New English Translation
Israel Defeats an Amorite Coalition
10 Adoni-Zedek, king of Jerusalem, heard how Joshua captured Ai and annihilated it and its king as he did Jericho and its king.[a] He also heard how[b] the people of Gibeon made peace with Israel and lived among them. 2 All Jerusalem was terrified[c] because Gibeon was a large city, like one of the royal cities. It was larger than Ai and all its men were warriors. 3 So King Adoni-Zedek of Jerusalem sent this message to King Hoham of Hebron, King Piram of Jarmuth, King Japhia of Lachish, and King Debir of Eglon: 4 “Come to my aid[d] so we can attack Gibeon, for it has made peace with Joshua and the Israelites.” 5 So the five Amorite kings (the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon) and all their troops gathered together and advanced. They deployed their troops and fought against Gibeon.[e]
6 The men of Gibeon sent this message to Joshua at the camp in Gilgal, “Do not abandon[f] your subjects![g] Come up here quickly and rescue us! Help us! For all the Amorite kings living in the hill country are attacking us.”[h] 7 So Joshua and his whole army, including the bravest warriors, marched up from Gilgal.[i] 8 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for I am handing them over to you.[j] Not one of them can resist you.”[k] 9 Joshua attacked them by surprise after marching all night from Gilgal.[l] 10 The Lord routed[m] them before Israel. Israel[n] thoroughly defeated them[o] at Gibeon. They chased them up the road to the pass[p] of Beth Horon and struck them down all the way to Azekah and Makkedah. 11 As they fled from Israel on the slope leading down from[q] Beth Horon, the Lord threw down on them large hailstones from the sky,[r] all the way to Azekah. They died—in fact, more died from the hailstones than the Israelites killed with the sword.
12 The day the Lord delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua prayed to the Lord before Israel:[s]
“O sun, stand still over Gibeon;
O moon, over the Valley of Aijalon!”
13 The sun stood still and the moon stood motionless while the nation took vengeance on its enemies. The event is recorded in the Scroll of the Upright One.[t] The sun stood motionless in the middle of the sky and did not set for about a full day.[u] 14 There has not been a day like it before or since. The Lord listened to a human being, for the Lord fought for Israel! 15 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
16 The five Amorite kings[v] ran away and hid in the cave at Makkedah. 17 Joshua was told, “The five kings have been found hiding in the cave at Makkedah.” 18 Joshua said, “Roll large stones over the mouth of the cave and post guards in front of it.[w] 19 But don’t you delay! Chase your enemies and catch them.[x] Don’t allow them to retreat to[y] their cities, for the Lord your God is handing them over to you.”[z] 20 Joshua and the Israelites almost totally wiped them out, but some survivors did escape to the fortified cities.[aa] 21 Then the whole army safely returned to Joshua at the camp in Makkedah.[ab] No one[ac] dared threaten the Israelites.[ad] 22 Joshua said, “Open the cave’s mouth and bring the five kings[ae] out of the cave to me.” 23 They did as ordered;[af] they brought the five kings[ag] out of the cave to him—the kings of Jerusalem, Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon. 24 When they brought the kings out to Joshua, he[ah] summoned all the men of Israel and said to the commanders of the troops who accompanied him, “Come here[ai] and put your feet on the necks of these kings.” So they came up[aj] and put their feet on their necks. 25 Then Joshua said to them, “Don’t be afraid and don’t panic![ak] Be strong and brave, for the Lord will do the same thing to all your enemies you fight.” 26 Then Joshua executed them[al] and hung them on five trees. They were left hanging on the trees until evening. 27 At sunset Joshua ordered his men to take them down from the trees.[am] They threw them into the cave where they had hidden and piled large stones over the mouth of the cave. (They remain to this very day.)[an]
Joshua Launches a Southern Campaign
28 That day Joshua captured Makkedah and put the sword to it and its king. He annihilated everyone who lived in it; he left no survivors. He did to its king what he had done to the king of Jericho.
29 Joshua and all Israel marched from Makkedah to Libnah and fought against it.[ao] 30 The Lord handed it and its king over to Israel, and Israel[ap] put the sword to all who lived there; they[aq] left no survivors. They did to its king what they had done to the king of Jericho.
31 Joshua and all Israel marched from Libnah to Lachish. He deployed his troops[ar] and fought against it. 32 The Lord handed Lachish over to Israel, and they[as] captured it on the second day. They put the sword to all who lived there, just as they had done to Libnah. 33 Then King Horam of Gezer came up to help Lachish, but Joshua struck him down, as well as his army,[at] until no survivors remained.
