New English Translation
Lord of the Sabbath
6 Jesus[a] was going through the grain fields on[b] a Sabbath,[c] and his disciples picked some heads of wheat,[d] rubbed them in their hands, and ate them.[e] 2 But some of the Pharisees[f] said, “Why are you[g] doing what is against the law[h] on the Sabbath?” 3 Jesus[i] answered them,[j] “Haven’t you read what David did when he and his companions were hungry— 4 how he entered the house of God, took[k] and ate the sacred bread,[l] which is not lawful[m] for any to eat but the priests alone, and[n] gave it to his companions?”[o] 5 Then[p] he said to them, “The Son of Man is lord[q] of the Sabbath.”
Healing a Withered Hand
6 On[r] another Sabbath, Jesus[s] entered the synagogue[t] and was teaching. Now[u] a man was there whose right hand was withered.[v] 7 The experts in the law[w] and the Pharisees[x] watched[y] Jesus[z] closely to see if he would heal on the Sabbath,[aa] so that they could find a reason to accuse him. 8 But[ab] he knew[ac] their thoughts,[ad] and said to the man who had the withered hand, “Get up and stand here.”[ae] So[af] he rose and stood there. 9 Then[ag] Jesus said to them, “I ask you,[ah] is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath or to do evil, to save a life or to destroy it?” 10 After[ai] looking around[aj] at them all, he said to the man,[ak] “Stretch out your hand.” The man[al] did so, and his hand was restored.[am] 11 But they were filled with mindless rage[an] and began debating with one another what they would do[ao] to Jesus.
Choosing the Twelve Apostles
12 Now[ap] it was during this time that Jesus[aq] went out to the mountain[ar] to pray, and he spent all night[as] in prayer to God.[at] 13 When[au] morning came, he called his disciples and chose twelve of them, whom he also named apostles:[av] 14 Simon[aw] (whom he named Peter), and his brother Andrew; and James, John, Philip, Bartholomew,[ax] 15 Matthew, Thomas,[ay] James the son of Alphaeus, Simon who was called the Zealot,[az] 16 Judas the son of James, and Judas Iscariot,[ba] who became a traitor.
The Sermon on the Plain
17 Then[bb] he came down with them and stood on a level place.[bc] And a large number[bd] of his disciples had gathered[be] along with[bf] a vast multitude from all over Judea, from[bg] Jerusalem, and from the seacoast of Tyre and Sidon.[bh] They came to hear him and to be healed[bi] of their diseases, 18 and those who suffered from[bj] unclean[bk] spirits were cured. 19 The[bl] whole crowd was trying to touch him, because power[bm] was coming out from him and healing them all.
“Blessed[bp] are you who are poor,[bq] for the kingdom of God belongs[br] to you.
21 “Blessed are you who hunger[bs] now, for you will be satisfied.[bt]
“Blessed are you who weep now, for you will laugh.[bu]
22 “Blessed are you when people[bv] hate you, and when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil[bw] on account of the Son of Man! 23 Rejoice in that day, and jump for joy, because[bx] your reward is great in heaven. For their ancestors[by] did the same things to the prophets.[bz]
24 “But woe[ca] to you who are rich, for you have received[cb] your comfort[cc] already.
25 “Woe to you who are well satisfied with food[cd] now, for you will be hungry.
“Woe to you[ce] who laugh[cf] now, for you will mourn and weep.
26 “Woe to you[cg] when all people[ch] speak well of you, for their ancestors[ci] did the same things to the false prophets.
