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Judges 1-2 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

I. The Situation in Canaan Following the Israelite Conquest

Chapter 1

Canaanites in Palestine. [a]After the death of Joshua the Israelites consulted the Lord, asking, “Who shall be first among us to attack the Canaanites and to do battle with them?” The Lord answered: Judah shall attack: I have delivered the land into his power. Judah then said to his brother Simeon, “Come up with me into the territory allotted to me, and let us do battle with the Canaanites. I will likewise go with you into the territory allotted to you.” So Simeon went with him.

When Judah attacked, the Lord delivered the Canaanites and Perizzites into their power, and they struck down ten thousand of them in Bezek. They came upon Adonibezek in Bezek and fought against him. When they struck down the Canaanites and Perizzites, Adonibezek fled. They pursued him, and when they caught him, they cut off his thumbs and big toes. “Seventy kings,” said Adonibezek, “used to pick up scraps under my table with their thumbs and big toes cut off. As I have done, so has God repaid me.” He was brought to Jerusalem, and he died there. [b]The Judahites fought against Jerusalem, captured it, and put it to the sword, setting the city itself on fire.

Afterward the Judahites went down to fight against the Canaanites who lived in the mountain region, in the Negeb, and in the foothills. 10 Judah also marched against the Canaanites who lived in Hebron, which was formerly called Kiriath-arba, and defeated Sheshai, Ahiman, and Talmai. 11 They marched from there against the inhabitants of Debir, which was formerly called Kiriath-sepher. 12 Caleb said, “To the man who attacks Kiriath-sepher and captures it, I will give my daughter Achsah in marriage.” 13 Othniel captured it, the son of Caleb’s younger brother Kenaz; so Caleb gave him his daughter Achsah in marriage. 14 When she came to him, she induced him to ask her father for some land. Then, as she alighted from the donkey, Caleb asked her, “What do you want?” 15 She answered, “Give me a present. Since you have put me in the land of the Negeb, give me pools of water.” So Caleb gave her what she wanted, both the upper and the lower pool.

16 The descendants of Hobab the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law,[c] came up with the Judahites from the City of Palms to the wilderness of Arad, which is in the Negeb, and they settled among the Amalekites. 17 Then Judah went with his brother Simeon, and they defeated the Canaanites who lived in Zephath. They put the city under the ban and renamed it Hormah.[d] 18 Judah captured Gaza with its territory, Ashkelon with its territory, Ekron with its territory, and Ashdod[e] with its territory. 19 The Lord was with Judah, so they gained possession of the mountain region. But they could not dispossess those who lived on the plain, because they had iron chariots. 20 As Moses had commanded, they gave Hebron to Caleb, who then drove the three sons of Anak away from there.

21 [f]As for the Jebusites dwelling in Jerusalem, the Benjaminites did not dispossess them, so that the Jebusites live with the Benjaminites in Jerusalem to the present day.

22 The house of Joseph, too, went up against Bethel, and the Lord was with them. 23 The house of Joseph reconnoitered Bethel, which formerly was called Luz. 24 The scouts saw a man coming out of the city and said to him, “Tell us the way into the city, and we will show you mercy.” 25 He showed them the way into the city, and they put the city to the sword; but they let the man and his whole clan go free. 26 The man then went to the land of the Hittites, where he built a city and called it Luz, which is its name to this day.

27 Manasseh did not take possession of Beth-shean with its towns or of Taanach with its towns. Nor did they dispossess the inhabitants of Dor and its towns, those of Ibleam and its towns, or those of Megiddo and its towns. The Canaanites continued to live in this district. 28 When Israel grew stronger, they conscripted the Canaanites as laborers, but did not actually drive them out. 29 Ephraim did not drive out the Canaanites living in Gezer, and so the Canaanites lived among them in Gezer.

30 Nor did Zebulun dispossess the inhabitants of Kitron or those of Nahalol; the Canaanites lived among them and became forced laborers.

31 Nor did Asher dispossess the inhabitants of Acco or those of Sidon, or take possession of Mahaleb, Achzib, Helbah, Aphik, or Rehob. 32 So the Asherites settled among the Canaanite inhabitants of the land, for they had not dispossessed them.

33 Nor did Naphtali drive out the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh or those of Beth-anath. They settled among the Canaanite inhabitants of the land and the inhabitants of Beth-shemesh and Beth-anath became forced laborers for them.

34 The Amorites hemmed in the Danites in the mountain region, not permitting them to come down onto the plain. 35 So the Amorites continued to live in Harheres, Aijalon, and Shaalbim, but as the power of the house of Joseph grew, they were conscripted as laborers.

