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The Triumphal Entry

21 Now[a] when they approached Jerusalem and came to Bethphage,[b] at the Mount of Olives,[c] Jesus sent two disciples, telling them, “Go to the village ahead of you.[d] Right away you will find a donkey tied there, and a colt with her. Untie them and bring them to me. If anyone says anything to you, you are to say, ‘The Lord needs them,’[e] and he will send them at once.” This[f] took place to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet:[g]

Tell the people of Zion,[h]
Look, your king is coming to you,
unassuming and seated on a donkey,
and on a colt, the foal of a donkey.’”[i]

So[j] the disciples went and did as Jesus had instructed them. They brought the donkey and the colt and placed their cloaks[k] on them, and he sat on them. A[l] very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road. Others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of him and those following kept shouting,[m]Hosanna[n] to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord![o] Hosanna in the highest!” 10 As he entered Jerusalem the whole city was thrown into an uproar,[p] saying, “Who is this?” 11 And the crowds were saying, “This is the prophet Jesus, from Nazareth in Galilee.”

Cleansing the Temple

12 Then[q] Jesus entered the temple area[r] and drove out all those who were selling and buying in the temple courts,[s] and turned over the tables of the money changers and the chairs of those selling doves. 13 And he said to them, “It is written, ‘My house will be called a house of prayer,[t] but you are turning it into a den[u] of robbers!”[v]

14 The blind and lame came to him in the temple courts, and he healed them. 15 But when the chief priests and the experts in the law[w] saw the wonderful things he did and heard the children crying out in the temple courts,[x] “Hosanna to the Son of David,” they became indignant 16 and said to him, “Do you hear what they are saying?” Jesus said to them, “Yes. Have you never read, ‘Out of the mouths of children and nursing infants you have prepared praise for yourself’?”[y] 17 And leaving them, he went out of the city to Bethany and spent the night there.

The Withered Fig Tree

18 Now early in the morning, as he returned to the city, he was hungry. 19 After noticing a fig tree[z] by the road he went to it, but found nothing on it except leaves. He said to it, “Never again will there be fruit from you!” And the fig tree withered at once. 20 When the disciples saw it they were amazed, saying, “How did the fig tree wither so quickly?” 21 Jesus[aa] answered them, “I tell you the truth,[ab] if you have faith and do not doubt, not only will you do what was done to the fig tree, but even if you say to this mountain, ‘Be lifted up and thrown into the sea,’ it will happen. 22 And whatever you ask in prayer, if you believe,[ac] you will receive.”

The Authority of Jesus

23 Now after Jesus[ad] entered the temple courts,[ae] the chief priests and elders of the people came up to him as he was teaching and said, “By what authority[af] are you doing these things, and who gave you this authority?” 24 Jesus[ag] answered them, “I will also ask you one question. If you answer me then I will also tell you by what authority I do these things. 25 Where did John’s baptism come from? From heaven or from people?”[ah] They discussed this among themselves, saying, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Then why did you not believe him?’ 26 But if we say, ‘From people,’ we fear the crowd, for they all consider John to be a prophet.” 27 So[ai] they answered Jesus,[aj] “We don’t know.”[ak] Then he said to them, “Neither will I tell you[al] by what authority[am] I am doing these things.

The Parable of the Two Sons

28 “What[an] do you think? A man had two sons. He went to the first and said, ‘Son, go and work in the vineyard today.’ 29 The boy answered,[ao] ‘I will not.’ But later he had a change of heart[ap] and went. 30 The father[aq] went to the other son and said the same thing. This boy answered,[ar] ‘I will, sir,’ but did not go. 31 Which of the two did his father’s will?” They said, “The first.”[as] Jesus said to them, “I tell you the truth,[at] tax collectors[au] and prostitutes will go ahead of you into the kingdom of God! 32 For John came to you in the way of righteousness, and you did not believe him. But the tax collectors and prostitutes did believe. Although[av] you saw this, you did not later change your minds[aw] and believe him.

