.(JT)

13 But it happened because of the sins of her prophets
    and the iniquities of her priests,(JU)
who shed within her
    the blood(JV) of the righteous.

14 Now they grope through the streets
    as if they were blind.(JW)
They are so defiled with blood(JX)
    that no one dares to touch their garments.

15 “Go away! You are unclean!” people cry to them.
    “Away! Away! Don’t touch us!”
When they flee and wander(JY) about,
    people among the nations say,
    “They can stay here no longer.”(JZ)

16 The Lord himself has scattered them;
    he no longer watches over them.(KA)
The priests are shown no honor,
    the elders(KB) no favor.(KC)

17 Moreover, our eyes failed,
    looking in vain(KD) for help;(KE)
from our towers we watched
    for a nation(KF) that could not save us.

18 People stalked us at every step,
    so we could not walk in our streets.
Our end was near, our days were numbered,
    for our end had come.(KG)

19 Our pursuers were swifter
    than eagles(KH) in the sky;
they chased us(KI) over the mountains
    and lay in wait for us in the desert.(KJ)

20 The Lord’s anointed,(KK) our very life breath,
    was caught in their traps.(KL)
We thought that under his shadow(KM)
    we would live among the nations.

21 Rejoice and be glad, Daughter Edom,
    you who live in the land of Uz.(KN)
But to you also the cup(KO) will be passed;
    you will be drunk and stripped naked.(KP)

22 Your punishment will end, Daughter Zion;(KQ)
    he will not prolong your exile.
But he will punish your sin, Daughter Edom,
    and expose your wickedness.(KR)


  1. Lamentations 1:1 This chapter is an acrostic poem, the verses of which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
  2. Lamentations 1:14 Most Hebrew manuscripts; many Hebrew manuscripts and Septuagint He kept watch over my sins
  3. Lamentations 1:15 Or has set a time for me / when he will
  4. Lamentations 2:1 This chapter is an acrostic poem, the verses of which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
  5. Lamentations 2:1 Or How the Lord in his anger / has treated Daughter Zion with contempt
  6. Lamentations 2:3 Or off / all the strength; or every king
  7. Lamentations 2:3 Horn here symbolizes strength.
  8. Lamentations 2:17 Horn here symbolizes strength.
  9. Lamentations 3:1 This chapter is an acrostic poem; the verses of each stanza begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet, and the verses within each stanza begin with the same letter.
  10. Lamentations 4:1 This chapter is an acrostic poem, the verses of which begin with the successive letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

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