2 Now these are the names of the twelve [a]apostles (special messengers, personally chosen representatives): first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew, his brother; [b]James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother;3 Philip and Bartholomew (Nathanael); Thomas and Matthew (Levi) the tax collector; [c]James the son of [d]Alphaeus, and Thaddaeus (Judas, not Iscariot);
Matthew 10:2In general usage the word “apostle” (Gr apostolos) means “sent one” or “messenger.” In this passage and others in reference to the “twelve,” the word “apostles” is used in a technical sense of the twelve disciples, and later Paul, whom Jesus chose. An apostle was one who witnessed Christ’s resurrection (Acts 1:21, 22; 1 Cor 9:1, 2). They validated their apostleship by performing “signs and wonders and miracles” (2 Cor 12:12), and were the foundation of the church.
Matthew 10:2It is believed that Salome, Zebedee’s wife and the mother of James and John was a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus.
Matthew 10:3Also known as James the Less or James the Younger. It is believed that his mother, Mary (Gr Maria), was a sister or sister-in-law of Mary, the mother of Jesus (John 19:25).
Matthew 10:3Possibly the Hebrew or Syriac name of the same person: Clopas. He may be the “Cleopas” mentioned in Luke 24:18.
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