The Parable of the Tenants

33 “Listen to another parable: There was a landowner[ax] who planted a vineyard.[ay] He put a fence around it, dug a pit for its winepress, and built a watchtower. Then[az] he leased it to tenant farmers[ba] and went on a journey. 34 When the harvest time was near, he sent his slaves[bb] to the tenants to collect his portion of the crop.[bc] 35 But the tenants seized his slaves, beat one,[bd] killed another, and stoned another. 36 Again he sent other slaves, more than the first, and they treated them the same way. 37 Finally he sent his son to them,[be] saying, ‘They will respect my son.’ 38 But when the tenants saw the son, they said to themselves, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him and get his inheritance!’ 39 So[bf] they seized him,[bg] threw him out of the vineyard,[bh] and killed him. 40 Now when the owner of the vineyard comes, what will he do to those tenants?” 41 They said to him, “He will utterly destroy those evil men! Then he will lease the vineyard to other tenants who will give him his portion at the harvest.”

42 Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the scriptures:

The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone.[bi]
This is from the Lord, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?[bj]

43 For this reason I tell you that the kingdom of God will be taken from you and given to a people[bk] who will produce its fruit. 44 The one who falls on this stone will be broken to pieces, and the one on whom it falls will be crushed.”[bl] 45 When[bm] the chief priests and the Pharisees[bn] heard his parables, they realized that he was speaking about them. 46 They wanted to arrest him, but they were afraid of the crowds, because the crowds[bo] regarded him as a prophet.

The Parable of the Wedding Banquet

22 Jesus spoke[bp] to them again in parables, saying: “The kingdom of heaven can be compared to a king who gave a wedding banquet for his son. He sent his slaves[bq] to summon those who had been invited to the banquet, but they would not come. Again he sent other slaves, saying, ‘Tell those who have been invited, “Look! The feast I have prepared for you is ready.[br] My oxen and fattened cattle have been slaughtered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding banquet.”’ But they were indifferent and went away, one to his farm, another to his business. The[bs] rest seized his slaves, insolently mistreated them, and killed them. The[bt] king was furious! He sent his soldiers, and they put those murderers to death[bu] and set their city[bv] on fire. Then he said to his slaves, ‘The wedding is ready, but the ones who had been invited were not worthy. So go into the main streets and invite everyone you find to the wedding banquet.’ 10 And those slaves went out into the streets and gathered all they found, both bad and good, and the wedding hall was filled with guests. 11 But when the king came in to see the wedding guests, he saw a man there who was not wearing wedding clothes. 12 And he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you get in here without wedding clothes?’ But he had nothing to say.[bw] 13 Then the king said to his attendants, ‘Tie him up hand and foot and throw him into the outer darkness,[bx] where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth!’ 14 For many are called, but few are chosen.”

Paying Taxes to Caesar

15 Then the Pharisees[by] went out and planned together to entrap him with his own words.[bz] 16 They sent to him their disciples along with the Herodians,[ca] saying, “Teacher, we know that you are truthful, and teach the way of God in accordance with the truth.[cb] You do not court anyone’s favor because you show no partiality.[cc] 17 Tell us then, what do you think? Is it right[cd] to pay taxes[ce] to Caesar[cf] or not?”

18 But Jesus realized their evil intentions and said, “Hypocrites! Why are you testing me? 19 Show me the coin used for the tax.” So[cg] they brought him a denarius.[ch] 20 Jesus[ci] said to them, “Whose image[cj] is this, and whose inscription?” 21 They replied,[ck] “Caesar’s.” He said to them,[cl] “Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”[cm] 22 Now when they heard this they were stunned,[cn] and they left him and went away.

Marriage and the Resurrection

23 The same day Sadducees[co] (who say there is no resurrection)[cp] came to him and asked him,[cq] 24 “Teacher, Moses said, ‘If a man dies without having children, his brother must marry the widow and father children[cr] for his brother.’[cs] 25 Now there were seven brothers among us. The first one married and died, and since he had no children he left his wife to his brother. 26 The second did the same, and the third, down to the seventh. 27 Last[ct] of all, the woman died. 28 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife of the seven will she be? For they all had married her.”[cu] 29 Jesus[cv] answered them, “You are deceived,[cw] because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. 30 For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels[cx] in heaven. 31 Now as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was spoken to you by God,[cy] 32 I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’?[cz] He is not the God of the dead but of the living!”[da] 33 When the crowds heard this, they were amazed at his teaching.