36 The territory of the Amorites extended from the Akrabbim pass, from Sela and upward.

Chapter 2

Infidelities of the Israelites. A messenger of the Lord went up from Gilgal to Bochim and said, I brought you up from Egypt and led you into the land which I promised on oath to your ancestors. I said, I will never break my covenant with you, but you must not make a covenant with the inhabitants of this land; you must pull down their altars. But you did not listen to me. Look what you have done! For I also said,[g] I will not clear them out of your way; they will become traps for you, and their gods a snare for you.

When the messenger of the Lord had spoken these things to all the Israelites, the people wept aloud. They named that place Bochim,[h] and they offered sacrifice there to the Lord.

Then Joshua dismissed the people, and the Israelites went, each to their own heritage, to take possession of the land. The people served the Lord during the entire lifetime of Joshua, and of those elders who outlived Joshua and who had seen all the great work the Lord had done for Israel. Joshua, son of Nun, the servant of the Lord, died at the age of a hundred and ten, and they buried him within the borders of his heritage at Timnath-heres in the mountain region of Ephraim north of Mount Gaash.

10 [i]When the rest of that generation were also gathered to their ancestors, and a later generation arose that did not know the Lord or the work he had done for Israel, 11 the Israelites did what was evil in the sight of the Lord. They served the Baals,[j] 12 and abandoned the Lord, the God of their ancestors, the one who had brought them out of the land of Egypt. They followed other gods, the gods of the peoples around them, and bowed down to them, and provoked the Lord.

13 Because they had abandoned the Lord and served Baal and the Astartes,[k] 14 the anger of the Lord flared up against Israel, and he delivered them into the power of plunderers who despoiled them. He sold them into the power of the enemies around them, and they were no longer able to withstand their enemies. 15 Whenever they marched out, the hand of the Lord turned against them, as the Lord had said, and as the Lord had sworn to them; and they were in great distress. 16 But the Lord raised up judges to save them from the power of their plunderers; 17 but they did not listen to their judges either, for they prostituted themselves by following other gods, bowing down to them. They were quick to stray from the way their ancestors had taken, who obeyed the commandments of the Lord; but these did not. 18 When the Lord raised up judges for them, he would be with the judge and save them from the power of their enemies as long as the judge lived. The Lord would change his mind when they groaned in their affliction under their oppressors. 19 But when the judge died, they would again do worse than their ancestors, following other gods, serving and bowing down to them, relinquishing none of their evil practices or stubborn ways.

20 The anger of the Lord flared up against Israel, and he said: Because this nation has transgressed my covenant, which I enjoined on their ancestors, and has not listened to me, 21 I for my part will not clear away for them any more of the nations Joshua left when he died. 22 They will be made to test Israel, to see whether or not they will keep to the way of the Lord and continue in it as their ancestors did. 23 Therefore the Lord allowed these nations to remain instead of expelling them immediately. He had not delivered them into the power of Joshua.