34 Joshua and all Israel marched from Lachish to Eglon. They deployed troops[au] and fought against it. 35 That day they captured it and put the sword to all who lived there. That day they[av] annihilated it just as they had done to Lachish.
36 Joshua and all Israel marched up from Eglon to Hebron and fought against it. 37 They captured it and put the sword to its king, all its surrounding cities, and all who lived in it; they[aw] left no survivors. As they had done at Eglon, they annihilated it and all who lived there.
38 Joshua and all Israel turned to Debir and fought against it. 39 They[ax] captured it, its king, and all its surrounding cities and put the sword to them. They annihilated everyone who lived there; they[ay] left no survivors. They did to Debir and its king what they had done to Libnah and its king and to Hebron.[az]
40 Joshua defeated the whole land, including the hill country, the Negev,[ba] the foothills,[bb] the slopes,[bc] and all their kings. He left no survivors. He annihilated everything that breathed, just as the Lord God of Israel had commanded. 41 Joshua conquered the area between Kadesh Barnea and Gaza and the whole region of Goshen, all the way to Gibeon.[bd] 42 Joshua captured in one campaign[be] all these kings and their lands, for the Lord God of Israel fought for Israel. 43 Then Joshua and all Israel returned to the camp at Gilgal.
Israel Defeats a Northern Coalition
11 When King Jabin of Hazor heard the news about Israel’s victories,[bf] he organized a coalition, including[bg] King Jobab of Madon, the king of Shimron, the king of Acshaph, 2 and the northern kings who ruled in[bh] the hill country, in the rift valley south of Kinnereth,[bi] in the foothills, and on the heights of Dor to the west. 3 Canaanites came[bj] from the east and west; Amorites, Hittites, Perizzites, and Jebusites from the hill country; and Hivites from below Hermon in the area[bk] of Mizpah. 4 These kings came out with their armies; they were as numerous as the sand on the seashore and had a large number of horses and chariots.[bl] 5 All these kings gathered and joined forces[bm] at the Waters of Merom to fight Israel.
6 The Lord told Joshua, “Don’t be afraid of them, for about this time tomorrow I will cause all of them to lie dead before Israel. You must hamstring their horses and burn[bn] their chariots.” 7 Joshua and his whole army caught them by surprise at the Waters of Merom and attacked them.[bo] 8 The Lord handed them over to Israel, and they struck them down and chased them all the way to Greater Sidon, Misrephoth Maim,[bp] and the Mizpah Valley to the east. They struck them down until no survivors remained. 9 Joshua did to them as the Lord had commanded him; he hamstrung their horses and burned[bq] their chariots.
10 At that time Joshua turned, captured Hazor, and struck down its king with the sword, for Hazor was at that time[br] the leader of all these kingdoms. 11 They annihilated everyone who lived there with the sword[bs]—no one who breathed remained—and burned[bt] Hazor.
12 Joshua captured all these royal cities and all their kings and annihilated them with the sword,[bu] as Moses the Lord’s servant had commanded. 13 But Israel did not burn any of the cities located on mounds[bv] except for Hazor; it was the only one Joshua burned. 14 The Israelites plundered all the goods of these cities and the cattle, but they totally destroyed all the people[bw] and allowed no one who breathed to live. 15 Moses the Lord’s servant passed on the Lord’s commands to Joshua, and Joshua did as he was told. He did not ignore any of the commands the Lord had given Moses.[bx]
A Summary of Israel’s Victories
16 Joshua conquered the whole land,[by] including the hill country, all the Negev,[bz] all the land of Goshen, the foothills,[ca] the rift valley,[cb] the hill country of Israel and its foothills, 17 from Mount Halak up to Seir, as far as Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley below Mount Hermon. He captured all their kings and executed them.[cc] 18 Joshua campaigned against[cd] these kings for quite some time.[ce] 19 No city made peace with the Israelites (except the Hivites living in Gibeon);[cf] they had to conquer all of them,[cg] 20 for the Lord determined to make them obstinate so they would attack Israel. He wanted Israel to annihilate them without mercy, as he had instructed Moses.[ch]
21 At that time Joshua attacked and eliminated the Anakites from the hill country[ci]—from Hebron, Debir, Anab, and all the hill country of Judah and Israel.[cj] Joshua annihilated them and their cities. 22 No Anakites were left in Israelite territory, though some remained in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. 23 Joshua conquered[ck] the whole land, just as the Lord had promised Moses,[cl] and he assigned Israel their tribal portions.[cm] Then the land was free of war.