The Greatest Commandment

34 Now when the Pharisees[db] heard that he had silenced the Sadducees,[dc] they assembled together.[dd] 35 And one of them, an expert in religious law,[de] asked him a question to test[df] him: 36 “Teacher, which commandment in the law is the greatest?”[dg] 37 Jesus[dh] said to him, “‘Love[di] the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind.’[dj] 38 This is the first and greatest[dk] commandment. 39 The second is like it: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’[dl] 40 All the law and the prophets depend[dm] on these two commandments.”

The Messiah: David’s Son and Lord

41 While[dn] the Pharisees[do] were assembled, Jesus asked them a question:[dp] 42 “What do you think about the Christ?[dq] Whose son is he?” They said, “The son of David.”[dr] 43 He said to them, “How then does David by the Spirit call him ‘Lord,’ saying,

44 The Lord said to my lord,[ds]
Sit at my right hand,
until I put your enemies under your feet”’?[dt]

45 If David then calls him ‘Lord,’ how can he be his son?”[du] 46 No one[dv] was able to answer him a word, and from that day on no one dared to question him any longer.


  1. Matthew 21:1 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic.
  2. Matthew 21:1 sn The exact location of the village of Bethphage is not known. Most put it on the southeast side of the Mount of Olives and northwest of Bethany, about 1.5 miles (3 km) east of Jerusalem.
  3. Matthew 21:1 sn “Mountain” in English generally denotes a higher elevation than it often does in reference to places in Palestine. The Mount of Olives is really a ridge running north to south about 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) long, east of Jerusalem across the Kidron Valley. Its central elevation is about 30 meters (100 ft) higher than Jerusalem. It was named for the large number of olive trees which grew on it.
  4. Matthew 21:2 tn Grk “the village lying before you” (BDAG 530 s.v. κατέναντι 2.b).
  5. Matthew 21:3 sn The custom called angaria allowed the impressment of animals for service to a significant figure.
  6. Matthew 21:4 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  7. Matthew 21:4 tn Grk “what was spoken by the prophet, saying.” The present participle λέγοντος (legontos) is redundant and has not been translated.
  8. Matthew 21:5 tn Grk “Tell the daughter of Zion” (the phrase “daughter of Zion” is an idiom for the inhabitants of Jerusalem: “people of Zion”). The idiom “daughter of Zion” has been translated as “people of Zion” because the original idiom, while firmly embedded in the Christian tradition, is not understandable to most modern English readers.
  9. Matthew 21:5 tn Grk “the foal of an animal under the yoke,” i.e., a hard-working animal. This is a quotation from Zech 9:9.
  10. Matthew 21:6 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of Jesus’ instructions in vv. 2-3.
  11. Matthew 21:7 tn Grk “garments”; but this refers in context to their outer cloaks. The action is like 2 Kgs 9:13.
  12. Matthew 21:8 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  13. Matthew 21:9 tn Grk “were shouting, saying.” The participle λέγοντας (legontas) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  14. Matthew 21:9 tn The expression ῾Ωσαννά (hōsanna, literally in Hebrew, “O Lord, save”) in the quotation from Ps 118:25-26 was probably by this time a familiar liturgical expression of praise, on the order of “Hail to the king,” although both the underlying Aramaic and Hebrew expressions meant “O Lord, save us.” In words familiar to every Jew, the author is indicating that at this point every messianic expectation is now at the point of realization. It is clear from the words of the psalm shouted by the crowd that Jesus is being proclaimed as messianic king. See E. Lohse, TDNT Hosanna is an Aramaic expression that literally means, “help, I pray,” or “save, I pray.” By Jesus’ time it had become a strictly liturgical formula of praise, however, and was used as an exclamation of praise to God.
  15. Matthew 21:9 sn A quotation from Ps 118:25-26.
  16. Matthew 21:10 tn Grk “was shaken.” The translation “thrown into an uproar” is given by L&N 25.233.
  17. Matthew 21:12 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  18. Matthew 21:12 tn Grk “the temple.”sn The merchants (those who were selling) would have been located in the Court of the Gentiles.