27 “But I say to you who are listening: Love your enemies,[cj] do good to those who hate you, 28 bless those who curse you, pray for those who mistreat[ck] you. 29 To the person who strikes you on the cheek,[cl] offer the other as well,[cm] and from the person who takes away your coat,[cn] do not withhold your tunic[co] either.[cp] 30 Give to everyone who asks you,[cq] and do not ask for your possessions[cr] back[cs] from the person who takes them away. 31 Treat others[ct] in the same way that you would want them to treat you.[cu]
32 “If[cv] you love those who love you, what credit is that to you? For even sinners[cw] love those who love them.[cx] 33 And[cy] if you do good to those who do good to you, what credit is that to you? Even[cz] sinners[da] do the same. 34 And if you lend to those from whom you hope to be repaid,[db] what credit is that to you? Even sinners[dc] lend to sinners, so that they may be repaid in full.[dd] 35 But love your enemies, and do good, and lend, expecting nothing back.[de] Then[df] your reward will be great, and you will be sons[dg] of the Most High,[dh] because he is kind to ungrateful and evil people.[di] 36 Be merciful,[dj] just as your Father is merciful.
Do Not Judge Others
37 “Do[dk] not judge,[dl] and you will not be judged;[dm] do not condemn, and you will not be condemned; forgive,[dn] and you will be forgiven. 38 Give, and it will be given to you: A good measure, pressed down, shaken together, running over,[do] will be poured[dp] into your lap. For the measure you use will be the measure you receive.”[dq]
39 He also told them a parable: “Someone who is blind cannot lead another who is blind, can he?[dr] Won’t they both fall[ds] into a pit? 40 A disciple[dt] is not greater than[du] his teacher, but everyone when fully trained will be like his teacher. 41 Why[dv] do you see the speck[dw] in your brother’s eye, but fail to see[dx] the beam of wood[dy] in your own? 42 How can you say to your brother, ‘Brother, let me remove the speck from your eye,’ while you yourself don’t see the beam in your own? You hypocrite! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye.
43 “For[dz] no good tree bears bad[ea] fruit, nor again[eb] does a bad tree bear good fruit, 44 for each tree is known[ec] by its own fruit. For figs are not gathered[ed] from thorns, nor are grapes picked[ee] from brambles.[ef] 45 The good person out of the good treasury of his[eg] heart[eh] produces good, and the evil person out of his evil treasury[ei] produces evil, for his mouth speaks[ej] from what fills[ek] his heart.
47 “Everyone who comes to me and listens to my words and puts them into practice[eo]—I will show you what he is like: 48 He is like a man[ep] building a house, who dug down deep,[eq] and laid the foundation on bedrock. When[er] a flood came, the river[es] burst against that house but[et] could not shake it, because it had been well built.[eu] 49 But the person who hears and does not put my words into practice[ev] is like a man who built a house on the ground without a foundation. When[ew] the river burst against that house,[ex] it collapsed immediately, and was utterly destroyed!”[ey]
- Luke 6:1 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:1 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 6:1 tc Most later mss (A C D Θ Ψ [ƒ13] M lat) read ἐν σαββάτῳ δευτεροπρώτῳ (en sabbatō deuteroprōtō, “a second-first Sabbath”), while the earlier and better witnesses have simply ἐν σαββάτῳ (P4 א B L W ƒ1 33 579 1241 2542 it sa). The longer reading is most likely secondary, though various explanations may account for it (for discussion, see TCGNT 116).
- Luke 6:1 tn Or “heads of grain.” While the generic term στάχυς (stachus) can refer to the cluster of seeds at the top of grain such as barley or wheat, in the NT the term is restricted to wheat (L&N 3.40; BDAG 941 s.v. 1). KJV “corn” is the result of British English, in which “corn” refers to the main cereal crop of a district, wheat in England and oats in Scotland (British English uses “maize” to refer to American corn).
- Luke 6:1 tn Grk “picked and ate some heads of grain, rubbing them in their hands.” The participle ψώχοντες (psōchontes) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style, and the order of the clauses has been transposed to reflect the logical order, which sounds more natural in English.
- Luke 6:2 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
- Luke 6:2 tn Note that the verb is second person plural (with an understood plural pronominal subject in Greek). The charge is again indirectly made against Jesus by charging the disciples.