  1. 1:1–36 The chapter depicts the Israelite settlement of Canaan as a gradual and incomplete process (cf. Ex 23:29–30; Dt 7:22). This picture contrasts sharply with that found in Joshua, where the conquest is rapid and total. Accordingly, some scholars believe that Jgs 1 derives from an early account, which is less idealized and more realistic than that on which Joshua is based. Others, noting that Judah is presented as the only tribe that was completely successful in driving foreigners from its territory, think that the account was written at a late date and reflects suspicion in Judah about foreign elements in the Israelite populations of outlying areas (cf. 2 Kgs 17:24–33).
  2. 1:8 See note on 1:21 below.
  3. 1:16 Hobab the Kenite, Moses’ father-in-law: as in 4:11. However, in Nm 10:29 Hobab is identified as Moses’ brother-in-law, while Reuel is identified as Moses’ father-in-law (see also Ex 2:18). The more common name of Moses’ father-in-law is Jethro, also a Midianite (e.g., Ex 3:1). It is impossible to sort out the relationships among these three men in the ancient traditions. City of Palms: Jericho (cf. Dt 34:3) or a town in the Negeb.
  4. 1:17 The ban…Hormah: the narrator relates the city-name “Hormah” to “the ban” (Hebrew herem), which commanded the Israelites to devote to the Lord—and thus to destroy—whatever was captured within the land (cf. Dt 20:10–18).
  5. 1:18 Gaza…Ashkelon…Ekron…Ashdod: four of the five major cities of the Philistines (see note on 3:3). Since these cities were on the coastal plain, the statement that Judah captured them is contrary to v. 19, which notes Judah’s failure to drive out the inhabitants of the lowlands. In the Septuagint the problem is removed by changing the beginning of this verse to read “Judah did not dispossess….”
  6. 1:21 According to Jos 18:16, Jerusalem was assigned to the tribe of Benjamin. According to the notice in 1:8 above, the city was burned by the Judahites, but elsewhere (2 Sm 5:6–9) we learn that it was not actually taken from the Jebusites until David captured it and made it his capital.
  7. 2:3 I also said: the Lord explicitly warned the Israelites of the consequences of disobedience; see Nm 33:55 and especially Jos 23:13.
  8. 2:5 Bochim: Hebrew for “weepers.”
  9. 2:10–19 This long thematic passage establishes the cyclical pattern for the stories found in the rest of the book. When the Israelites are secure, they forsake the Lord and worship other gods. In punishment the Lord places them in the power of a foreign oppressor. But when they cry out in distress, the Lord takes pity on them and raises up a judge, who delivers them from the oppressor. The Israelites remain faithful to the Lord during the lifetime of the judge, but when the judge dies they again abandon the Lord, and the cycle begins anew.
  10. 2:11 The Baals: the title “Baal,” meaning “lord” or “master,” belonged to a large number of Canaanite, Phoenician, and Syrian deities, including especially the great storm god Hadad Baal, widely revered as lord of the earth. The plural form, which occurs here, was used by the biblical writers to refer to foreign gods in general.
  11. 2:13 The Astartes: Ashtoreth, or Astarte, was an important Canaanite and Phoenician goddess. The plural form used here probably refers to foreign goddesses in general.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Psalm 115 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Psalm 115[a]

The Greatness of the True God


Not to us, Lord, not to us
    but to your name give glory
    because of your mercy and faithfulness.
Why should the nations say,
    “Where is their God?”[b]
Our God is in heaven
    and does whatever he wills.


Their idols are silver and gold,
    the work of human hands.
They have mouths but do not speak,
    eyes but do not see.
They have ears but do not hear,
    noses but do not smell.
They have hands but do not feel,
    feet but do not walk;
    they produce no sound from their throats.
Their makers will be like them,
    and anyone who trusts in them.


[c]The house of Israel trusts in the Lord,
    who is their help and shield.
10 The house of Aaron trusts in the Lord,
    who is their help and shield.
11 Those who fear the Lord trust in the Lord,
    who is their help and shield.
12 The Lord remembers us and will bless us,
    will bless the house of Israel,
    will bless the house of Aaron,
13 Will bless those who fear the Lord,
    small and great alike.
14 May the Lord increase your number,
    yours and your descendants.
15 May you be blessed by the Lord,
    maker of heaven and earth.
16 [d]The heavens belong to the Lord,
    but he has given the earth to the children of Adam.
17 [e]The dead do not praise the Lord,
    not all those go down into silence.
18 It is we who bless the Lord,
    both now and forever.


  1. Psalm 115 A response to the enemy taunt, “Where is your God?” This hymn to the glory of Israel’s God (Ps 115:1–3) ridicules the lifeless idols of the nations (Ps 115:4–8), expresses in a litany the trust of the various classes of the people in God (Ps 115:9–11), invokes God’s blessing on them as they invoke the divine name (Ps 115:12–15), and concludes as it began with praise of God. Ps 135:15–18 similarly mocks the Gentile gods and has a similar litany and hymn (Ps 135:19–21).
  2. 115:2 Where is their God?: implies that God cannot help them.
  3. 115:9–11 The house of Israel…the house of Aaron…those who fear the Lord: the laity of Israelite birth, the priests, and the converts to Judaism, cf. Ps 118:2–4; 135:19–21. In the New Testament likewise “those who fear the Lord” means converts to Judaism (cf. Acts 10:2, 22, 35; 13:16, 26).
  4. 115:16 The heavens: the Septuagint reads here “the heaven of heavens” or “the highest heavens,” i.e., above the firmament. See note on Ps 148:4.
  5. 115:17 See note on Ps 6:5.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Galatians 6 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 6

Life in the Community of Christ.[a] Brothers, even if a person is caught in some transgression, you who are spiritual should correct that one in a gentle spirit, looking to yourself, so that you also may not be tempted. Bear one another’s burdens, and so you will fulfill the law of Christ.[b] For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he is deluding himself. [c]Each one must examine his own work, and then he will have reason to boast with regard to himself alone, and not with regard to someone else; for each will bear his own load.