  19. Matthew 21:12 tn Grk “the temple.”sn Matthew (here, 21:12-27), Mark (11:15-19) and Luke (19:45-46) record this incident of the temple cleansing at the end of Jesus’ ministry. John (2:13-16) records a cleansing of the temple at the beginning of Jesus’ ministry. See the note on the word temple courts in John 2:14 for a discussion of the relationship of these accounts to one another.
  20. Matthew 21:13 sn A quotation from Isa 56:7.
  21. Matthew 21:13 tn Or “a hideout” (see L&N 1.57).
  22. Matthew 21:13 sn A quotation from Jer 7:11. The meaning of Jesus’ statement about making the temple courts a den of robbers probably operates here at two levels. Not only were the religious leaders robbing the people financially, but because of this they had also robbed them spiritually by stealing from them the opportunity to come to know God genuinely. It is possible that these merchants had recently been moved to this location for convenience.
  23. Matthew 21:15 tn Or “and the scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 2:4.
  24. Matthew 21:15 tn Grk “crying out in the temple [courts] and saying.” The participle λέγοντας (legontas) is somewhat redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  25. Matthew 21:16 sn A quotation from Ps 8:2.
  26. Matthew 21:19 tn Grk “one fig tree.”sn The fig tree is a variation on the picture of a vine as representing the nation; see Isa 5:1-7.
  27. Matthew 21:21 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
  28. Matthew 21:21 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  29. Matthew 21:22 tn Grk “believing”; the participle here is conditional.
  30. Matthew 21:23 tn Grk “he.”
  31. Matthew 21:23 tn Grk “the temple.”
  32. Matthew 21:23 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ.1
  33. Matthew 21:24 tn Grk “answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  34. Matthew 21:25 tn The plural Greek term ἀνθρώπων (anthrōpōn) is used here (and in v. 26) in a generic sense, referring to both men and women (cf. NAB, NRSV, “of human origin”; TEV, “from human beings”; NLT, “merely human”).sn The question is whether John’s ministry was of divine or human origin.
  35. Matthew 21:27 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “So” to indicate that the clause is a result of the deliberations of the leaders.
  36. Matthew 21:27 tn Grk “answering Jesus, they said.” This construction is somewhat awkward in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  37. Matthew 21:27 sn Very few questions could have so completely revealed the wicked intentions of the religious leaders. Jesus’ question revealed the motivation of the religious leaders and exposed them for what they really were—hypocrites. They indicted themselves when they cited only two options and chose neither of them (“We do not know”). The point of Matt 21:23-27 is that no matter what Jesus said in response to their question, they were not going to believe it and would in the end use it against him.
  38. Matthew 21:27 sn Neither will I tell you. Though Jesus gave no answer, the analogy he used to their own question makes his view clear. His authority came from heaven.
  39. Matthew 21:27 tn On this phrase, see BDAG 844 s.v. ποῖος 2.a.γ. This is exactly the same phrase as in v. 23.
  40. Matthew 21:28 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  41. Matthew 21:29 tn Grk “And answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here the referent (“the boy”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  42. Matthew 21:29 tn The Greek text reads here μεταμέλομαι (metamelomai): “to change one’s mind about something, with the probable implication of regret” (L&N 31.59); cf. also BDAG 639 s.v. The idea in this context involves more than just a change of mind, for the son regrets his initial response. The same verb is used in v. 32.