- Luke 6:2 sn The alleged violation expressed by the phrase what is against the law is performing work on the Sabbath. That the disciples ate from such a field is no problem given Deut 23:25, but Sabbath activity is another matter in the leaders’ view (Exod 20:8-11 and Mishnah, m. Shabbat 7.2). The supposed violation involved reaping, threshing, winnowing, and preparing food. This probably explains why the clause describing the disciples “rubbing” the heads of grain in their hands is mentioned last, in emphatic position. This was preparation of food.
- Luke 6:3 tn Grk “And Jesus.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 6:3 tn Grk “Jesus, answering them, said.” This is redundant in contemporary English and has been simplified to “Jesus answered them.”
- Luke 6:4 tn Grk “and took.”
- Luke 6:4 tn Grk “the bread of presentation.” sn The sacred bread refers to the “bread of presentation,” “showbread,” or “bread of the Presence,” twelve loaves prepared weekly for the tabernacle and later, the temple. See Exod 25:30; 35:13; 39:36; Lev 24:5-9. Each loaf was made from 3 quarts (3.5 liters; Heb “two-tenths of an ephah”) of fine flour. The loaves were placed on a table in the holy place of the tabernacle, on the north side opposite the lampstand (Exod 26:35). It was the duty of the priest each Sabbath to place fresh bread on the table; the loaves from the previous week were then given to Aaron and his descendants, who ate them in the holy place, because they were considered sacred (Lev 24:9). These were the loaves that David requested from Ahimelech for himself and his men (1 Sam 21:1-6; cf. also Matt 12:1-8; Mark 2:23-28).
- Luke 6:4 sn Jesus’ response to the charge that what his disciples were doing was not lawful is one of analogy: ‘If David did it for his troops in a time of need, then so can I with my disciples.’ Jesus is clear that on the surface there was a violation here. What is not as clear is whether he is arguing a “greater need” makes this permissible or that this was within the intention of the law all along.
- Luke 6:4 tc Most mss (א A D Θ ƒ13 33 M) read “also” here, but this looks like it is a reading made to agree with Mark 2:26. A better combination of witnesses (B L W Ψ ƒ1 lat sa) lacks the word “also.”
- Luke 6:4 tc The Western ms D adds here a full saying that reads, “On the same day, as he saw someone working on the Sabbath he said, ‘Man, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed, but if you do not know, you are cursed and a violator of the law.’” Though this is not well enough attested to be considered authentic, many commentators have debated whether this saying might go back to Jesus. Most reject it, though it does have wording that looks like Rom 2:25, 27 and Jas 2:11.sn See 1 Sam 21:1-6.
- Luke 6:5 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 6:5 tn The term “lord” is in emphatic position in the Greek text. To make this point even clearer a few mss add “also” before the reference to the Son of Man, while a few others add it before the reference to the Sabbath.sn A second point in Jesus’ defense of his disciples’ actions was that his authority as Son of Man also allowed it, since as Son of Man he was lord of the Sabbath.
- Luke 6:6 tn Grk “Now it happened that on.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 6:6 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:6 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.
- Luke 6:6 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “now” to indicate the transition to a new topic. In addition, because the Greek sentence is rather long and complex, a new sentence was started here in the translation.
- Luke 6:6 tn Grk “a man was there and his right hand was withered.”sn Withered means the man’s hand was shrunken and paralyzed.
- Luke 6:7 tn Or “The scribes.” See the note on the phrase “experts in the law” in 5:21.
- Luke 6:7 sn See the note on Pharisees in 5:17.
- Luke 6:7 sn The term translated watched…closely is emotive, since it carries negative connotations. It means they were watching him out of the corner of their eye or spying on him.
- Luke 6:7 tn Grk “him”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:7 sn The background for this is the view that only if life was endangered should one attempt to heal on the Sabbath (see the Mishnah, m. Shabbat 6.3; 12.1; 18.3; 19.2; m. Yoma 8.6).
- Luke 6:8 tn Here the conjunction δέ (de) has been translated as contrastive.
- Luke 6:8 sn The statement that Jesus knew their thoughts adds a prophetic note to his response; see Luke 5:22.