One who is being instructed in the word should share all good things with his instructor.[d] Make no mistake: God is not mocked, for a person will reap only what he sows, because the one who sows for his flesh will reap corruption from the flesh, but the one who sows for the spirit will reap eternal life from the spirit. Let us not grow tired of doing good, for in due time we shall reap our harvest, if we do not give up. 10 So then, while we have the opportunity, let us do good to all, but especially to those who belong to the family of the faith.[e]

VI. Conclusion

Final Appeal.[f] 11 See with what large letters[g] I am writing to you in my own hand! 12 [h]It is those who want to make a good appearance in the flesh who are trying to compel you to have yourselves circumcised, only that they may not be persecuted for the cross of Christ. 13 Not even those having themselves circumcised[i] observe the law themselves; they only want you to be circumcised so that they may boast of your flesh. 14 But may I never boast except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which[j] the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 15 For neither does circumcision mean anything, nor does uncircumcision, but only a new creation.[k] 16 Peace and mercy be to all who follow this rule[l] and to the Israel of God.

17 From now on, let no one make troubles for me; for I bear the marks of Jesus[m] on my body.

18 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brothers. Amen.


  1. 6:1–10 The ethical exhortations begun at Gal 5:1 continue with a variety of admonitions to the community (brothers: see note on Gal 1:2). Nearly every sentence contains a separate item of practical advice; the faith and freedom of the gospel underlie each maxim. Tensions and temptation within communal life have previously been addressed in Gal 5:15, 26 and Gal 6:1 continues with a case in which a person is caught in some transgression such as those in Gal 5:19–21; cf. Gal 2:17.
  2. 6:2 The law of Christ: cf. Rom 8:2; 1 Cor 9:21; Gal 5:14. The principle of love for others is meant. To bear one another’s burdens is to “serve one another through love” (Gal 5:13).
  3. 6:4–5 Self-examination is the cure for self-deception. Compare what you are with what you were before, and give the glory to God; cf. Rom 6:19–22. Load: used elsewhere of a soldier’s pack. Correcting one’s own conduct avoids burdening others with it.
  4. 6:6 Implies oral instruction in the faith by catechists; these are to be remunerated for their service; cf. Rom 15:27.
  5. 6:10 The family of the faith: the Christian household or church. Doing good has a universal object (to all), but the local community makes specific the reality of those to be served.
  6. 6:11–18 A postscript in Paul’s own hand, as was his practice (see 1 Cor 16:21; 2 Thes 3:17). Paul summarizes his appeal against his opponents (Gal 6:12–13), then returns to his message of glorying in the cross, not in circumcision, as the means of salvation (Gal 6:14–15; cf. Gal 5:11). A benediction follows at Gal 6:16. In the polemical spirit that the attack on his apostleship called forth (Gal 1:11–2:21), Paul reasserts his missionary credentials (Gal 6:17) before giving a final benediction (Gal 6:18).
  7. 6:11 Large letters: in contrast to the finer hand of the scribe who wrote the letter up to this point. The larger Greek letters make Paul’s message even more emphatic. Some find a hint of poor eyesight on Paul’s part. See note on Gal 4:13.
  8. 6:12–15 The Jewish Christian opponents wished not to be persecuted, possibly by Jews. But since Judaism seems to have had a privileged status as a religion in the Roman empire, circumcised Christians might, if taken as Jews, thereby avoid persecution from the Romans. In any case, Paul instead stresses conformity with the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ; cf. Gal 2:19–21; 5:11.
  9. 6:13 Those having themselves circumcised: other manuscripts read, “those who have had themselves circumcised.”
  10. 6:14 Through which: or “through whom.”
  11. 6:15 New creation: or “new creature”; cf. 2 Cor 5:17.
  12. 6:16 This rule: the principle in Gal 6:14–15. The Israel of God: while the church may be meant (the phrase can be translated “to all who follow this rule, even the Israel of God”; cf. Gal 6:10; 1 Cor 10:18), the reference may also be to God’s ancient people, Israel; cf. Ps 125:5; 128:6.
  13. 6:17 The marks of Jesus: slaves were often branded by marks (stigmata) burned into their flesh to show to whom they belonged; so also were devotees of pagan gods. Paul implies that instead of outdated circumcision, his body bears the scars of his apostolic labors (2 Cor 11:22–31), such as floggings (Acts 16:22; 2 Cor 11:25) and stonings (Acts 14:19), that mark him as belonging to the Christ who suffered (cf. Rom 6:3; 2 Cor 4:10; Col 1:24) and will protect his own.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.


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