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Luke 19:28-24:18 The Passion Translation (TPT)

28 After saying all of this, Jesus headed straight for Jerusalem. 29 When he arrived at the stables of Annia[a] near the Mount of Olives,[b] he sent two of his disciples ahead, saying, 30 “When you enter the next village,[c] you will find tethered there a donkey’s young colt that has never been ridden. Untie it and bring it to me. 31 And if anyone stops you and asks, ‘What are you doing?’ just tell them this: ‘It is needed for the Lord of All.’”[d]

32 The two who were sent entered the village and found the colt exactly like Jesus had said. 33 While they were untying the colt, the owners approached them and asked, “What are you doing?”

34 The disciples replied, “We need this donkey for the Lord of All.”

35–36 They brought the colt to Jesus. Then they placed their prayer shawls on its back, and Jesus rode it as he descended the Mount of Olives toward Jerusalem.[e] As he rode along, people spontaneously threw their prayer shawls on the path in front of him like a carpet.[f]

37 As soon as he got to the bottom of the Mount of Olives, the crowds of his followers shouted with a loud outburst of ecstatic joy over all the mighty wonders of power they had witnessed. 38 They shouted over and over, “Highest praises to God for the one who comes as King in the name of the Lord! Heaven’s peace and glory from the highest realm now comes to us!”[g]

39 Some Jewish religious leaders who stood off from the procession said to Jesus, “Teacher, you must order your followers at once to stop saying these things!”

40 Jesus responded, “Listen to me. If my followers were silenced, the very stones would break forth with praises!”

Jesus Weeps over Jerusalem

41 When Jesus caught sight of the city, he burst into tears with uncontrollable weeping over Jerusalem, 42 saying, “If only you could recognize that this day peace is within your reach! But you cannot see it. 43 For the day is soon coming when your enemies will surround you, pressing you in on every side, and laying siege to you.[h] 44 They will crush you to pieces, and your children too! And when they leave, your city will be totally destroyed. Since you would not recognize God’s day of visitation, your day of devastation is coming!”

Jesus Cleanses the Temple Courts

45 Jesus entered the temple area and forcibly threw out all the merchants from their stalls. 46 He rebuked them, saying, “The Scriptures declare, ‘My Father’s house is to be filled with prayer—a house of prayer,[i] not a cave of bandits!’”

47 From then on Jesus continued teaching in the temple area, but all the while, the high priests, the experts of the law, and the prominent men of the city kept trying to find a way to accuse Jesus, for they wanted him dead. 48 They could find no reason to accuse him, for he was a hero to the people and the crowds were awestruck by every word he spoke.

A Day of Controversy

20 One day Jesus was teaching in the temple courts and sharing with the people the wonderful news of salvation.[j] The high priest and the experts of the law were there with the prominent men of the city. They confronted Jesus and asked him, “We want to know right now by what authority you’re doing this. Who gave you the authority to teach these things here in the temple?”

Jesus responded, “First, let me ask you a question and you tell me right now. Did John baptize because of a mandate from heaven or merely from men?”

His interrogators pulled aside to discuss this among themselves. “What should we say? If we say that John’s mandate was from heaven, he will ask us, ‘Then why didn’t you believe him and get baptized?’ But if we say, ‘John’s mandate was merely from men,’ then all the people around him will stone us, for they believe John was a prophet of God.” So they answered Jesus, “We cannot tell where John’s authority came from.”

Jesus said, “Then neither will I tell you where my authority comes from to do what I do.”

The Story of the Vine Growers

Jesus taught the people this story:

“Once there was a man who planted a vineyard, then leased it out to tenants and left to go abroad and was away for a long time. 10 When the harvest season arrived, the owner sent one of his servants to the tenants to collect the landowner’s share of the harvest. But the tenants sent him away, beaten and empty-handed. 11 So the owner dispatched another one of his servants to collect his portion. But the tenants treated him the same way. They cursed him, beat him, and sent him away empty-handed. 12 Then the owner sent a third servant, but they brutalized him also with the same treatment. 13 Finally the owner of the vineyard said to his son, ‘Perhaps if I send you, my own cherished son, they will be ashamed of what they’ve done.’[k]

14 “But when the tenants saw the son coming, they schemed among themselves. ‘This is the heir of the vineyard! If we kill him, the inheritance will be ours.’ 15 So they threw the son off the property and killed him.

“I ask you, what do you think the owner of the vineyard will do to those who murdered his son? 16 He will come and destroy them and give his vineyard to another.”

When the people heard this story, they all agreed, “This should never happen!”

17 Jesus looked straight at the people and said, “What do you think this verse means: ‘The worthless, rejected stone has become the cornerstone, the most important stone of all’?[l] 18 Everyone who falls in humility upon that stone will be broken. But if that stone falls on you, it will grind you to pieces!”

19 When the high priests and experts of the law realized that this story was about them, they wanted to have Jesus arrested that very moment, but they were afraid of all the people.

Paying Taxes

20 So they sent spies who pretended to be honest seekers, but who watched closely for an opportunity to entangle Jesus by his words. Their plan was to catch him saying something against the government, and then they could hand him over to the jurisdiction of the Roman authorities to be killed.

21 At the right time they asked him this question: “Teacher, we know that all you say is straightforward and what you teach us is right, giving us the true ways of God. You’re one who doesn’t show favoritism to anyone’s status. So we ask you— 22 is it proper or not to pay taxes to a corrupt government?”[m]

23 Jesus saw right through their cunning ploy and said, “Why are you testing me?[n] 24 Show me one of the Roman coins. Whose head is on the coin? Whose title is stamped on it?”

