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42 “But woe to you Pharisees![a] You give a tenth[b] of your mint,[c] rue,[d] and every herb, yet you neglect justice[e] and love for God! But you should have done these things without neglecting the others.[f] 43 Woe to you Pharisees! You love the best seats[g] in the synagogues[h] and elaborate greetings[i] in the marketplaces![j] 44 Woe to you![k] You are like unmarked graves, and people[l] walk over them without realizing it!”[m]

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  1. Luke 11:42 tn Grk “Woe to you…because you…” The causal particle ὅτι (hoti) has not been translated here for rhetorical effect (and so to the end of this chapter).
  2. Luke 11:42 tn Or “you tithe mint.”
  3. Luke 11:42 sn These small herbs were tithed with great care (Mishnah, m. Demai 2:1).
  4. Luke 11:42 tn Grk “and rue.” Καί (kai) has not been translated since English normally uses a coordinating conjunction only between the last two elements in a series of three or Rue was an evergreen herb used for seasoning.
  5. Luke 11:42 sn Justice was a major theme of OT ethics (Mic 6:8; Zech 7:8-10).
  6. Luke 11:42 tn Grk “those,” but this has been translated as “the others” to clarify which are meant.
  7. Luke 11:43 tn Or “seats of honor.” The term here is plural and is not a reference only to the lead “seat of Moses” in the synagogue, but includes the front seats near the ark.
  8. Luke 11:43 sn See the note on synagogues in 4:15.
  9. Luke 11:43 tn Grk “and the greetings.”sn The later Jewish summary of oral tradition, the Talmud, notes elaborate greetings for rabbis. The rebuke here is for pride.
  10. Luke 11:43 sn See the note on marketplace in Luke 7:32.
  11. Luke 11:44 tc Most mss (A [D] W Θ Ψ ƒ13 M it) have “experts in the law and Pharisees, hypocrites” after “you,” but this looks like an assimilation to the parallel in Matt 23:25, 27, 29. The shorter reading has earlier attestation from a variety of reliable mss (P45,75 א B C L ƒ1 33 1241 2542 lat sa).
  12. Luke 11:44 tn Grk “men.” This is a generic use of ἄνθρωπος (anthrōpos), referring to both males and females.
  13. Luke 11:44 sn In Judaism to come into contact with the dead or what is associated with them, even without knowing it, makes one unclean (Num 19:11-22; Lev 21:1-3; Mishnah, m. Demai 2:3). To Pharisees, who would have been so sensitive about contracting ceremonial uncleanness, it would have been quite a stinging rebuke to be told they caused it.