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Oppression and Confrontation

The Israelites did evil in the Lord’s sight,[a] so the Lord turned them over to[b] Midian for seven years. The Midianites[c] overwhelmed Israel.[d] Because of Midian the Israelites made shelters[e] for themselves in the hills, caves, and strongholds. Whenever the Israelites planted their crops,[f] the Midianites, Amalekites, and the people from the east would attack them.[g] They invaded the land[h] and devoured[i] its crops[j] all the way to Gaza. They left nothing for the Israelites to eat,[k] and they took away[l] the sheep, oxen, and donkeys. When they invaded[m] with their cattle and tents, they were as thick[n] as locusts. Neither they nor their camels could be counted.[o] They came to devour[p] the land. Israel was so severely weakened by Midian that the Israelites cried out to the Lord for help.

When the Israelites cried out to the Lord for help because of Midian, the Lord sent a prophet[q] to the Israelites. He said to them, “This is what the Lord God of Israel has said: ‘I brought you up from Egypt[r] and took you out of that place of slavery.[s] I rescued you from Egypt’s power[t] and from the power of all who oppressed you. I drove them out before you and gave their land to you. 10 I said to you, “I am the Lord your God! Do not worship[u] the gods of the Amorites, in whose land you are now living.” But you have disobeyed me.’”[v]

Gideon Meets Some Visitors

11 The angel of the Lord[w] came and sat down under the oak tree in Ophrah owned by Joash the Abiezrite. He arrived while Joash’s son Gideon[x] was threshing[y] wheat in a winepress[z] so he could hide it from the Midianites.[aa] 12 The angel of the Lord appeared and said to him, “The Lord is with you, courageous warrior!” 13 Gideon said to him, “Pardon me,[ab] but if the Lord is with us, why has such disaster[ac] overtaken us? Where are all his miraculous deeds our ancestors told us about? They said,[ad] ‘Did the Lord not bring us up from Egypt?’ But now the Lord has abandoned us and handed us over to Midian.” 14 Then the Lord himself[ae] turned to him and said, “You have the strength.[af] Deliver Israel from the power of the Midianites![ag] Have I not sent you?” 15 Gideon[ah] said to him, “But Lord,[ai] how[aj] can I deliver Israel? Just look! My clan is the weakest in Manasseh, and I am the youngest in my family.”[ak] 16 The Lord said to him, “Ah, but[al] I will be with you! You will strike down the whole Midianite army.”[am] 17 Gideon[an] said to him, “If you really are pleased with me,[ao] then give me[ap] a sign as proof that it is really you speaking with me. 18 Do not leave this place until I come back[aq] with a gift[ar] and present it to you.” The Lord said, “I will stay here until you come back.”

19 Gideon went and prepared a young goat,[as] along with unleavened bread made from an ephah of flour. He put the meat in a basket and the broth in a pot. He brought the food[at] to him under the oak tree and presented it to him. 20 God’s angel said to him, “Put the meat and unleavened bread on this rock,[au] and pour out the broth.” Gideon did as instructed.[av] 21 The angel of the Lord touched the meat and the unleavened bread with the tip of his staff.[aw] Fire flared up from the rock and consumed the meat and unleavened bread. The angel of the Lord then disappeared.[ax]

22 When Gideon realized[ay] that it was the angel of the Lord, he[az] said, “Oh no![ba] Sovereign Lord![bb] I have seen the angel of the Lord face-to-face!” 23 The Lord said to him, “You are safe![bc] Do not be afraid. You are not going to die!” 24 Gideon built an altar for the Lord there, and named it “The Lord is on friendly terms with me.”[bd] To this day it is still there in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.