They answered, “Why, it’s Caesar’s.”

25 Jesus said, “Precisely. The coin[o] bears the image of the Emperor Caesar, and you should give back to Caesar all that belongs to him. But you bear the image of God. So give back to God all that belongs to him.”

26 The imposters were left speechless and amazed in the presence of all the people, unable to trap Jesus with his words.

A Question about the Resurrection

27 Some of the Sadducees, a religious group that denies there is a resurrection of the dead, came to ask Jesus this question: 28 “Teacher, the law of Moses[p] teaches that if a man dies before he has children, his brother should marry the widow and raise up children for his brother’s family line. 29 But suppose there was a family with seven brothers, and the oldest married and died without children. 30–31 Then his brother married the widow, but he too died with no children. And so it happened, one brother after another brother, until each of the seven had married the widow and died childless. 32 Then finally, the widow died too. So here’s our dilemma: 33 Whose wife will the woman be when she’s resurrected from the dead? Which of the brothers will be her husband, for all seven were once married to her?”

34 Jesus replied, “Marriage is for the sons of this world only. 35–36 But those who are worthy of the resurrection from the dead into glory become immortal, like the angels, who never die nor marry. When the dead come to life again, they will be sons of God’s life—the sons of the resurrection. 37 In fact, it was Moses who taught the resurrection of the dead[q] when he wrote of the Lord God who was at the burning bush and described him as ‘the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.’ 38 Don’t you agree that God is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living? For in his eyes, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are alive forevermore. He must be the God who raises the dead.”

39 The experts of the law[r] chimed in, “Yes, Teacher, you speak the truth beautifully.”

40 From then on, the religious Sadducees never dared to ask Jesus a question again.

The Messiah, Both God and Man

41 Jesus then posed this question to the people: “How can the experts of the law[s] say that Christ the Messiah is David’s son? 42 Haven’t you read in the Psalms where David himself wrote:

The Lord Jehovah said to my Lord,[t]
    ‘Sit near me in the place of authority
43 until I subdue all your enemies under Your feet!’”[u]

44 Jesus explained, “If David calls this one ‘my Lord,’ how can he merely be his son?”[v]

Jesus Denounces the Experts of the Law

45 Within earshot of all the people, Jesus warned his disciples, 46 “Don’t follow the example of these pretentious experts of the law! They love to parade around in their clergy robes so that they are honored wherever they go, sitting right up front in every meeting and pushing for the head table at every banquet. 47 And for appearances’ sake they will pray long religious prayers at the homes of widows for an offering,[w] cheating them out of their very livelihood. Beware of them all, for they will one day be stripped of honor, and the judgment they receive will be severe.”

The Widow’s Offering

21 Jesus was in the temple,[x] observing all the wealthy wanting to be noticed as they came with their offerings. He noticed a very poor widow dropping two small copper coins in the offering box. “Listen to me,” he said. “This poor widow has given a larger offering than any of the wealthy. For the rich only gave out of their surplus, but she sacrificed out of her poverty and gave to God all that she had to live on.”

The Signs of the End of the Age

Some of the disciples remarked about the beauty of the temple. They pointed out all the lovely adornments and how it was built with excellence from the gifts given to God.

Jesus said, “The day will come that everything you admire here will be utterly destroyed. It will all become a heap of rubble!”

“Master, tell us,” they asked, “when exactly will this happen? Can you tell us what warning sign to look for when it is about to take place?”

Jesus responded, “Deception will run rampant with many who will appear on the scene, saying I have sent them, or saying about themselves, ‘I am the Messiah!’[y] And the doomsday deceivers will say, ‘The end of the age is now here!’ But listen to me. Don’t be fooled by these imposters.

“There will also be many wars and revolutions on every side, with rumors of more wars to come. Don’t panic or give in to your fears, for these things are bound to happen. This is still not the end yet.”

10 Jesus continued, There will be upheavals of every kind. Nations will go to war against each other and kingdom against kingdom— 11 and there will be terrible earthquakes, seismic events of epic proportion, resulting in famines in one place after another. There will be horrible plagues and epidemics, cataclysmic storms[z] on the earth, and astonishing signs and cosmic disturbances in the heavens. But before all of this happens, you will be hunted down and arrested, persecuted by both civil and religious authorities, and thrown into prison. 12–13 And because you follow me, you will be on trial before kings and governmental leaders as an opportunity to testify to them in my name. 14–15 Yet determine in your hearts not to prepare for your own defense. Simply speak with the words of wisdom that I will give you that moment, and none of your persecutors will be able to withstand the grace and wisdom that comes from your mouths.

16 “You can expect betrayal even by your parents, your brothers, your relatives and friends—and yes, some of you will die as martyrs. 17 You will be hated by all because of my life in you.[aa] 18 But don’t worry. My grace will never desert you or depart from your life.[ab] 19 And by standing firm with patient endurance you will find your souls’ deliverance.”

The Destruction of Jerusalem

20 “When you see Jerusalem being surrounded by armies, you will know for sure that its devastation is imminent.[ac] 21 At that time all who are living in Judea must flee to the mountains. Those who live inside the city gates, go out and flee, and those who live outside the city must not enter it seeking refuge. 22 For these are the days of God’s vengeance to fulfill what has been written[ad] against Jerusalem. 23 It will be extremely difficult for pregnant women and for those nursing little ones in that day, for there will be great persecution and wrath against this nation. 24 Many will be cut down by the sword or scattered as prisoners in many countries. And Jerusalem shall be trampled down by nations until the days of world empires come to an end.”