- Luke 6:8 tn Grk “their reasonings.” The implication is that Jesus knew his opponents’ plans and motives, so the translation “thoughts” was used here.
- Luke 6:8 sn Most likely synagogues were arranged with benches along the walls and open space in the center for seating on the floor.
- Luke 6:8 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “so” to indicate the man’s action was a result of Jesus’ order.
- Luke 6:9 tn Here δέ (de) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 6:9 sn With the use of the plural pronoun (“you”), Jesus addressed not just the leaders but the crowd with his question to challenge what the leadership was doing. There is irony as well. As Jesus sought to restore on the Sabbath (but improperly according to the leaders’ complaints) the leaders were seeking to destroy, which surely is wrong. The implied critique recalls the OT: Isa 1:1-17; 58:6-14.
- Luke 6:10 tn Grk “And after.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 6:10 tn The aorist participle περιβλεψάμενος (periblepsamenos) has been translated as antecedent (prior) to the action of the main verb. It could also be translated as contemporaneous (“Looking around…he said”).
- Luke 6:10 tn Grk “him”; the referent (the man with the withered hand) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:10 tn Grk “he”; the referent (the man) has been specified in the translation for clarity. Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 6:10 sn The passive was restored points to healing by God. Now the question became: Would God exercise his power through Jesus, if what Jesus was doing were wrong? Note also Jesus’ “labor.” He simply spoke and it was so.
- Luke 6:11 tn The term ἄνοια (anoia) denotes a kind of insane or mindless fury; the opponents were beside themselves with rage. They could not rejoice in the healing, but could only react against Jesus.
- Luke 6:11 tn The use of the optative (ποιήσαιεν, poiēsaien, “might do”) in an indirect question indicates that the formal opposition and planning of Jesus’ enemies started here (BDF §§385.1; 386.1).
- Luke 6:12 tn Grk “Now it happened that in.” The introductory phrase ἐγένετο (egeneto, “it happened that”), common in Luke (69 times) and Acts (54 times), is redundant in contemporary English and has not been translated.
- Luke 6:12 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:12 tn Or “to a mountain” (εἰς τὸ ὅρος, eis to horos).sn The expression to the mountain here may be idiomatic or generic, much like the English “he went to the hospital” (cf. 15:29), or even intentionally reminiscent of Exod 24:12 (LXX), since the genre of the Sermon on the Mount seems to be that of a new Moses giving a new law.
- Luke 6:12 sn This is the only time all night prayer is mentioned in the NT.
- Luke 6:12 tn This is an objective genitive, so prayer “to God.”
- Luke 6:13 tn Grk “And when.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 6:13 sn The term apostles is rare in the gospels, found only in Matt 10:2, possibly in Mark 3:14, and six more times in Luke (here plus 9:10; 11:49; 17:5; 22:14; 24:10).
- Luke 6:14 sn In the various lists of the twelve, Simon (that is, Peter) is always mentioned first (Matt 10:1-4; Mark 3:16-19; Acts 1:13) and the first four are always the same, though not in the same order after Peter.
- Luke 6:14 sn Bartholomew (meaning “son of Tolmai” in Aramaic) could be another name for Nathanael mentioned in John 1:45.
- Luke 6:15 sn This is the “doubting Thomas” of John 20:24-29.
- Luke 6:15 sn The designation Zealot means that Simon was a political nationalist before coming to follow Jesus. He may not have been technically a member of the particular Jewish nationalistic party known as “Zealots” (since according to some scholars this party had not been organized at that time), but simply someone who was zealous for Jewish independence from Rome, in which case the descriptive term applied to Simon means something like “Simon the patriot” (see L&N 25.77 and especially 11.88).
- Luke 6:16 sn There is some debate about what the name Iscariot means. It probably alludes to a region in Judea and thus might make Judas the only non-Galilean in the group. Several explanations for the name Iscariot have been proposed, but it is probably transliterated Hebrew with the meaning “man of Kerioth” (there are at least two villages that had that name). For further discussion see D. L. Bock, Luke (BECNT), 1:546; also D. A. Carson, John, 304.
