The Authority of Jesus Challenged

20 One(A) day as he was teaching(B) the people in the temple and proclaiming the good news,(C) the chief priests and the scribes, with the elders,(D) came and said to him, “Tell us, by what authority are you doing these things? Who is it who gave you this authority?”

He answered them, “I will also ask you a question. Tell me, was the baptism of John from heaven or of human origin?”

They discussed it among themselves: “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will say, ‘Why didn’t you believe him?’ But if we say, ‘Of human origin,’ all the people(E) will stone us, because they are convinced that John was a prophet.”(F) So they answered that they did not know its origin.

And Jesus said to them, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things.”

The Parable of the Vineyard Owner

Now(G) he began to tell the people this parable: “A man planted a vineyard,(H) leased it to tenant farmers, and went away for a long time. 10 At harvest time he sent a servant to the farmers so that they might give him some fruit from the vineyard. But the farmers beat him and sent him away empty-handed. 11 He sent yet another servant, but they beat that one too, treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty-handed. 12 And he sent yet a third, but they wounded this one too and threw him out.

13 “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What should I do? I will send my beloved(I) son. Perhaps[a] they will respect him.’

14 “But when the tenant farmers saw him, they discussed it among themselves and said, ‘This is the heir. Let’s kill him, so that the inheritance will be ours.’(J) 15 So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.

“What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and kill(K) those farmers and give the vineyard to others.”

But when they heard this they said, “That must never happen!” (L)

17 But he looked at them and said, “Then what is the meaning of this Scripture:[b](M)

The stone that the builders rejected
has become the cornerstone?[c](N)

18 Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, but on whomever it falls, it will shatter him.”(O)

19 Then the scribes and the chief priests(P) looked for a way to get their hands on him(Q) that very hour, because they knew he had told this parable against them, but they feared the people.(R)

God and Caesar

20 They(S) watched closely(T) and sent spies(U) who pretended to be righteous,[d] so that they could catch him in what he said,(V) to hand him(W) over to the governor’s(X) rule and authority. 21 They questioned him, “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach correctly,(Y) and you don’t show partiality[e](Z) but teach truthfully the way of God.(AA) 22 Is it lawful(AB) for us to pay taxes(AC) to Caesar(AD) or not?”

23 But detecting their craftiness, he said to them,[f] 24 “Show me a denarius.[g] Whose image and inscription does it have?”

“Caesar’s,” they said.

25 “Well then,” he told them, “give to Caesar(AE) the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”

26 They were not able to catch him in what he said in public, and being amazed at his answer, they became silent.(AF)

The Sadducees and the Resurrection

27 Some(AG) of the Sadducees, who say there is no resurrection,(AH) came up and questioned him: 28 “Teacher, Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother has a wife, and dies childless, his brother should take the wife and produce offspring for his brother.[h](AI) 29 Now there were seven brothers. The first took a wife and died without children. 30 Also the second[i] 31 and the third took her. In the same way, all seven died and left no children. 32 Finally, the woman died too. 33 In the resurrection, therefore, whose wife will the woman be? For all seven had married her.”

34 Jesus told them, “The children of this age(AJ) marry and are given in marriage.(AK) 35 But those who are counted worthy(AL) to take part in that age(AM) and in the resurrection from the dead neither marry nor are given in marriage. 36 For they can no longer die,(AN) because they are like angels and are children of God,(AO) since they are children of the resurrection. 37 Moses even indicated in the passage about the burning bush that the dead are raised, where he calls the Lord the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob.[j](AP) 38 He is not the God of the dead but of the living, because all are living to[k] him.”(AQ)

39 Some of the scribes answered, “Teacher, you have spoken well.” 40 And they no longer dared to ask him anything.

The Question about the Messiah

41 Then(AR) he said to them, “How can they say that the Messiah is the son of David?(AS) 42 For David himself says in the Book of Psalms:(AT)

The Lord declared to my Lord,
‘Sit at my right hand
43 until I make your enemies your footstool.’[l](AU)

44 David calls him ‘Lord.’ How, then, can the Messiah be his son?”(AV)

Warning against the Scribes

45 While(AW) all the people were listening, he said to his disciples, 46 “Beware(AX) of the scribes, who want to go around in long robes and who love greetings in the marketplaces, the best seats in the synagogues, and the places of honor at banquets.(AY) 47 They devour widows’ houses and say long prayers just for show. These will receive harsher judgment.”[m]

Footnotes

  1. 20:13 Other mss add when they see him
  2. 20:17 Lit “What then is this that is written
  3. 20:17 Ps 118:22
  4. 20:20 Or upright
  5. 20:21 Lit you don’t receive a face
  6. 20:23 Other mss add “Why are you testing me?
  7. 20:24 A denarius = one day’s wage
  8. 20:28 Dt 25:5
  9. 20:30 Other mss add took her as wife, and he died without children
  10. 20:37 Ex 3:6,15
  11. 20:38 Or with
  12. 20:42–43 Ps 110:1
  13. 20:47 Or judgment

The Authority of Jesus Questioned(A)

20 One day as Jesus was teaching the people in the temple courts(B) and proclaiming the good news,(C) the chief priests and the teachers of the law, together with the elders, came up to him. “Tell us by what authority you are doing these things,” they said. “Who gave you this authority?”(D)

He replied, “I will also ask you a question. Tell me: John’s baptism(E)—was it from heaven, or of human origin?”