The Coming of the Son of Man

25 “Expect to witness amazing and perplexing signs throughout the universe with the sun, the moon, and the stars.[ae] The raging of the sea will bring desperation and turmoil to many nations. 26 Earthquakes[af] will bring panic and disaster. What men see coming to the earth will cause the fear of doom to grip their hearts, for they will even see the powers of the heavenly realm shaken!

27–28 “And at last, when you see how the Son of Man[ag] comes—surrounded with a cloud, with great power and miracles, in the radiance of his splendor, and with great glory and praises[ah]—it will make you jump for joy! For the day of your full transformation[ai] has arrived.”

The Lesson of the Fig Tree

29–30 Jesus gave his disciples this parable:

“Haven’t you observed the fig tree, or any tree, that when it buds and blooms you realize that the season is changing and summer is near? 31 In the same way, when you see these prophetic signs occurring, you realize the earth is yielding to the fullness of God’s kingdom realm. 32 I assure you, the end of this age will not come until all I have spoken comes to pass. 33 Earth and sky will wear out and fade away before one word I speak loses its power or fails to accomplish its purpose.”

Guard Your Hearts

34 “Be careful that you never allow your hearts to grow cold. Remain passionate[aj] and free from anxiety and the worries of this life. Then you will not be caught off guard by what happens. Don’t let me come and find you drunk or careless in living like everyone else. 35 For that day will come as a shocking surprise to all, like a downpour[ak] that drenches everyone, catching many unaware and un-prepared. 36 Keep a constant watch over your soul, and pray for the courage and grace to prevail over these things that are destined to occur and that you will stand before the presence of the Son of Man with a clear conscience.”

37 Each day, Jesus taught in the temple, and he spent his nights on the Mount of Olives. 38 And all the people came early to the temple courts to listen to the words[al] he taught.

Satan Entered into Judas

22 1–2 As the celebration of the Passover Lamb[am] was approaching, the Jewish religious leaders and scholars of the law continually schemed to find a way to murder Jesus without starting a riot—for they feared the crowds.

At that time Satan himself entered into Judas the locksmith,[an] who was one of the twelve apostles. He secretly went to the religious hierarchy and the captains of the temple guards to discuss with them how he could betray Jesus and turn him over to their hands. The religious hierarchy was elated over Judas’ treachery, and they agreed to give him a sum of money in exchange for Jesus’ betrayal. Judas vowed that he would find them a suitable opportunity to betray Jesus when he was away from the crowds.

Jesus Prophesies the Location of the Last Supper

7–8 On the day the sacrifice of the Passover lambs was to take place, Jesus sent for Peter and John and instructed them, “Go and prepare the Passover supper so we can eat it together.”

They asked him, “Where do we make the preparations to eat the meal?”

10 Jesus gave them this sign: “When you enter the city, you will find a man[ao] carrying a jug of water.[ap] Follow him home 11 and say to the owner of the house, ‘The Teacher told us to ask you, “Where is the room I may use to have the Passover meal with my disciples?” ’ 12 He will then take you to a large, fully furnished upstairs room. Make the preparations for us there.”

13 They went and found everything to be exactly like Jesus had prophesied, and they prepared the Passover meal.

Jesus and His Disciples Eat the Last Supper

14 When Jesus arrived at the upper room, he took his place at the table along with all the apostles. 15 Then he told them, “I have longed with passion and desire to eat this Passover lamb with you before I endure my sufferings. 16 I promise you that the next time we eat this, we will be together in the banquet of God’s kingdom realm.”

17 Then he raised a cup and gave thanks to God and said to them, “Take this and pass it on to one another and drink. 18 I promise you that the next time we drink this wine, we will be together in the feast of God’s kingdom realm.”[aq]

19 Then he lifted up a loaf, and after praying a prayer of thanksgiving to God, he gave each of his apostles a piece of bread, saying, “This loaf is my body,[ar] which is now being offered to you. Always eat it to remember me.”

20 After supper was over, he lifted the cup again and said, “This cup is my blood of the new covenant[as] I make with you, and it will be poured out soon for all of you. 21 But I want you to know that the hands of the one who delivers me to be the sacrifice are with mine on the table this very moment. 22 The Son of Man must now go where he will be sacrificed. But there will be great and unending doom for the man who betrays me.”

23 The apostles questioned among themselves which one of them was about to do this.

Apostles Argue over Which of Them Will Be the Greatest

24 The disciples bickered over which one of them would be considered the greatest[at] in the kingdom. 25 Jesus interrupted their argument, saying, “The kings and men of authority in this world rule oppressively over their subjects, claiming that they do it for the good of the people. They are obsessed with how others see them.[au] 26 But this is not your calling. You will lead by a different model. The greatest one among you will live as one called to serve others without honor.[av] The greatest honor and authority is reserved for the one who has a servant heart. 27 The leaders who are served are the most important in your eyes, but in the kingdom, it is the servants who lead. Am I not here with you as one who serves you?

28 “Because you have stood with me through all my trials and ordeals, 29 I give you your destiny: I am promising you the kingdom realm that the Father has promised me. 30 We will celebrate in this kingdom and you will feast with me at my table. And each of you will be given a throne, twelve thrones in all, and you will be made rulers on thrones to judge the tribes of Israel.”