  43. Matthew 21:30 tn “And he”; here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  44. Matthew 21:30 tn Grk “And answering, he said.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation. Here δέ (de) has not been translated. Here the referent (“this boy”) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  45. Matthew 21:31 tc Verses 29-31 involve a rather complex and difficult textual problem. The variants cluster into three different groups: (1) The first son says “no” and later has a change of heart, and the second son says “yes” but does not go. The second son is called the one who does his father’s will. This reading is found in the Western witnesses (D it). But the reading is so hard as to be nearly impossible. One can only suspect some tampering with the text, extreme carelessness on the part of the scribe, or possibly a recognition of the importance of not shaming one’s parent in public. (Any of these reasons is not improbable with this group of witnesses, and with codex D in particular.) The other two major variants are more difficult to assess. Essentially, the responses make sense (the son who does his father’s will is the one who changes his mind after saying “no”): (2) The first son says “no” and later has a change of heart, and the second son says “yes” but does not go. But here, the first son is called the one who does his father’s will (unlike the Western reading). This is the reading found in א C L W (Z) Δ 0102 0281 ƒ1 33 565 579 1241 1424*,c M and several versional witnesses. (3) The first son says “yes” but does not go, and the second son says “no” but later has a change of heart. This is the reading found in B Θ ƒ13 700 and several versional witnesses. Both of these latter two variants make good sense and have significantly better textual support than the first reading. The real question, then, is this: Is the first son or the second the obedient one? If one were to argue simply from the parabolic logic, the second son would be seen as the obedient one (hence, the third reading). The first son would represent the Pharisees (or Jews) who claim to obey God, but do not (cf. Matt 23:3). This accords well with the parable of the prodigal son (in which the oldest son represents the unbelieving Jews). Further, the chronological sequence of the second son being obedient fits well with the real scene: Gentiles, tax collectors, and prostitutes were not, collectively, God’s chosen people, but they did repent and come to God, while the Jewish leaders claimed to be obedient to God but did nothing. At the same time, the external evidence is weaker for this reading (though stronger than the first reading), not as widespread, and certainly suspect because of how neatly it fits. One suspects scribal manipulation at this point. Thus the second reading looks to be superior to the other two on both external and transcriptional grounds. But what about intrinsic evidence? One can surmise that Jesus didn’t always give predictable responses. In this instance, he may well have painted a picture in which the Pharisees saw themselves as the first son, only to stun them with his application (v. 32). For more discussion see TCGNT 44-46.
  46. Matthew 21:31 tn Grk “Truly (ἀμήν, amēn), I say to you.”
  47. Matthew 21:31 sn See the note on tax collectors in 5:46.
  48. Matthew 21:32 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  49. Matthew 21:32 sn The word translated change your minds is the same verb used in v. 29 (there translated had a change of heart). Jesus is making an obvious comparison here, in which the religious leaders are viewed as the disobedient son.
  50. Matthew 21:33 tn The term here refers to the owner and manager of a household.
  51. Matthew 21:33 sn The vineyard is a figure for Israel in the OT (Isa 5:1-7). The nation and its leaders are the tenants, so the vineyard here may well refer to the promise that resides within the nation. The imagery is like that in Rom 11:11-24.
  52. Matthew 21:33 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
  53. Matthew 21:33 sn The leasing of land to tenant farmers was common in this period.
  54. Matthew 21:34 tn See the note on the word “slave” in These slaves represent the prophets God sent to the nation, who were mistreated and rejected.
  55. Matthew 21:34 tn Grk “to collect his fruits.”
  56. Matthew 21:35 sn The image of the tenants mistreating the owner’s slaves pictures the nation’s rejection of the prophets and their message.
  57. Matthew 21:37 sn The owner’s decision to send his son represents God sending Jesus.
  58. Matthew 21:39 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the implied result of the tenants’ decision to kill the son in v. 38.