- Luke 6:17 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 6:17 tn Or “on a plateau.” This could refer to a message given in a flat locale or in a flat locale in the midst of a more mountainous region (Jer 21:13; Isa 13:2). It is quite possible that this sermon is a summary version of the better known Sermon on the Mount from Matt 5-7.
- Luke 6:17 tn Grk “large crowd.”
- Luke 6:17 tn There is no verb in Greek at this point, but since “a large crowd” (see preceding tn) is in the nominative case, one needs to be supplied.
- Luke 6:17 tn Grk “and.”
- Luke 6:17 tn Grk “and from,” but καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or more.
- Luke 6:17 sn These last two locations, Tyre and Sidon, represented an expansion outside of traditional Jewish territory. Jesus’ reputation continued to expand into new regions.
- Luke 6:17 sn To hear him and to be healed. Jesus had a two-level ministry: The word and then wondrous acts of service that showed his message of God’s care were real.
- Luke 6:18 tn Or “were oppressed by,” “were troubled with.” See L&N 22.17.
- Luke 6:18 sn Unclean spirits refers to evil spirits. See Luke 4:33.
- Luke 6:19 tn Grk “And the.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 6:19 sn There was a recognition that there was great power at work through Jesus, the subject of a great debate in 11:14-23. Luke highlights Jesus’ healing ministry (5:17; 6:18; 7:7; 8:47; 9:11, 42; 14:4; 17:15; 18:42-43; 22:51; Acts 10:38).
- Luke 6:20 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the implied sequence of events within the narrative.
- Luke 6:20 tn Grk “lifting up his eyes” (an idiom). The participle ἐπάρας (eparas) has been translated as a finite verb due to requirements of contemporary English style.
- Luke 6:20 sn The term Blessed introduces the first of several beatitudes promising blessing to those whom God cares for. They serve as an invitation to come into the grace God offers.
- Luke 6:20 sn You who are poor is a reference to the “pious poor” for whom God especially cares. See Pss 14:6; 22:24; 25:16; 34:6; 40:17; 69:29.
- Luke 6:20 sn The present tense (belongs) here is significant. Jesus makes the kingdom and its blessings currently available. This phrase is unlike the others in the list with the possessive pronoun being emphasized. Jesus was saying, in effect, “the kingdom belongs even now to people like you.”
- Luke 6:21 sn You who hunger are people like the poor Jesus has already mentioned. The term has OT roots both in conjunction with the poor (Isa 32:6-7; 58:6-7, 9-10; Ezek 18:7, 16) or by itself (Pss 37:16-19; 107:9).
- Luke 6:21 sn The promise you will be satisfied is the first of several “reversals” noted in these promises. The beatitudes and the reversals that accompany them serve in the sermon as an invitation to enter into God’s care, because one can know God cares for those who turn to him.
- Luke 6:21 sn You will laugh alludes to the joy that comes to God’s people in the salvation to come.
- Luke 6:22 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), referring to both males and females.
- Luke 6:22 tn Or “disdain you”; Grk “cast out your name as evil.” The word “name” is used here as a figure of speech to refer to the person as a whole.sn The phrase when they exclude you and insult you and reject you as evil alludes to a person being ostracized and socially isolated because of association with the Son of Man, Jesus.
- Luke 6:23 tn Grk “because behold.” The Greek word ἰδού (idou) at the beginning of this clause has not been translated because it has no exact English equivalent here, but adds interest and emphasis (BDAG 468 s.v. 1).
- Luke 6:23 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
- Luke 6:23 sn Mistreatment of the prophets is something Luke often notes (Luke 11:47-51; Acts 7:51-52).
- Luke 6:24 sn Jesus promises condemnation (woe) to those who are callous of others, looking only to their own comforts. On Luke and the rich see 1:53; 12:16; 14:12; 16:1, 21-22; 18:23; 19:2; 21:1. These woes are unique to Luke.