Jesus Prophesies Peter’s Denial

31 “Peter, my dear friend, listen to what I’m about to tell you. Satan has demanded to come and sift you like wheat and test your faith. 32 But I have prayed for you, Peter, that you would stay faithful to me no matter what comes. Remember this: after you have turned back to me and have been restored, make it your life mission to strengthen the faith of your brothers.”

33 “But Lord,” Peter replied, “I am ready to stand with you to the very end, even if it means prison or death!”

34 Jesus looked at him and prophesied, “Before the rooster crows in the morning, you will deny[aw] three times that you even know me.”

35 Then he said to all of them, “When I sent you out empty-handed, did you lack anything?”

“Not a thing,” they answered. “God provided all we needed.”

Jesus said, “But now I say to you: Take what you need. 36 If you have money, take it[ax]—and a knapsack and a sword.[ay] Danger is imminent.[az] 37 For the prophetic Scripture about me ‘He will be accused of being a criminal’[ba] will now come to pass. All that was prophesied of me will be fulfilled.”

38 The disciples told him, “Lord, we already have two swords!”

“You still don’t understand,”[bb] Jesus responded.

The Garden of Gethsemane

39 Jesus left the upper room with his disciples[bc] and, as was his habit, went to the Mount of Olives, his place of secret prayer. 40 There he told the apostles, “Keep praying for strength to be spared from the severe test of your faith that is about to come.”

41 Then he withdrew from them a short distance[bd] to be alone. Kneeling down, he prayed, 42 “Father, if you are willing, take this cup of agony away from me.[be] But no matter what, your will must be mine.”

43 Jesus called[bf] for an angel of glory to strengthen him, and the angel appeared. 44 He prayed even more passionately, like one being sacrificed,[bg] until he was in such intense agony of spirit that his sweat became drops of blood, dripping onto the ground.[bh]

45 When Jesus finished praying, he got up and went to his disciples and found them all asleep, for they were exhausted and overwhelmed with sorrow. 46 “Why are you sleeping?” he asked them. “You need to be alert and pray for the strength to endure the great temptation.”

Judas Betrays Jesus

47 No sooner had he finished speaking when suddenly a mob approached, and right in front of the mob was his disciple Judas. He walked up close to Jesus and greeted him with a kiss. For he had agreed to give the religious leaders a sign, saying, “The one I kiss is the one to seize.”[bi]

48 Jesus looked at him with sorrow and said, “A kiss, Judas? Are you really going to betray the Son of Man with a kiss?”

49 When the other disciples understood what was happening, they asked, “Lord, shall we fight them with our swords?”

50 Just then, one of the disciples[bj] swung his sword at the high priest’s servant and slashed off his right ear.

51 Jesus stopped the incident from escalating any further by shouting, “Stop! That’s enough of this!” Then he touched the right side of the injured man’s head and the ear grew back[bk]—he was healed!

52 Jesus turned to those who had come to seize him—the ruling priests, the officers of the temple police, and the religious leaders—and said, “Am I a criminal that you come to capture me with clubs and swords? Wasn’t I with you day after day, teaching in the temple courts? 53 You could have seized me at any time. But in the darkness of night you have now found your time, for it belongs to you and to the prince of darkness.”[bl]

Peter Denies He Knew Jesus

54 The religious leaders seized Jesus and led him away, but Peter followed from a safe distance. They brought him to the home of the high priest, where people were already gathered out in the courtyard. 55 Someone had built a fire, so Peter inched closer and sat down among them to stay warm.

56 A girl noticed Peter sitting in the firelight. Staring at him, she pointed him out and said, “This man is one of Jesus’ disciples!”

57 Peter flatly denied it, saying, “What are you talking about, girl? I don’t know him!”

58 A little while later, someone else spotted Peter and said, “I recognize you. You’re one of his, I know it!”

Peter again said, “I’m not one of his disciples.”

59 About an hour later, someone else identified Peter and insisted he was a disciple of Jesus, saying, “Look at him! He’s from Galilee,[bm] just like Jesus. I know he’s one of them.”

60 But Peter was adamant. “Listen, I don’t know what you’re talking about. Don’t you understand? I don’t even know him.” While the words were still in his mouth, the rooster crowed.

61 At that moment, the Lord, who was being led through the courtyard by his captors,[bn] turned around and gazed at Peter. All at once Peter remembered the words Jesus had prophesied over him, “Before the rooster crows in the morning, you will deny three times that you even know me.” 62 Peter burst into tears,[bo] ran off from the crowd, and wept bitterly.

Jesus Is Mocked and Severely Beaten

63 Those who were guarding Jesus mocked and beat him severely. 64 They also made fun of him, blindfolding him and slapping his face and saying, “Prove that you are a prophet and tell us which one of us hit you!” 65 They blasphemed and heaped insult after insult upon him.

Jesus before the Jewish Council

66 At daybreak the high priests, the experts of the law, and the top religious leaders convened and had Jesus brought before their council. 67 They asked him point blank, “Tell us, are you the Christ, the Messiah, or not?”

Jesus responded, “If I tell you the truth, you won’t believe me. 68 And if I question you, you will not answer me or release me.[bp] 69 But from today on, the Son of Man will be enthroned in the place of honor, power, and authority with Almighty God.”

70 They all shouted, “Then you do claim to be the Son of God?”

He said to them, “You are the ones who say I am.”

