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These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes,[a] including the hill country, the foothills,[b] the rift valley,[c] the slopes,[d] the wilderness, and the Negev[e]—the land of[f] the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:

the king of Jericho (one),
the king of Ai—located near Bethel—(one),

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  1. Joshua 12:7 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
  2. Joshua 12:8 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain. These are areas of eocene limestone with a distinct pattern of erosion, soil, and vegetation cover.
  3. Joshua 12:8 sn The rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) is a geographic feature extending from Galilee to the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Here it probably refers to the Jordan valley and an area extending south of the Dead Sea by the Negev.
  4. Joshua 12:8 sn The slopes (אֲשֵׁדוֹת, ʾashedot) refer to the ascent from the rift valley up to the hill country and to the flatlands (or wilderness) south of the hill country.
  5. Joshua 12:8 sn The Negev is the area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqaba, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
  6. Joshua 12:8 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.