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12 These false teachers are like dangerous hidden reefs at your love feasts,[a] lying in wait to shipwreck the immature. They feast among you without reverence,[b] having no shepherd but themselves.[c] They are clouds with no rain,[d] swept along by the winds.[e] Like fruitless late-autumn trees[f]—twice dead,[g] barren, and plucked up by the roots! 13 They are wild waves of the sea, flinging out the foam of their shame and disgrace.[h] They are misleading like wandering stars,[i] for whom the complete darkness of eternal gloom has been reserved.[j]

Enoch’s Prophecy

14 Enoch, the seventh direct descendant from Adam,[k] prophesied of their doom[l] when he said, “Look! Here comes the Lord Yahweh[m] in his myriads of holy ones.[n]

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  1. 12 “Love feasts”! What a beautiful description of what our church gatherings are meant to be. We celebrate the love of Christ through our communion, worship, teaching, prophesying, and fellowship together in our love for one another.
  2. 12 See 1 Cor. 11:17–22.
  3. 12 Or “shepherds who care for only themselves.” The Aramaic can be translated “they submit their souls to no one.”
  4. 12 Rain in the Bible is often a symbol of revelatory teaching (Deut. 32:2).
  5. 12 Both in Hebrew and in Aramaic, the word used for “winds” is spirits—“swept along by the spirits.”
  6. 12 Autumn trees are often quite stunning in beauty, but these false teachers are bearing no fruit. They have the appearance of being true, but there is no fruit connected to their lives and ministries.
  7. 12 They are dead in appearance and dead in reality—dead through and through.
  8. 13 The Aramaic can be translated “They manifest their confusion.”
  9. 13 Stars were seen as navigational tools for seamen. But these false teachers could not be depended on and would give disastrous guidance. The word misleading is found in the Aramaic.
  10. 13 This is an Hebraic expression that is meant to convey the place of future eternal punishment, the farthest away from God that anyone could ever be.
  11. 14 That would be Adam, Seth, Enosh, Kenan, Mahalalel, Jared, and Enoch.
  12. 14 Or “prophesied against them.”
  13. 14 As translated from the Aramaic. The Greek can also be translated “The Lord has come” (proleptic [or futuristic] aorist).
  14. 14 Or “in holy myriads of himself.” He comes through a people who are like him. Most translations read, “The Lord is coming with ten thousands” but the Greek word en is translated “in” over 1,870 times in the New Testament. En means “in.”

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