71 They all shouted, “We’ve heard it from his very lips! What further proof do we need?”

Jesus before Pilate

23 The entire council stood at once and took Jesus to Pilate, the Roman governor. They accused him with false testimony before the governor, saying, “This man tells us we’re not to pay our taxes to Caesar. And he proclaims himself to be Christ the King and Messiah. He’s a deceiver of our nation.”

Pilate asked Jesus, “Is this true? Are you their king and Messiah?”

Jesus answered, “It is true.”

Pilate turned to the high priests and to the gathered crowd and said, “This man has committed no crime. I find nothing wrong with him.”

But they yelled and demanded that Pilate do something, saying, “He has stirred up our nation, misleading people from the moment he began teaching in Galilee until he has come here to Jerusalem!”

Jesus before Herod

6–7 When Pilate heard the word Galilee, he asked if Jesus was a Galilean, as he knew that Antipas, son of Herod, was the ruler over Galilee. When they told him yes, Pilate saw a way out of his problem. Herod happened to be in Jerusalem at that time, so Pilate sent Jesus to Antipas.

When Antipas saw Jesus, he was elated, for he had heard a great deal about his ministry and wanted Jesus to perform a miracle in front of him. Antipas questioned him at length, but Jesus wouldn’t even answer him.

10–11 All the while the high priests and religious leaders stood by, hatefully accusing Jesus of wrongdoing, so that Antipas and his soldiers treated him with scorn and mocking. Antipas put an elegant purple robe on Jesus and sent him back to Pilate. 12 That day, Antipas, son of Herod, and Pilate healed the rift between themselves due to old hostilities and they became good friends.

Jesus Sentenced to Death

13–14 Pilate gathered the people together with the high priests and all the religious leaders of the nation[bq] and told them, “You have presented this man to me and charged him with stirring a rebellion among the people. But I say to you that I have examined him here in your presence and have put him on trial. My verdict is that none of the charges you have brought against him are true. I find no fault in him.[br] 15–16 And I sent him to Antipas, son of Herod, who also, after questioning him, has found him not guilty. Since he has done nothing deserving of death, I have decided to punish him with a severe flogging and release him.” 17 For it was Pilate’s custom to honor the Jewish holiday by releasing a prisoner.[bs]

18 When the crowd heard this, they went wild. Erupting with anger, they cried out, “No! Take this one away and release Barabbas!”[bt] 19 For Barabbas had been thrown in prison for robbery[bu] and murder.

20 Pilate, wanting to release Jesus, tried to convince them it was best to let Jesus go. 21 But they cried out over and over, “Crucify him! Crucify him!”[bv]

22 A third time, Pilate asked the crowd, “What evil crime has this man committed that I should have him crucified? I haven’t found one thing that warrants a death sentence! I will have him flogged severely and then release him.”

23 But the people and the high priests, shouting like a mob, screamed out at the top of their lungs, “No! Crucify him! Crucify him!”

Finally their shouts and screams succeeded. 24 Pilate caved in to the crowd and ordered that the will of the people be done. 25 Then he released the guilty murderer Barabbas, as they had insisted, and handed Jesus over to be crucified.

The Crucifixion of Jesus

26 As the guards led Jesus to be crucified, there was an African man in the crowd named Simon, from Libya.[bw] He had just arrived from a rural village to keep the Feast of the Passover. The guards laid Jesus’ cross on Simon’s shoulders[bx] and forced him to walk behind Jesus and carry his cross.

27 Massive crowds gathered to follow Jesus, including a number of women, who were wailing with sorrow over him. 28 Jesus turned to them and said, “Daughters of Jerusalem, do not weep for me. You should be weeping for yourselves and your children. 29 For the day is coming when it will not be the women with children who are blessed but the childless. Then you will say, ‘The barren women are the most fortunate! Those who have never given birth and never nursed a child—they are more fortunate than we are, for they will never see their children put to death!’ 30 And the people will cry out for the mountains and hills to fall on top of them to hide them from all that is to come.[by] 31 For if this is what they do to the living Branch,[bz] what will they do with the dead ones?”

32 Two criminals were led away with Jesus, and all three were to be executed together. 33 When they came to the place that is known as The Skull, the guards crucified Jesus, nailing him on the center cross between the two criminals. 34 While they were nailing Jesus to the cross, he prayed over and over, “Father, forgive them,[ca] for they don’t know what they’re doing.”

The soldiers, after they crucified him, gambled over his clothing.[cb]

35 A great crowd gathered to watch what was happening. The religious leaders sneered at Jesus and mocked him, saying, “Look at this man! What kind of ‘chosen Messiah’ is this? He pretended to save others, but he can’t even save himself!”

36 The soldiers joined in the mockery by offering Jesus a drink of vinegar.[cc]

37–38 Over Jesus’ head on the cross was written an inscription in Greek, Latin, and Aramaic:[cd] “This man is the king of all the Jews.” And all the soldiers laughed and scoffed at him, saying, “Hey! If you’re the king of Jews, why don’t you save yourself?”

39 One of the criminals hanging on the cross next to Jesus kept ridiculing him, saying, “What kind of Messiah are you? Save yourself and save us from this death!”

40 The criminal hanging on the other cross rebuked the man, saying, “Don’t you fear God? You’re about to die! 41 We deserve to be condemned, for we’re just being repaid for what we’ve done. But this man—he’s done nothing wrong!”