- Luke 6:24 sn Ironically the language of reward shows that what the rich have received is all they will get. This result looks at a current situation, just as the start of the beatitudes did. The rest of the conclusions to the woes look to the future at the time of judgment.
- Luke 6:24 tn Grk “your consolation.”
- Luke 6:25 tn Grk “who are filled.” See L&N 23.18 for the translation “well satisfied with food.”
- Luke 6:25 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, humin) is lacking in several witnesses (א B K L T W Θ Ξ 0147 ƒ1,13 579 700 892 1241 2542 al), though found in most (P75 A D Q Ψ 33 M lat co). The longer reading looks to be a clarifying addition; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
- Luke 6:25 sn That is, laugh with happiness and joy.
- Luke 6:26 tc The wording “to you” (ὑμῖν, humin) is lacking throughout the ms tradition except for a few witnesses (D W* Δ 1424 co). The Western witnesses tend to add freely to the text. Supported by the vast majority of witnesses and the likelihood that “to you” is a clarifying addition, the shorter reading should be considered autographic; nevertheless, “to you” is included in the translation because of English requirements.
- Luke 6:26 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), referring to both males and females.
- Luke 6:26 tn Or “forefathers”; Grk “fathers.”
- Luke 6:27 sn Love your enemies is the first of four short exhortations that call for an unusual response to those who are persecuting disciples. Disciples are to relate to hostility in a completely unprecedented manner.
- Luke 6:28 tn The substantival participle ἐπηρεαζόντων (epēreazontōn), sometimes translated “those who abuse” (NRSV), is better rendered “those who mistreat,” a more general term (see L&N 88.129).
- Luke 6:29 sn The phrase strikes you on the cheek probably pictures public rejection, like the act that indicated expulsion from the synagogue.
- Luke 6:29 sn This command to offer the other cheek as well is often misunderstood. It means that there is risk involved in reaching out to people with God’s hope. But if one is struck down in rejection, the disciple is to continue reaching out.
- Luke 6:29 tn Or “cloak.”
- Luke 6:29 tn See the note on the word “tunics” in 3:11.
- Luke 6:29 sn The command do not withhold your tunic either is again an image of continually being totally at risk as one tries to keep contact with those who are hostile to what Jesus and his disciples offer.
- Luke 6:30 sn Jesus advocates a generosity and a desire to meet those in dire need with the command give to everyone who asks you. This may allude to begging; giving alms was viewed highly in the ancient world (Matt 6:1-4; Deut 15:7-11).
- Luke 6:30 tn Grk “your things,” sometimes translated “what is yours” or “what belongs to you.”
- Luke 6:30 sn Do not ask for your possessions back… is an example of showing forgiveness. Paul’s remarks in 1 Cor 6:7 may reflect this principle.
- Luke 6:31 tn This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), referring to both males and females.
- Luke 6:31 sn Jesus’ teaching as reflected in the phrase treat others in the same way you would want them to treat you, known generally as the Golden Rule, is not completely unique in the ancient world, but it is stated here in its most emphatic, selfless form. It is stated negatively in Tobit 4:15, and can also be found in the Talmud in a story about the great rabbi Hillel, who is said to have told a Gentile who asked to be taught the Torah, “What is hateful to you, do not do to your neighbor; that is the whole Torah, while the rest is the commentary thereof; go and learn it” (b. Shabbat 31a).
- Luke 6:32 tn Grk “And if.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style. This is a first class condition, but the next two conditional clauses are third class conditions, so that stylistic variation is probably at work.
- Luke 6:32 sn Here the term sinners may refer to people who had no concern for observing the details of the Mosaic law; these were often treated as social outcasts. See L&N 88.295.
- Luke 6:32 sn Jesus’ point in the statement even sinners love those who love them is that disciples are to go further than sinners do. The examples replay vv. 29-30.