  59. Matthew 21:39 tn Grk “seizing him.” The participle λαβόντες (labontes) has been translated as attendant circumstance.
  60. Matthew 21:39 sn Throwing the heir out of the vineyard pictures Jesus’ death outside of Jerusalem.
  61. Matthew 21:42 tn Or “capstone,” “keystone.” Although these meanings are lexically possible, the imagery in Eph 2:20-22 and 1 Cor 3:11 indicates that the term κεφαλὴ γωνίας (kephalē gōnias) refers to a cornerstone, not a The stone the builders rejected has become the cornerstone. The use of Ps 118:22-23 and the “stone imagery” as a reference to Christ and his suffering and exaltation is common in the NT (see also Mark 12:10; Luke 20:17; Acts 4:11; 1 Pet 2:6-8; cf. also Eph 2:20). The irony in the use of Ps 118:22-23 here is that in the OT, Israel was the one rejected (or perhaps her king) by the Gentiles, but in the NT it is Jesus who is rejected by Israel.
  62. Matthew 21:42 sn A quotation from Ps 118:22-23.
  63. Matthew 21:43 tn Or “to a nation” (so KJV, NASB, NLT).
  64. Matthew 21:44 tc A few witnesses, especially of the Western text (D 33 it sys Irlat Or Eussyr), do not contain 21:44. However, the verse is found in א B C L W Z Δ (Θ) 0102 ƒ1, 13 565 579 700 1241 1424 M lat syc,p,h co. The NA27 and NA28 put this verse in brackets, which normally indicates some doubt as to its authenticity, but Metzger’s Textual Commentary claims that the committee concluded that the verse was an “accretion,” including it not because of authenticity but because of its longstanding role in the textual tradition (TCGNT 47). Some scholars see the verse as scribally borrowed from the parallel in Luke 20:18, but both the wording and word order are different enough that such an imperfect assimilation cannot account for the great variety of witnesses that have a uniform reading here. In light of the lack of adequate explanation for the rise of this verse as it is written, the longer reading should be Grk “on whomever it falls, it will crush him.”sn This proverb basically means that the stone crushes, without regard to whether it falls on someone or someone falls on it. On the stone as a messianic image, see Isa 28:16 and Dan 2:44-45.
  65. Matthew 21:45 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  66. Matthew 21:45 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  67. Matthew 21:46 tn Grk “they”; the referent (the crowds) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Both previous occurrences of “they” in this verse refer to the chief priests and the Pharisees.
  68. Matthew 22:1 tn Grk “And answering again, Jesus spoke.” This construction is somewhat redundant in English and has been simplified in the translation.
  69. Matthew 22:3 tn See the note on the word “slave” in 8:9.
  70. Matthew 22:4 tn Grk “Behold, I have prepared my meal.” In some contexts, however, to translate ἄριστον (ariston) as “meal” or “dinner” somewhat misses the point. L&N 23.22 here suggests, “See now, the feast I have prepared (for you is ready).”
  71. Matthew 22:6 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  72. Matthew 22:7 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  73. Matthew 22:7 tn Grk “he sent his soldiers, destroyed those murderers.” The verb ἀπώλεσεν (apōlesen) is causative, indicating that the king was the one behind the execution of the murderers. In English the causative idea is not expressed naturally here; either a purpose clause (“he sent his soldiers to put those murderers to death”) or a relative clause (“he sent his soldier who put those murderers to death”) is preferred.
  74. Matthew 22:7 tn The Greek text reads here πόλις (polis), which could be translated “town” or “city.” The prophetic reference is to the city of Jerusalem, so “city” is more appropriate here.
  75. Matthew 22:12 tn Grk “he was silent.”
  76. Matthew 22:13 tn The Greek term translated “darkness” (σκότος) is associated with Tartarus in Aeschylus, Eumenides 72; other references to the darkness of death and the underworld can be found throughout the classical literature as far back as Homer. BDAG 932 s.v. σκότος 1 states: “Of the darkness of the place of punishment far removed fr. the heavenly kingdom (Philo, Exsecr. 152 βαθὺ σκότος. Cp. Wsd 17:20; PsSol 14:9.—σκ. κ. βόρβορος ‘gloom and muck’ await those who are untrue to the Eleusinian Mysteries, Ael. Aristid. 22, 10 K.=19 p. 421 D. Of the darkness of death and the underworld in Hom. and the Trag. As the domain of evil spirits PGM 36, 138; Theoph. Ant. 2, 7 [p. 110, 5]) τὸ σκ. τὸ ἐξώτερον the darkness outside Mt 8:12; 22:13; 25:30.”
