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12 And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach began to speak to them in meshalim (parables). A man, a Baal Bayit, planted a kerem (vineyard), and he put around [it] a fence and dug a pit for the yekev (winepress) and built a migdal (tower), and he leased it to koremim (vine keepers) and then the man went on a journey. [YESHAYAH 5:1-7]

And the Baal Bayit sent an eved to the tenants, the koremim, in the season [of katzir (harvest)] in order that from the koremim he might receive from the perot (fruit) of the kerem (vineyard).

But they seized the eved and they beat him and sent him away empty.

And again the Baal Bayit sent to the tenants, the koremim, another eved; and that one they struck on the rosh and insulted.

And the Baal Bayit sent another; and that one they killed, and many others, some beating, and others killing.

Still he had one BEN AHUV [T.N. see 9:7]. Lemaskana (finally), the Baal Bayit sent him to them saying, They will respect BENI.

But those koremim said to themselves, This one is the Yoresh (Heir) the Bechor. Come, let us kill him, and the nachalah, the bechorah, will be ours.

And having seized [him], they killed him and threw him out of the kerem.

What then will the Baal Bayit of the kerem do? He will come and destroy the koremim and will give the kerem to others.

10 Have you not read the Kitvei Hakodesh? EVEN MAASU HABONIM HAYTAH LEROSH PINAH; MEIET HASHEM HAYTAH ZOT, HI NIFLAT BEINEINU (The stone which the ones building rejected, this one has come to be for [the] chief cornerstone.

11 From Adonoi this came to be and it is wonderful in our eyes? [TEHILLIM 118:22,23]

12 And they were seeking to seize him, and they were afraid of the multitude, for they knew that against them he told the mashal. And leaving him, they went away.

13 And they send to him some of the Perushim (Pharisees) and the Herodians in order that they might catch him in a dvar.

14 And having come, they say to him: Rabbi, we have daas that you are an ish Emes and you do not show deference toward anyone. Ki ein masso panim (For there is no partiality) with you but rather on the Derech Hashem you give Divrei Torah in Emes. Is it mutar to give a poll tax to Caesar or not? Should we give or should we not give?

15 But Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, having seen their tzeviut (hypocrisy), said to them, Why are you testing me? Bring me a denarius that I may look [at it].

16 And they brought [one]. And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach says to them, Whose demut is this and whose inscription? And they said to him, Caesar’s.

17 And he said to them, The things of Caesar, give to Caesar, and the things of Hashem [give] to Hashem. And they were amazed at Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach.

18 And [the] Tzedukim come to Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, the ones who say that there is not to be a Techiyas HaMesim, and they were questioning him, saying,

19 Rabbi, Moshe (Rabbeinu) wrote to us that if an ACH of someone should die and leave behind an isha UVEN EIN LO (and there is no son to him) YEVAMAH YAVO ALEIHA ULEKAKHAH LO LISHA VHAYAH HABECHOR ASHER TELED YAKUM AL SHEM ACHIV HAMET (the brother of her husband must come to her and he must take her to him as wife and the Bechor she bears shall raise up the name of the dead brother. DEVARIM 25:5)

20 Now there were shiva achim. And the first took a wife and, dying, did not leave a descendant.

21 And the second took her and he died, not having left behind a descendant. And the third likewise.

22 And the seven did not leave a descendant.

23 In the Techiyas HaMesim, when they are made to stand up alive, of which of them will she be [the] isha? For seven had her as wife.

24 Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, said to them, Is not this the reason you are in error, having daas neither of the Kitvei Hakodesh nor of the gevurat Hashem?

25 But concerning the Mesim that are made to stand up alive, they do not marry nor are they given in nisuim, but are like the malachim in Shomayim.

26 But concerning the Mesim, that they are made to stand up alive, have you not read in the sefer Moshe at the bush, how Hashem spoke to him, saying, ANOCHI ELOHEI AVRAHAM ELOHEI YITZCHAK VELOHEI YAAKOV, SHEMOT 3:6)

27 Hashem is not the G-d of the Mesim (Dead ones) but of the Chayyim (Living ones). You are greatly mistaken.

28 And one of the Sofrim approached and heard them debating, and seeing that Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach answered them well, asked him, Which mitzvah is rishonah of all the mitzvot?