12 Now these are the kings of the land whom the Israelites defeated and drove from their land[cn] on the east side of the Jordan,[co] from the Arnon Valley to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern rift valley:[cp]
2 King Sihon of the Amorites who lived[cq] in Heshbon and ruled from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley)—including the city in the middle of the valley[cr] and half of Gilead—all the way to the Jabbok Valley bordering Ammonite territory. 3 His kingdom included[cs] the eastern rift valley from the Sea of Kinnereth[ct] to the sea of the rift valley (the Salt Sea),[cu] including the route to Beth Jeshimoth and the area southward below the slopes of Pisgah.[cv]
4 The territory of King Og of Bashan, one of the few remaining Rephaites,[cw] who lived[cx] in Ashtaroth and Edrei 5 and ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, all Bashan to the border of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and half of Gilead as far as the border of King Sihon of Heshbon.
6 Moses the Lord’s servant and the Israelites defeated them and Moses the Lord’s servant assigned their land[cy] to Reuben, Gad, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.
7 These are the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites defeated on the west side of the Jordan, from Baal Gad in the Lebanon Valley to Mount Halak up to Seir. Joshua assigned this territory to the Israelite tribes,[cz] 8 including the hill country, the foothills,[da] the rift valley,[db] the slopes,[dc] the wilderness, and the Negev[dd]—the land of[de] the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites:
9 the king of Jericho (one),
the king of Ai—located near Bethel—(one),
10 the king of Jerusalem (one),
the king of Hebron (one),
11 the king of Jarmuth (one),
the king of Lachish (one),
12 the king of Eglon (one),
the king of Gezer (one),
13 the king of Debir (one),
the king of Geder (one),
14 the king of Hormah (one),
the king of Arad (one),
15 the king of Libnah (one),
the king of Adullam (one),
16 the king of Makkedah (one),
the king of Bethel (one),
17 the king of Tappuah (one),
the king of Hepher (one),
18 the king of Aphek (one),
the king of Lasharon (one),
19 the king of Madon (one),
the king of Hazor (one),
20 the king of Shimron Meron (one),
the king of Acshaph (one),
21 the king of Taanach (one),
the king of Megiddo (one),
22 the king of Kedesh (one),
the king of Jokneam near Carmel (one),
23 the king of Dor—near Naphath Dor—(one),
the king of Goyim—near Gilgal—(one),
24 the king of Tirzah (one),
a total of thirty-one kings.
The Lord Speaks to Joshua
13 When Joshua was very old,[df] the Lord told him, “You are very old, and a great deal of land remains to be conquered. 2 This is the land that remains: all the territory of the Philistines and all the Geshurites, 3 from the Shihor River[dg] east of[dh] Egypt northward to the territory of Ekron (it is regarded as Canaanite territory),[di] including the area belonging to the five Philistine lords who ruled in Gaza, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Gath, and Ekron, as well as Avvite land[dj] 4 to the south;[dk] all the Canaanite territory,[dl] from Arah[dm] in the region of Sidon[dn] to Aphek, as far as Amorite territory; 5 the territory of Byblos[do] and all Lebanon to the east, from Baal Gad below Mount Hermon to Lebo Hamath.[dp] 6 I will drive out before the Israelites all who live in the hill country from Lebanon to Misrephoth Maim,[dq] all the Sidonians; you be sure to parcel it out to Israel as I instructed you.[dr] 7 Now, divide up this land[ds] among the nine tribes and the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
Tribal Lands East of the Jordan
8 The other half of Manasseh,[dt] Reuben, and Gad received their allotted tribal lands on east side of the Jordan,[du] just as Moses, the Lord’s servant, had assigned them. 9 Their territory started[dv] from Aroer (on the edge of the Arnon Valley), included the city in the middle of the valley, the whole plain of Medeba as far as Dibon, 10 and all the cities of King Sihon of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon, and ended at the Ammonite border. 11 Their territory also included[dw] Gilead, Geshurite and Maacathite territory, all Mount Hermon, and all Bashan to Salecah— 12 the whole kingdom of Og in Bashan, who ruled in Ashtaroth and Edrei. (He was one of the few remaining Rephaites.)[dx] Moses defeated them and took their lands.[dy] 13 But the Israelites did not conquer[dz] the Geshurites and Maacathites; Geshur and Maacah live among Israel to this very day. 14 However, Moses[ea] did not assign land as an inheritance[eb] to the Levites; their inheritance[ec] is the sacrificial offerings[ed] made to the Lord God of Israel, as he instructed[ee] them.