  77. Matthew 22:15 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  78. Matthew 22:15 tn Grk “trap him in word.”
  79. Matthew 22:16 sn The Herodians are mentioned in the NT only once in Matt (22:16 = Mark 12:13) and twice in Mark (3:6; 12:13; some mss also read “Herodians” instead of “Herod” in Mark 8:15). It is generally assumed that as a group the Herodians were Jewish supporters of the Herodian dynasty (or of Herod Antipas in particular). In every instance they are linked with the Pharisees. This probably reflects agreement regarding political objectives (nationalism as opposed to submission to the yoke of Roman oppression) rather than philosophy or religious beliefs.
  80. Matthew 22:16 sn Teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Very few comments are as deceitful as this one; they did not really believe this at all. The question of the Pharisees and Herodians was specifically designed to trap Jesus.
  81. Matthew 22:16 tn Grk “And it is not a concern to you about anyone because you do not see the face of men.”
  82. Matthew 22:17 tn Or “lawful,” that is, in accordance with God’s divine law. On the syntax of ἔξεστιν (exestin) with an infinitive and accusative, see BDF §409.3.
  83. Matthew 22:17 tn According to L&N 57.180 the term κῆνσος (kēnsos) was borrowed from Latin and referred to a poll tax, a tax paid by each adult male to the Roman This question concerning taxes was specifically designed to trap Jesus. If he answered yes, then his opponents could publicly discredit him as a sympathizer with Rome. If he answered no, then they could go to the Roman governor and accuse Jesus of rebellion.
  84. Matthew 22:17 tn Or “to the emperor” (“Caesar” is a title for the Roman emperor).
  85. Matthew 22:19 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “so” to indicate their response to Jesus’ request for a coin.
  86. Matthew 22:19 tn Here the specific name of the coin was retained in the translation, because not all coins in circulation in Palestine at the time carried the image of Caesar. In other places δηνάριον (dēnarion) has been translated simply as “silver coin” with an explanatory A denarius was a silver coin worth approximately one day’s wage for a laborer. The fact that they had such a coin showed that they already operated in the economic world of Rome. The denarius would have had a picture of Tiberius Caesar stamped on it.
  87. Matthew 22:20 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here καί (kai) has not been translated.
  88. Matthew 22:20 tn Or “whose likeness.”sn In this passage Jesus points to the image (Grk εἰκών, eikōn) of Caesar on the coin. This same Greek word is used in Gen 1:26 (LXX) to state that humanity is made in the “image” of God. Jesus is making a subtle yet powerful contrast: Caesar’s image is on the denarius, so he can lay claim to money through taxation, but God’s image is on humanity, so he can lay claim to each individual life.
  89. Matthew 22:21 tn Grk “they said to him.”
  90. Matthew 22:21 tn Grk “then he said to them.” τότε (tote) has not been translated to avoid redundancy.
  91. Matthew 22:21 sn Jesus’ answer to give to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s was a both/and, not the questioners’ either/or. So he slipped out of their trap.
  92. Matthew 22:22 tn Grk “they were amazed.”
  93. Matthew 22:23 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.
  94. Matthew 22:23 sn This remark is best regarded as a parenthetical note by the author.
  95. Matthew 22:23 tn Grk “and asked him, saying.” The participle λέγοντες (legontes) is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  96. Matthew 22:24 tn Grk “and raise up seed,” an idiom for fathering children (L&N 23.59).
  97. Matthew 22:24 sn A quotation from Deut 25:5. This practice is called levirate marriage (see also Ruth 4:1-12; Mishnah, m. Yevamot; Josephus, Ant. 4.8.23 [4.254-256]). The levirate law is described in Deut 25:5-10. The brother of a man who died without a son had an obligation to marry his brother’s widow. This served several purposes: It provided for the widow in a society where a widow with no children to care for her would be reduced to begging, and it preserved the name of the deceased, who would be regarded as the legal father of the first son produced from that marriage.