42 Then he said, “I beg of you, my Lord Jesus, show me grace and take me with you into your everlasting kingdom!”

43 Jesus responded, “I promise you—this very day you will enter paradise with me.”

The Death of the Savior

44 It was now only midday, yet the whole world became dark for three hours as the light of the sun faded away.[ce] 45 And suddenly in the temple the thick veil hanging in the Holy Place was ripped in two! 46 Then Jesus cried out with a loud voice, “Father, I surrender my Spirit into your hands.”[cf] And he took his last breath and died.

47 When the Roman captain overseeing the crucifixion witnessed all that took place, he was awestruck and glorified God. Acknowledging what they had done, he said, “I have no doubt; we just killed the righteous one.”[cg]

48 The crowds that had gathered to observe this spectacle went back to their homes, overcome with deep sorrow[ch] and devastated by what they had witnessed. 49 But standing off at a distance were some who truly knew Jesus, and the women who had followed him all the way from Galilee were keeping vigil.

50–51 There was also a member of the Jewish council named Joseph, from the village of Ramah,[ci] a good-hearted, honorable man who was eager for the appearing of God’s kingdom realm. He had strongly disagreed with the decision of the council to crucify Jesus.[cj] 52 He came before Pilate and asked permission to take the body of Jesus and give him a proper burial, and Pilate granted his request. 53 So he took the body from the cross and wrapped it in a winding sheet of linen and placed it in a new, unused tomb chiseled out of solid rock. 54 It was Preparation Day, and the Sabbath was fast approaching.

55 The women who had been companions of Jesus from the beginning saw all this take place and watched as the body was laid in the tomb. 56 Afterward they returned home and prepared fragrant spices and ointments and were planning to anoint his body after the Sabbath was completed, according to the commandments of the law.

The Resurrection of Jesus

24 Very early that Sunday morning, the women made their way to the tomb, carrying the spices they had prepared. (10) Among them were Mary Magdalene; Joanna; and Mary, Jesus’ mother.[ck] Arriving at the tomb they discovered that the huge stone covering the entrance had been rolled aside, so they went in to look. But the tomb was empty. The body of Jesus was gone!

They stood there, stunned and perplexed. Suddenly two men in dazzling white robes shining like lightning appeared above them.[cl] Terrified, the women fell to the ground on their faces.

The men in white said to them, “Why would you look for the living One[cm] in a tomb? He is not here, for he has risen! Have you forgotten what he said to you while he was still in Galilee: ‘The Son of Man is destined to be handed over to sinful men to be nailed to a cross, and on the third day he will rise again’?”

All at once they remembered his words. Leaving the tomb, they went to break the news to the Eleven and to all the others of what they had seen and heard.[cn]

11 When the disciples heard the testimony of the women, it made no sense, and they were unable to believe what they heard. 12 But Peter jumped up and ran the entire distance to the tomb to see for himself. Stooping down, he looked inside and discovered it was empty! There was only the linen sheet lying there. Staggered by this, he walked away, wondering what it meant.

Jesus Walks to Emmaus

13 Later that Sunday, two of Jesus’ disciples were walking from Jerusalem to Emmaus,[co] a journey of about seventeen miles. 14–15 They were in the midst of a discussion about all the events of the last few days when Jesus walked up and accompanied them in their journey. 16 They were unaware that it was Jesus walking alongside them, for God prevented them from recognizing him.

17–18 Jesus said to them, “You seem to be in a deep discussion about something. What are you talking about, so sad and gloomy?”

They stopped, and the one named Cleopas[cp] answered, “Haven’t you heard? Are you the only one in Jerusalem unaware of the things that have happened over the last few days?”