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  1. Judges 6:1 tn Heb “in the eyes of.”
  2. Judges 6:1 tn Heb “gave them into the hand of.”
  3. Judges 6:2 tn Heb “the hand of Midian.”
  4. Judges 6:2 tn Heb “The hand of Midian was strong against Israel.”
  5. Judges 6:2 tn Or possibly “secret storage places.” The Hebrew word occurs only here in the Hebrew Bible.
  6. Judges 6:3 tn Heb “Whenever Israel sowed seed.”
  7. Judges 6:3 tn Heb “Midian, Amalek, and the sons of the east would go up, they would go up against him.” The translation assumes that וְעָלוּ (veʿalu) is dittographic (note the following עָלָיו, ʿalayv).
  8. Judges 6:4 tn Heb “They encamped against them.”
  9. Judges 6:4 tn Heb “destroyed.”
  10. Judges 6:4 tn Heb “the crops of the land.”
  11. Judges 6:4 tn Heb “They left no sustenance in Israel.”
  12. Judges 6:4 tn The words “they took away” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
  13. Judges 6:5 tn Heb “came up.”
  14. Judges 6:5 tn Heb “numerous.”
  15. Judges 6:5 tn Heb “To them and to their camels there was no number.”
  16. Judges 6:5 tn Heb “destroy.” The translation “devour” carries through the imagery of a locust plague earlier in this verse.
  17. Judges 6:8 tn Heb “a man, a prophet.” Hebrew idiom sometimes puts a generic term before a more specific designation.
  18. Judges 6:8 tc Some ancient witnesses read “from the land of Egypt.” מֵאֶרֶץ (meʾerets, “from the land [of]”) could have been accidentally omitted by homoioarcton (note the following מִמִּצְרַיִם [mimmitsrayim, “from Egypt”]).
  19. Judges 6:8 tn Heb “of the house of slavery.”
  20. Judges 6:9 tn Heb “hand” (also a second time later in this verse).
  21. Judges 6:10 tn Heb “Do not fear.”
  22. Judges 6:10 tn Heb “you have not listened to my voice.”
  23. Judges 6:11 sn The angel of the Lord is also mentioned in Judg 2:1.
  24. Judges 6:11 tn Heb “Now Gideon his son….” The Hebrew circumstantial clause (note the pattern vav [ו] + subject + predicate) breaks the narrative sequence and indicates that the angel’s arrival coincided with Gideon’s threshing.
  25. Judges 6:11 tn Heb “beating out.”
  26. Judges 6:11 sn Threshing wheat in a winepress. One would normally thresh wheat at the threshing floor outside the city. Animals and a threshing sledge would be employed. Because of the Midianite threat, Gideon was forced to thresh with a stick in a winepress inside the city. For further discussion see O. Borowski, Agriculture in Iron Age Israel, 63.
  27. Judges 6:11 tn Heb “Midian.”
  28. Judges 6:13 tn Heb “But my lord.”
  29. Judges 6:13 tn Heb “all this.”
  30. Judges 6:13 tn Heb “saying.”
  31. Judges 6:14 tc The LXX reads “the angel of the Lord” here and in v. 16. The translation follows the MT and adds “himself” to draw attention to the change. sn Some interpreters equate the Lord and the messenger in this story. Since the messenger represents the Lord, perhaps when the Lord is mentioned in vv. 14 and 16 it means so indirectly, while Gideon’s direct encounter is with the angel. Indicators that the Lord and the angel of the Lord are distinct include: 1) the Hebrew text says only “Lord” in vv. 14 and 16; 2) in verse 16 the speaker in the Hebrew text says “I will be with you” referring to the Lord (but see the note at v. 16); 3) Gideon addresses the angel as ‎אֲדֹנִי (ʾadoni, “my lord”) but the Lord as אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay, “my Lord”); 4) in vv. 22-23 the Lord and Gideon continue to carry on a conversation after the messenger has vanished (v. 21). On the other hand, if the Lord was present, appearing visibly in human form (called a theophany), as implied by “turning” [his head] to Gideon, why would Gideon not be more fearful at the end of the story for having seen God rather than his angel? The story could be pictured as an exchange with the angel followed by calling out to the Lord in prayer. The translation assumes that the angel and the Lord are distinct in the conversation, but the matter is difficult.
  32. Judges 6:14 tn Heb “Go in this strength of yours.”
  33. Judges 6:14 tn Heb “the hand of Midian.”
  34. Judges 6:15 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Gideon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  35. Judges 6:15 tn Note the switch to אֲדֹנָי (ʾadonay, “Lord”). Gideon seems aware that he is speaking to someone other than, and superior to, the messenger, whom he addressed as אֲדֹנִי (ʾadoni, “my lord”) in v. 13.
  36. Judges 6:15 tn Heb “with what.”
  37. Judges 6:15 tn Heb “in my father’s house.”
  38. Judges 6:16 tn Or “certainly.”
  39. Judges 6:16 tn Heb “You will strike down Midian as one man.” The idiom “as one man” emphasizes the collective unity of a group (see Judg 20:8, 11). Here it may carry the force, “as if they were just one man.”
  40. Judges 6:17 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Gideon) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
  41. Judges 6:17 tn Heb “If I have found favor in your eyes.”
  42. Judges 6:17 tn Heb “perform for me.”
  43. Judges 6:18 tn The Hebrew text adds “to you,” but this has not been included in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  44. Judges 6:18 tn Heb “and I will bring out my gift.” The precise nuance of the Hebrew word מִנְחָה (minkhah, “gift”) is uncertain in this context. It may refer to a gift offered as a sign of goodwill or submission. In some cases it is used of a gift offered to appease someone whom the offerer has offended. The word can also carry a sacrificial connotation.
  45. Judges 6:19 tn Heb “a kid from among the goats.”
  46. Judges 6:19 tn The words “the food” are not in the Hebrew text (an implied direct object). They are supplied in the translation for clarification and for stylistic reasons.
  47. Judges 6:20 tn Heb “Take the meat…and put [it] on this rock.”
  48. Judges 6:20 tn Heb “and he did so.”
  49. Judges 6:21 tn Heb “extended the tip of the staff which was in his hand and touched the meat and unleavened bread.”
  50. Judges 6:21 tn Heb “went from his eyes.”
  51. Judges 6:22 tn Heb “saw.”
  52. Judges 6:22 tn Heb “Gideon.” The proper name has been replaced by the pronoun (“he”) in the translation for stylistic reasons.
  53. Judges 6:22 tn Or “Ah!”
  54. Judges 6:22 tn The Hebrew text reads אֲדֹנַי יְהוִה (ʾadonay yehvih, “Lord [the same title used in v. 15], Lord”).
  55. Judges 6:23 tn Heb “Peace to you.” For a similar use of this idiom to introduce a reassuring word, see Gen 43:23.
  56. Judges 6:24 tn Heb “The Lord is peace.” Gideon’s name for the altar plays on the Lord’s reassuring words to him, “Peace to you.”