  98. Matthew 22:27 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  99. Matthew 22:28 tn Grk “For all had her.”
  100. Matthew 22:29 tn Grk “And answering, Jesus said to them.” This is somewhat redundant and has been simplified in the translation.
  101. Matthew 22:29 tn Or “mistaken” (cf. BDAG 822 s.v. πλανάω 2.c.γ).
  102. Matthew 22:30 tc Most witnesses have “of God” after “angels,” although some mss read ἄγγελοι θεοῦ (angeloi theou; א L ƒ13 28 33 892 1241 1424) while others have ἄγγελοι τοῦ θεοῦ (angeloi tou theou; W Γ Δ 0102 0161 565 579 M). Whether with or without the article, the reading “of God” appears to be a motivated addition. A few significant witnesses lack the adjunct (B D Θ 0233 ƒ1 700 sa); this coupled with strong internal evidence argues for the authenticity of the shorter Angels do not die, nor do they eat according to Jewish tradition (1 En. 15:6; 51:4; Wis 5:5; 2 Bar. 51:10; 1QH 3.21-23).
  103. Matthew 22:31 tn Grk “spoken to you by God, saying.” The participle λέγοντος (legontos) is redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  104. Matthew 22:32 sn A quotation from Exod 3:6.
  105. Matthew 22:32 sn He is not God of the dead but of the living. Jesus’ point was that if God could identify himself as God of the three old patriarchs, then they must still be alive when God spoke to Moses; and so they must be raised.
  106. Matthew 22:34 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  107. Matthew 22:34 sn See the note on Sadducees in 3:7.
  108. Matthew 22:34 tn Grk “for the same.” That is, for the same purpose that the Sadducees had of testing Jesus.
  109. Matthew 22:35 tn Traditionally, “a lawyer.” This was an expert in the interpretation of the Mosaic law.
  110. Matthew 22:35 tn Grk “testing.” The participle, however, is telic in force.
  111. Matthew 22:36 tn Or possibly “What sort of commandment in the law is great?”
  112. Matthew 22:37 tn Grk “And he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  113. Matthew 22:37 tn Grk “You will love.” The future indicative is used here with imperatival force (see ExSyn 452 and 569).
  114. Matthew 22:37 sn A quotation from Deut 6:5. The threefold reference to different parts of the person says, in effect, that one should love God with all one’s being.
  115. Matthew 22:38 tn Grk “the great and first.”
  116. Matthew 22:39 sn A quotation from Lev 19:18.
  117. Matthew 22:40 tn Grk “hang.” The verb κρεμάννυμι (kremannumi) is used here with a figurative meaning (cf. BDAG 566 s.v. 2.b).
  118. Matthew 22:41 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
  119. Matthew 22:41 sn See the note on Pharisees in 3:7.
  120. Matthew 22:41 tn Grk “asked them a question, saying.” The participle λέγων (legōn) is somewhat redundant here in contemporary English and has not been translated.
  121. Matthew 22:42 tn Or “Messiah”; both “Christ” (Greek) and “Messiah” (Hebrew and Aramaic) mean “one who has been anointed.”sn See the note on Christ in 1:16.
  122. Matthew 22:42 sn It was a common belief in Judaism that Messiah would be the son of David in that he would come from the lineage of David. On this point the Pharisees agreed and were correct. But their understanding was nonetheless incomplete, for Messiah is also David’s Lord. With this statement Jesus was affirming that, as the Messiah, he is both God and man.
  123. Matthew 22:44 sn The Lord said to my lord. With David being the speaker, this indicates his respect for his descendant (referred to as my lord). Jesus was arguing, as the ancient exposition assumed, that the passage is about the Lord’s anointed. The passage looks at an enthronement of this figure and a declaration of honor for him as he takes his place at the side of God. In Jerusalem, the king’s palace was located to the right of the temple to indicate this kind of relationship. Jesus was pressing the language here to get his opponents to reflect on how great Messiah is.
  124. Matthew 22:44 sn A quotation from Ps 110:1.
  125. Matthew 22:45 tn Grk “how is he his son?”
  126. Matthew 22:46 tn Here καί (kai) has not been translated.