They discussed it among themselves and said, “If we say, ‘From heaven,’ he will ask, ‘Why didn’t you believe him?’ But if we say, ‘Of human origin,’ all the people(F) will stone us, because they are persuaded that John was a prophet.”(G)

So they answered, “We don’t know where it was from.”

Jesus said, “Neither will I tell you by what authority I am doing these things.”

The Parable of the Tenants(H)

He went on to tell the people this parable: “A man planted a vineyard,(I) rented it to some farmers and went away for a long time.(J) 10 At harvest time he sent a servant to the tenants so they would give him some of the fruit of the vineyard. But the tenants beat him and sent him away empty-handed. 11 He sent another servant, but that one also they beat and treated shamefully and sent away empty-handed. 12 He sent still a third, and they wounded him and threw him out.

13 “Then the owner of the vineyard said, ‘What shall I do? I will send my son, whom I love;(K) perhaps they will respect him.’

14 “But when the tenants saw him, they talked the matter over. ‘This is the heir,’ they said. ‘Let’s kill him, and the inheritance will be ours.’ 15 So they threw him out of the vineyard and killed him.

“What then will the owner of the vineyard do to them? 16 He will come and kill those tenants(L) and give the vineyard to others.”

When the people heard this, they said, “God forbid!”

17 Jesus looked directly at them and asked, “Then what is the meaning of that which is written:

“‘The stone the builders rejected
    has become the cornerstone’[a]?(M)

18 Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces; anyone on whom it falls will be crushed.”(N)

19 The teachers of the law and the chief priests looked for a way to arrest him(O) immediately, because they knew he had spoken this parable against them. But they were afraid of the people.(P)

Paying Taxes to Caesar(Q)

20 Keeping a close watch on him, they sent spies, who pretended to be sincere. They hoped to catch Jesus in something he said,(R) so that they might hand him over to the power and authority of the governor.(S) 21 So the spies questioned him: “Teacher, we know that you speak and teach what is right, and that you do not show partiality but teach the way of God in accordance with the truth.(T) 22 Is it right for us to pay taxes to Caesar or not?”

23 He saw through their duplicity and said to them, 24 “Show me a denarius. Whose image and inscription are on it?”

“Caesar’s,” they replied.

25 He said to them, “Then give back to Caesar what is Caesar’s,(U) and to God what is God’s.”

26 They were unable to trap him in what he had said there in public. And astonished by his answer, they became silent.

The Resurrection and Marriage(V)

27 Some of the Sadducees,(W) who say there is no resurrection,(X) came to Jesus with a question. 28 “Teacher,” they said, “Moses wrote for us that if a man’s brother dies and leaves a wife but no children, the man must marry the widow and raise up offspring for his brother.(Y) 29 Now there were seven brothers. The first one married a woman and died childless. 30 The second 31 and then the third married her, and in the same way the seven died, leaving no children. 32 Finally, the woman died too. 33 Now then, at the resurrection whose wife will she be, since the seven were married to her?”

34 Jesus replied, “The people of this age marry and are given in marriage. 35 But those who are considered worthy of taking part in the age to come(Z) and in the resurrection from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage, 36 and they can no longer die; for they are like the angels. They are God’s children,(AA) since they are children of the resurrection. 37 But in the account of the burning bush, even Moses showed that the dead rise, for he calls the Lord ‘the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’[b](AB) 38 He is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for to him all are alive.”

39 Some of the teachers of the law responded, “Well said, teacher!” 40 And no one dared to ask him any more questions.(AC)

Whose Son Is the Messiah?(AD)

41 Then Jesus said to them, “Why is it said that the Messiah is the son of David?(AE) 42 David himself declares in the Book of Psalms:

“‘The Lord said to my Lord:
    “Sit at my right hand
43 until I make your enemies
    a footstool for your feet.”’[c](AF)

44 David calls him ‘Lord.’ How then can he be his son?”

Warning Against the Teachers of the Law

45 While all the people were listening, Jesus said to his disciples, 46 “Beware of the teachers of the law. They like to walk around in flowing robes and love to be greeted with respect in the marketplaces and have the most important seats in the synagogues and the places of honor at banquets.(AG) 47 They devour widows’ houses and for a show make lengthy prayers. These men will be punished most severely.”

Footnotes

  1. Luke 20:17 Psalm 118:22
  2. Luke 20:37 Exodus 3:6
  3. Luke 20:43 Psalm 110:1