29 Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach answered, SHEMA YISROEL ADONOI ELOHEINU ADONOI ECHAD is harishonah.


31 And the shneyah is this, VAHAVTA LREACHA KAMOCHA [VAYIKRA 19:18]. There is not another mitzvah greater than these.

32 And the Baal Torah said to him, Well spoken, Rabbi, beemes you have said that Hashem is ECHAD (one, DEVARIM 6:4), and EIN OD and there is no other [YESHAYAH 45:18] except him. [DEVARIM 4:35,39; YESHAYAH 45:6,14; 46:9]

33 and to have ahavah for him BECHOL LVAVCHA (with all your heart) and with all your binah UVECHOL MODECHA (with all your strength DEVARIM 6:5) and LREACHA KAMOCHA (your neighbor as yourself, VAYIKRA 19:18) is greater [than] all of the burnt offerings and sacrifices. [SHMUEL ALEF 15:22; HOSHEA 6:6; MICHOH 6:6 8]

34 And Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach, when he saw that this Torah teacher answered with chochmah (wisdom), said to him, You are not far from the Malchut Hashem. And no one was daring to put a she’elah (question) in front of Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach again.

35 While Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was saying shiurim (Torah talks) in the Beis Hamikdash, he was saying: How is it that the Sofrim say that Moshiach is [merely] ben Dovid?


37 Dovid himself calls Moshiach Adon; how then is Moshiach [merely] ben Dovid? And the large multitude found it a huge oneg (pleasure) to listen to him.

38 And in his torah, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was saying, Beware of the Sofrim (Scribes, Torah teachers, rabbonim), the ones enamored of strutting about in extremely long kaftans and with equally lengthy Birkat Shalom greetings in the marketplaces,

39 And places of honor in the shuls and places of honor at the seudot (banquet dinners).

40 Beware particularly of the ones devouring the batim (houses) of the almanot (widows) and making a grand show of davening long tefillos. Mishpat (Judgment) will fall more heavily on these.

41 And having sat [down] opposite the Beis Hamikdash Otzar (Treasury), Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach was observing how the multitude throws copper [coins] into the Otzar. And many ashirim (rich people) were throwing [in] much. [MELACHIM BAIS 12:9]

42 And a poor almanah (widow) came and threw [in] two leptas, which is a kodrantes.

43 And having summoned his talmidim, Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach said to them: Omein, I say to you that this poor almanah has put in more tzedakah (charity contribution) than all those contributing to the Otzar,

44 For everyone threw in from their abundance, but this almanah from her need has put in everything she had, all her michyah (subsistence).

The Parable of the Tenants(A)

12 Jesus then began to speak to them in parables: “A man planted a vineyard.(B) He put a wall around it, dug a pit for the winepress and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and moved to another place. At harvest time he sent a servant to the tenants to collect from them some of the fruit of the vineyard. But they seized him, beat him and sent him away empty-handed. Then he sent another servant to them; they struck this man on the head and treated him shamefully. He sent still another, and that one they killed. He sent many others; some of them they beat, others they killed.

“He had one left to send, a son, whom he loved. He sent him last of all,(C) saying, ‘They will respect my son.’

“But the tenants said to one another, ‘This is the heir. Come, let’s kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.’ So they took him and killed him, and threw him out of the vineyard.

“What then will the owner of the vineyard do? He will come and kill those tenants and give the vineyard to others. 10 Haven’t you read this passage of Scripture:

“‘The stone the builders rejected
    has become the cornerstone;(D)
11 the Lord has done this,
    and it is marvelous in our eyes’[a]?”(E)

12 Then the chief priests, the teachers of the law and the elders looked for a way to arrest him because they knew he had spoken the parable against them. But they were afraid of the crowd;(F) so they left him and went away.(G)

Paying the Imperial Tax to Caesar(H)

13 Later they sent some of the Pharisees and Herodians(I) to Jesus to catch him(J) in his words. 14 They came to him and said, “Teacher, we know that you are a man of integrity. You aren’t swayed by others, because you pay no attention to who they are; but you teach the way of God in accordance with the truth. Is it right to pay the imperial tax[b] to Caesar or not? 15 Should we pay or shouldn’t we?”