  1. Luke 19:29 The Greek text includes two small villages, Bethphage and Bethany. The meaning of the names combined means “the stables of Annia.” This is how it is translated in the Aramaic.
  2. Luke 19:29 This was a large hill less than two miles from Jerusalem and about one hundred feet higher.
  3. Luke 19:30 Literally “across the valley.”
  4. Luke 19:31 The Lord Jesus created all things and therefore owns it all.
  5. Luke 19:35 See Zech. 9:9.
  6. Luke 19:35 This was done to signify Jesus was King. See 2 Kings 9:13. This is an obvious reference to the coming of the promised Messiah.
  7. Luke 19:38 This is a quotation of Ps. 118:26.
  8. Luke 19:43 Translated from the Aramaic. The Greek text states, “They will throw up ramparts.” See Isa. 29:3; Jer. 6:6; Ezek. 4:2. Jesus was the only one weeping while everyone else was rejoicing.
  9. Luke 19:46 See Isa. 56:7; Jer. 7:11.
  10. Luke 20:1 Translated from the Aramaic text.
  11. Luke 20:13 Translated from the Aramaic text.
  12. Luke 20:17 This is a quotation from Ps. 118:22. See also Isa. 8:14-15; 28:16.
  13. Luke 20:22 The Greek text states, “to the emperor.”
  14. Luke 20:23 Although not found in most Greek manuscripts, it is included in the Aramaic text.
  15. Luke 20:25 Actual coins from that era have been found with the emperor’s image and a superscription saying, “Tiberius Caesar Augustus, son of the divine Augustus.”
  16. Luke 20:28 See Deut. 25:5-10.
  17. Luke 20:37 See Ex. 3:6.
  18. Luke 20:39 Historically, these “experts of the law” (Pharisees) were opposed to, and argued with, the Sadducees over their disbelief of a supernatural resurrection.
  19. Luke 20:41 Or “scribes,” as translated from the Aramaic.
  20. Luke 20:42 A Hebrew translation of this passage would read “Yahweh said to my Adonai.” Paraphrased it would read “The Lord (God) said to my protecting Lord (Messiah).”
  21. Luke 20:43 See Ps. 110:1. Translated from the Aramaic and one Greek manuscript. Most Greek texts have “until all your enemies become a footstool under your feet.”
  22. Luke 20:44 Jesus is challenging them to consider that the Christ will be both God and man (David’s son and David’s Lord).
  23. Luke 20:47 Translated from the Aramaic. The implication is that the religious leaders would go and pray at the homes of widows, then intimidate them and ask for offerings.
  24. Luke 21:1 This would have been in the courtyard of the temple, where men and women came to deposit their contributions to the temple treasury. Historians say there were thirteen trumpet-mouthed boxes used in the courtyard for offerings.
  25. Luke 21:8 Translated from the Aramaic, it literally states, “I Am! The Messiah!”
  26. Luke 21:11 As translated from the Aramaic. Only one Greek manuscript adds, “great storms.”
  27. Luke 21:17 The Greek says, “because of my name.”
  28. Luke 21:18 Although quite different from the Greek manuscripts, this is the literal translation of the Aramaic figure of speech, “Grace will not leave your head.”
  29. Luke 21:20 This was fulfilled in AD 70 when Jerusalem was left desolate by Roman armies. Some historians estimate that more than one million Jews were slaughtered at that time and up to one hundred thousand were taken captive to other nations.
  30. Luke 21:22 See 1 Kings 9:6-9; Dan. 9:26; Hos. 9:7; Mic. 3:12.
  31. Luke 21:25 See Isa. 13:10; Ezek. 32:7-8; Joel 2:10.
  32. Luke 21:26 The word earthquakes is found only in Aramaic manuscripts.
  33. Luke 21:27 The title “Son of Man” was used frequently when Jesus spoke of himself. Note that he is not the “son of a man,” but the Son of God who became a man.
  34. Luke 21:27 “Praises” is only found in Aramaic manuscripts.
  35. Luke 21:27 The Greek word is “redemption” or “liberation.” It speaks of the total transformation of our body, soul, and spirit when we see him as he is.
  36. Luke 21:34 The Aramaic text says, “Beware that your hearts never grow cold.”
  37. Luke 21:35 Greek manuscripts have “like a snare.” The Aramaic text states, “like a downpour.”
  38. Luke 21:38 The Greek text is logos. The Aramaic is literally “manifestation.”
  39. Luke 22:1 The Passover celebration was known as the “Feast of Bread without Yeast.” The Jewish people commemorate their exodus from Egypt to this day with a weeklong Passover feast. See Ex. 12:1-20; Deut. 16:1-8.
  40. Luke 22:3 See the last footnote on Luke 6:14-16.
  41. Luke 22:10 Carrying water was a task given to women; it would have been easy to spot a man carrying the water jug.
  42. Luke 22:10 Jerusalem would have been filled with pilgrims coming to celebrate the feast. Every house would be filled with additional guests, so finding a room for Jesus and the Twelve would be no easy task. It is possible that this man carrying a jug of water (normally a woman’s task) would be an Essene. They were the only Jewish men who culturally would carry water in this way since they were celibates. They had a community in Jerusalem that had a gate called the “Essene Gate.” They also had a different calendar than the typical Jewish one, which meant they would still have guest rooms available.
  43. Luke 22:18 Verses 17–18 are not found in most Aramaic texts. Most Greek texts and a fifth-century Aramaic manuscript known as “the Palestinian Syriac” include them in the narrative.
  44. Luke 22:19 From here to the end of v. 20 is considered the most highly debated passage in Luke’s Gospel because a few reliable Greek manuscripts do not have it. Yet there is ample internal evidence to argue for its inclusion.
  45. Luke 22:20 The Aramaic word used here is literally “new testament.”
  46. Luke 22:24 This took place at the Lord’s Passover table. Their discussion of who was the worst among them led them to argue over who was the greatest. Jesus was only hours away from the horrible death of crucifixion while his apostles argued.
  47. Luke 22:25 The Aramaic is actually “They want to be called ‘servants of goodness.’”
  48. Luke 22:26 The Greek text uses the word here for “youngest,” and the Aramaic is “small one.” In Hebrew culture in the days of Jesus, the firstborn of the household had honor, while the youngest accepted the role of menial service to all the others of the house.
  49. Luke 22:34 The Aramaic text says “blasphemed.”
  50. Luke 22:36 Now the disciples were to take needed items with them, including money, for they were to be a source of blessing to others with their generosity.