- Luke 6:33 tc ‡ Three key mss (P75 א* B) have “for” here, but it is unlikely that it was present originally. The addition of conjunctions, especially to the beginning of a clause, are typically suspect because they fit the pattern of Koine tendencies toward greater explicitness. NA28 has the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.
- Luke 6:33 tc Most mss (A D L Θ Ξ Ψ ƒ13 33 M lat) include γάρ (gar, “for”) following καί (kai, here translated “even”), but a few significant mss (א B W 700 892* 1241) lack the conjunction. The inclusion of the conjunction seems to be motivated by clarity and should probably be considered inauthentic.
- Luke 6:33 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.
- Luke 6:34 tn Grk “to receive,” but in context the repayment of the amount lent is implied. Jesus was noting that utilitarian motives are the way of the world.
- Luke 6:34 sn See the note on the word sinners in v. 32.
- Luke 6:34 tn Grk “to receive as much again.”
- Luke 6:35 tn Or “in return.”
- Luke 6:35 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “then” to indicate the outcome or result. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started in the translation at this point.
- Luke 6:35 sn The character of these actions reflects the grace and kindness of God, bearing witness to a “line of descent” or relationship of the individual to God (sons of the Most High). There is to be a unique kind of ethic at work with disciples. Jesus refers specifically to sons here because in the ancient world sons had special privileges which were rarely accorded to daughters. However, Jesus is most likely addressing both men and women in this context, so women too would receive these same privileges.
- Luke 6:35 sn That is, “sons of God.”
- Luke 6:35 tn Or “to the ungrateful and immoral.” The word “people” is not in the Greek text, but is implied.
- Luke 6:36 sn Merciful is a characteristic of God often noted in the OT: Exod 34:6; Deut 4:31; Joel 2:31; Jonah 4:2; 2 Sam 24:14. This remark also echoes the more common OT statements like Lev 19:2 or Deut 18:13: “you must be holy as I am holy.”
- Luke 6:37 tn Grk “And do.” Here καί (kai) has not been translated because of differences between Greek and English style.
- Luke 6:37 sn As the Gospel makes clear, with the statement do not judge Jesus had in mind making a judgment that caused one to cut oneself off from someone so that they ceased to be reached out to (5:27-32; 15:1-32). Jesus himself did make judgments about where people stand (11:37-54), but not in such a way that he ceased to continue to offer them God’s grace.
- Luke 6:37 sn The point of the statement do not judge, and you will not be judged is that the standards one applies to others God applies back. The passive verbs in this verse look to God’s action.
- Luke 6:37 sn On forgive see Luke 11:4; 1 Pet 3:7.
- Luke 6:38 sn The background to the image pressed down, shaken together, running over is pouring out grain for measure in the marketplace. One often poured the grain into a container, shook it to level out the grain and then poured in some more. Those who are generous have generosity running over for them.
- Luke 6:38 tn Grk “they will give”; that is, “pour.” The third person plural has been replaced by the passive in the translation.
- Luke 6:38 tn Grk “by the measure with which you measure it will be measured back to you.”
- Luke 6:39 tn Questions prefaced with μή (mē) in Greek anticipate a negative answer. This can sometimes be indicated by using a “tag” at the end in English (here it is “can he?”).
- Luke 6:39 sn The picture of a blind man leading a blind man is a warning to watch who one follows: Won’t they both fall into a pit? The sermon has been about religious choices and reacting graciously to those who oppose the followers of Jesus. Here Jesus’ point was to be careful who you follow and where they are taking you.
- Luke 6:40 tn Or “student.”
- Luke 6:40 tn Or “significantly different.” The idea, as the next phrase shows, is that teachers build followers who go the same direction they do.
- Luke 6:41 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 6:41 sn A speck (also twice in v. 42) refers to a small piece of wood, chaff, or straw (L&N 3.66); KJV, ASV “mote”; NAB “splinter.”
- Luke 6:41 tn Or “do not notice.”
- Luke 6:41 sn The beam of wood (also twice in v. 42) refers to a big piece of wood, the main beam of a building, in contrast to the speck in the other’s eye (L&N 7.78).