But Jesus knew their hypocrisy. “Why are you trying to trap me?” he asked. “Bring me a denarius and let me look at it.” 16 They brought the coin, and he asked them, “Whose image is this? And whose inscription?”

“Caesar’s,” they replied.

17 Then Jesus said to them, “Give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s and to God what is God’s.”(K)

And they were amazed at him.

Marriage at the Resurrection(L)

18 Then the Sadducees,(M) who say there is no resurrection,(N) came to him with a question. 19 “Teacher,” they said, “Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies and leaves a wife but no children, the man must marry the widow and raise up offspring for his brother.(O) 20 Now there were seven brothers. The first one married and died without leaving any children. 21 The second one married the widow, but he also died, leaving no child. It was the same with the third. 22 In fact, none of the seven left any children. Last of all, the woman died too. 23 At the resurrection[c] whose wife will she be, since the seven were married to her?”

24 Jesus replied, “Are you not in error because you do not know the Scriptures(P) or the power of God? 25 When the dead rise, they will neither marry nor be given in marriage; they will be like the angels in heaven.(Q) 26 Now about the dead rising—have you not read in the Book of Moses, in the account of the burning bush, how God said to him, ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’[d]?(R) 27 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living. You are badly mistaken!”

The Greatest Commandment(S)

28 One of the teachers of the law(T) came and heard them debating. Noticing that Jesus had given them a good answer, he asked him, “Of all the commandments, which is the most important?”

29 “The most important one,” answered Jesus, “is this: ‘Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one.[e] 30 Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your mind and with all your strength.’[f](U) 31 The second is this: ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’[g](V) There is no commandment greater than these.”

32 “Well said, teacher,” the man replied. “You are right in saying that God is one and there is no other but him.(W) 33 To love him with all your heart, with all your understanding and with all your strength, and to love your neighbor as yourself is more important than all burnt offerings and sacrifices.”(X)

34 When Jesus saw that he had answered wisely, he said to him, “You are not far from the kingdom of God.”(Y) And from then on no one dared ask him any more questions.(Z)

Whose Son Is the Messiah?(AA)(AB)

35 While Jesus was teaching in the temple courts,(AC) he asked, “Why do the teachers of the law say that the Messiah is the son of David?(AD) 36 David himself, speaking by the Holy Spirit,(AE) declared:

“‘The Lord said to my Lord:
    “Sit at my right hand
until I put your enemies
    under your feet.”’[h](AF)

37 David himself calls him ‘Lord.’ How then can he be his son?”

The large crowd(AG) listened to him with delight.

Warning Against the Teachers of the Law

38 As he taught, Jesus said, “Watch out for the teachers of the law. They like to walk around in flowing robes and be greeted with respect in the marketplaces, 39 and have the most important seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets.(AH) 40 They devour widows’ houses and for a show make lengthy prayers. These men will be punished most severely.”

The Widow’s Offering(AI)

41 Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put(AJ) and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. 42 But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a few cents.

43 Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, “Truly I tell you, this poor widow has put more into the treasury than all the others. 44 They all gave out of their wealth; but she, out of her poverty, put in everything—all she had to live on.”(AK)


  1. Mark 12:11 Psalm 118:22,23
  2. Mark 12:14 A special tax levied on subject peoples, not on Roman citizens
  3. Mark 12:23 Some manuscripts resurrection, when people rise from the dead,
  4. Mark 12:26 Exodus 3:6
  5. Mark 12:29 Or The Lord our God is one Lord
  6. Mark 12:30 Deut. 6:4,5
  7. Mark 12:31 Lev. 19:18
  8. Mark 12:36 Psalm 110:1