  51. Luke 22:36 It is possible that Jesus was using symbolic speech, for we take with us the sword of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. See Eph. 6:17.
  52. Luke 22:36 The text here is a Hebraic figure of speech: “If you don’t have a sword, you’d better sell something and buy one,” which implies that danger is imminent.
  53. Luke 22:37 See Isa. 53:8-9.
  54. Luke 22:38 Or “That will be enough.” Jesus is saying, “Never mind. You still don’t get it.” He corrected their thinking about taking swords and using violent means in vv. 50–51.
  55. Luke 22:39 That is, with the exception of Judas. See v. 47.
  56. Luke 22:41 Literally “a stone’s throw away.”
  57. Luke 22:42 Jesus asked the Father to be spared from death in the garden so that he could go all the way to the cross. His prayer was answered. The blood that dripped in the garden would not redeem. Jesus had to carry the cross and fulfill all that was written of him. See Heb. 5:7.
  58. Luke 22:43 Translated from the Aramaic text. The Greek manuscripts state it passively: “An angel from heaven appeared.”
  59. Luke 22:44 The Aramaic text is literally “He prayed sacrificially.”
  60. Luke 22:44 Although vv. 43–44 are found in the Aramaic manuscript, many Greek texts omit them. Most of the early church fathers included them in their translations and commentaries. Though very rare, the phenomenon of hematidrosis, sweating blood, is well documented. Under great emotional stress, tiny capillaries in the sweat glands can break, thus mixing blood with sweat. This process could have marked weakness and possibly shock.
  61. Luke 22:47 Nearly every Greek manuscript leaves out this information. The Aramaic text includes it.
  62. Luke 22:50 The unnamed disciple was Peter; the servant’s name was Malchus. See John 18:10.
  63. Luke 22:51 Implied in the context of this miracle. Jesus, the Creator, re-created his ear. The last thing Jesus did before they tied and bound his beautiful hands to arrest him in Gethsemane: He used his healing hands to restore the cut-off ear that Peter slashed (here and John 18:12). He was bound for hours until they loosed his hands to pierce them with nails.
  64. Luke 22:53 The “prince of darkness” is Satan. This phrase is found only in the Aramaic manuscripts. The Greek text states, “the powers of darkness.”
  65. Luke 22:59 Peter’s accent gave him away as being a Galilean. See also Mark 14:70.
  66. Luke 22:61 Implied by the context, necessary for proper understanding of the narrative.
  67. Luke 22:62 It is not just our sin that causes us to weep. It is seeing the Savior whom we have sinned against that brings our tears.
  68. Luke 22:68 The phrase “or release me” is found only in the Aramaic text.
  69. Luke 23:13 This group of religious leaders was known as the Jewish council of the Sanhedrin.
  70. Luke 23:13 The phrase “I find no fault in him” is found in the Aramaic text.
  71. Luke 23:17 Although many Greek manuscripts do not have this verse in the text, it is found in the Aramaic text.
  72. Luke 23:18 There were two men, two sons. Barabbas means “son of a father.” Jesus was the Son of our heavenly Father. One was a son of Adam; the other was the Son of God.
  73. Luke 23:19 Most Greek manuscripts have “for insurrection.” The Aramaic states “for robbery.”
  74. Luke 23:21 Crucifixion was the cruelest form of execution, reserved for only the worst of criminals.
  75. Luke 23:26 The text is literally “from Cyrene,” which is present-day Tripoli, Libya.
  76. Luke 23:26 By this time Jesus had been severely beaten and flogged, had gone days without sleep, and was carrying a heavy load. Presumably this is why Simon was compelled to carry the cross for him.
  77. Luke 23:30 See Hos. 10:8.
  78. Luke 23:31 The Aramaic is literally “a green tree.” This could be a figure of speech for “an innocent man.” The “dead” could be a figure of speech for “an evil man.”
  79. Luke 23:34 The Greek text implies a repetitive action. He did not pray, “forgive me,” but “forgive them.” As the centurion crushed him to the ground and tied his arms to the crossbeam, Jesus prayed, “Father, forgive them.” When the spikes tore through each quivering palm, he prayed again, “Father, forgive them.” And when the soldiers parted his garments and gambled for the seamless robe, again Jesus prayed, “Father, forgive them.” Only heaven knows how many times that prayer was spoken.
  80. Luke 23:34 Many Greek manuscripts have omitted v. 34.
  81. Luke 23:36 See Ps. 69:21. It was likely Jesus had had nothing to drink since the night before.
  82. Luke 23:37 Many Greek texts omit the mention of these three languages.
  83. Luke 23:44 This indicates the “day of the Lord” has now come. See Joel 2:10; Amos 8:9.
  84. Luke 23:46 See Pss. 22:1; 31:5.
  85. Luke 23:47 As translated from the Aramaic.
  86. Luke 23:48 Literally “beating their breasts,” which is a figure of speech for deep sorrow.
  87. Luke 23:50 As translated from the Aramaic. Ramah (formerly Ramathaim Zophim) was the village of Samuel, only a few miles from Jerusalem. The Greek is, “Joseph of Arimathea.”
  88. Luke 23:50 One ancient Syriac manuscript adds here, “This man was one who did not take part with the mind of the devil.”
  89. Luke 24:10 For the sake of the English narrative, the information found in v. 10 is placed here.
  90. Luke 24:4 “Above them” is found only in the Aramaic text.
  91. Luke 24:5 The Aramaic text is literally “the Life.”
  92. Luke 24:9 For the sake of the English narrative, the information of v. 10 is included in v. 1.
  93. Luke 24:13 The Greek text states that the distance from Jerusalem to Emmaus was sixty stadia = seven miles in the majority of manuscripts. However some patristic writers such as Eusebius, Sozomen, and Jerome, as well as a few Greek manuscripts read one hundred sixty stadia which would be seventeen miles. There is an ancient site in modern-day Israel identified as Hamat (Emmaus) that is seventeen miles from Jerusalem and is known for its hot (burning) springs. The word Emmaus is taken from a Hebrew root that means “the burning place.”
  94. Luke 24:17 Cleopas means “from a renowned father.” Some scholars believe this could be the Clopas mentioned in John 19:25.
The Passion Translation (TPT)

The Passion Translation®. Copyright © 2017 by BroadStreet Publishing® Group, LLC.
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