- Luke 6:43 tn The explanatory connective γάρ (gar) is often dropped from translations, but the point of the passage is that one should be self-corrective and be careful who one follows (vv. 41-42), because such choices also reflect what the nature of the tree is and its product.
- Luke 6:43 tn Grk “rotten.” The word σαπρός, modifying both “fruit” and “tree,” can also mean “diseased” (L&N 65.28).
- Luke 6:43 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A C D Θ Ψ 33 M lat sy sa), lack the adverb πάλιν (palin, “again”) here. Its presence is attested, however, by several good witnesses (P75 א B L W Ξ ƒ1,13 579 892 1241 2542).
- Luke 6:44 sn The principle of the passage is that one produces what one is.
- Luke 6:44 tn Grk “they do not gather”; this has been simplified to the passive voice in the translation since the subject “they” is not specified further in the context.
- Luke 6:44 tn This is a different verb (τρυγῶσιν, trugōsin) for gathering from the previous one (συλλέγουσιν, sullegousin).
- Luke 6:44 tn This is a different term (βάτος, batos) for a thorn or bramble bush than the previous one (ἄκανθα, akantha).sn The statement nor are grapes picked from brambles illustrates the principle: That which cannot produce fruit, does not produce fruit.
- Luke 6:45 tn Grk “the”; the Greek article has been translated here and in the following clause (“out of the evil”) as a possessive pronoun (ExSyn 215).
- Luke 6:45 sn Mention of the heart shows that Jesus is not interested in what is done, but why. Motives are more important than actions for him.
- Luke 6:45 tn The word “treasury” is not repeated in the Greek text at this point, but is implied.
- Luke 6:45 sn What one utters from one’s mouth is especially singled out as the example of this principle. James seems to have known this teaching (Jas 1:26; 3:1-12).
- Luke 6:45 tn Grk “for out of the abundance of the heart his mouth speaks.”
- Luke 6:46 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 6:46 tn The double use of the vocative is normally used in situations of high emotion or emphasis. Even an emphatic confession without action means little.
- Luke 6:46 sn Why do you call me ‘Lord, Lord,’ and don’t do what I tell you? Respect is not a matter of mere words, but is reflected in obedient action. This short saying, which is much simpler than its more developed conceptual parallel in Matt 7:21-23, serves in this form to simply warn and issue a call to hear and obey, as the last parable also does in vv. 47-49.
- Luke 6:47 tn Grk “and does them.”
- Luke 6:48 tn Here and in v. 49 the Greek text reads ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), while the parallel account in Matt 7:24-27 uses ἀνήρ (anēr) in vv. 24 and 26.
- Luke 6:48 tn There are actually two different Greek verbs used here: “who dug (ἔσκαψεν, eskapsen) and dug deep (ἐβάθυνεν, ebathunen).” Jesus is placing emphasis on the effort to which the man went to prepare his foundation.
- Luke 6:48 tn Here δέ (de) has not been translated.
- Luke 6:48 sn The picture here is of a river overflowing its banks and causing flooding and chaos.
- Luke 6:48 tn Here καί (kai) has been translated as “but” to indicate the contrast present in the context.
- Luke 6:48 tc Most mss, especially later ones (A C D Θ Ψ ƒ1,13 M latt), read “because he built [it] on the rock” rather than “because it had been well built” (P75vid א B L W Ξ 33 579 892 1241 2542 sa). The reading of the later mss seems to be a harmonization to Matt 7:25, rendering it most likely secondary.
- Luke 6:49 tn Grk “does not do [them].”
- Luke 6:49 tn Grk “against which”; because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, the relative clause was converted to a temporal clause in the translation and a new sentence started here.
- Luke 6:49 tn Grk “it”; the referent (that house) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Luke 6:49 tn Grk “and its crash was great.”sn The extra phrase at the end of this description (and was utterly destroyed) portrays the great disappointment that the destruction of the house caused as it crashed and was swept away.