15 Moses assigned land to the tribe of Reuben[ef] by its clans. 16 Their territory started at Aroer[eg] (on the edge of the Arnon Valley) and included the city in the middle of the valley, the whole plain of Medeba, 17 Heshbon and all its surrounding cities on the plain, including Dibon, Bamoth Baal, Beth Baal Meon, 18 Jahaz, Kedemoth, Mephaath, 19 Kiriathaim, Sibmah, Zereth Shahar on the hill in the valley, 20 Beth Peor, the slopes of Pisgah, and Beth Jeshimoth. 21 It encompassed[eh] all the cities of the plain and the whole realm of King Sihon of the Amorites who ruled in Heshbon. Moses defeated him and the Midianite leaders Evi, Rekem, Zur, Hur, and Reba (they were subjects of Sihon and lived in his territory).[ei] 22 The Israelites killed Balaam son of Beor, the omen reader,[ej] along with the others.[ek] 23 The border of the tribe of Reuben was the Jordan. The land allotted to the tribe of Reuben by its clans included these cities and their towns.[el]
24 Moses assigned land to the tribe of Gad[em] by its clans. 25 Their territory included Jazer, all the cities of Gilead, and half the Ammonite territory[en] as far as Aroer near[eo] Rabbah. 26 Their territory ran[ep] from Heshbon to Ramath Mizpah and Betonim, and from Mahanaim to the territory of Debir. 27 It included the valley of Beth Haram,[eq] Beth Nimrah, Sukkoth, and Zaphon, and the rest of the realm of King Sihon of Heshbon, the area east of the Jordan to the end of the Sea of Kinnereth.[er] 28 The land allotted to the tribe of Gad by its clans included these cities and their towns.[es]
29 Moses assigned land to the half-tribe of Manasseh[et] by its clans. 30 Their territory started at[eu] Mahanaim and encompassed all Bashan, the whole realm of King Og of Bashan, including all sixty cities in Havvoth Jair[ev] in Bashan. 31 Half of Gilead, Ashtaroth, and Edrei, cities in the kingdom of Og in Bashan, were assigned to the descendants of Makir son of Manasseh, to half the descendants of Makir by their clans.
32 These are the land assignments made by Moses[ew] in the rift valley plains of Moab[ex] east of the Jordan River opposite Jericho.[ey] 33 However, Moses did not assign land as an inheritance[ez] to the Levites; their inheritance[fa] is the Lord God of Israel, as he instructed[fb] them.
Judah’s Tribal Lands
14 The following is a record of the territory assigned to the Israelites in the land of Canaan by Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the Israelite tribal leaders.[fc] 2 The land assignments to the nine-and-a-half tribes were made by drawing lots, as the Lord had instructed Moses.[fd] 3 Now Moses had assigned land[fe] to the two-and-a-half tribes east of the Jordan, but he assigned no land[ff] to the Levites.[fg] 4 The descendants of Joseph were considered as two tribes, Manasseh and Ephraim. The Levites were allotted no territory, though they were assigned cities in which to live, along with the grazing areas for their cattle and possessions.[fh] 5 The Israelites followed the Lord’s instructions to Moses and divided up the land.[fi]
6 The men of Judah approached Joshua in Gilgal, and Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, “You know what the Lord said about you and me to Moses, the man of God, at Kadesh Barnea.[fj] 7 I was forty years old when Moses, the Lord’s servant, sent me from Kadesh Barnea to spy on the land and I brought back to him an honest report.[fk] 8 My countrymen[fl] who accompanied[fm] me frightened the people,[fn] but I remained loyal to the Lord my God.[fo] 9 That day Moses made this solemn promise:[fp] ‘Surely the land on which you walked[fq] will belong to you and your descendants permanently,[fr] for you remained loyal to the Lord your God.’ 10 So now, look, the Lord has preserved my life, just as he promised, these past forty-five years since the Lord spoke these words to Moses, while Israel traveled through the wilderness. See here, I am today eighty-five years old! 11 Today I am still as strong as when Moses sent me out. I can fight and go about my daily activities with the same energy I had then.[fs] 12 Now, assign me this hill country that the Lord promised me at that time! No doubt you heard then that the Anakites live there in large, fortified cities.[ft] But assuming the Lord is with me, I will conquer[fu] them, as the Lord promised.” 13 Joshua asked God to empower Caleb son of Jephunneh and assigned him Hebron.[fv] 14 So Hebron remains the assigned land of Caleb son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite to this very day[fw] because he remained loyal to the Lord God of Israel. 15 (Hebron used to be called Kiriath Arba. Arba was a famous Anakite.[fx]) Then the land was free of war.
- Joshua 10:1 tn Heb “as he had done to Jericho and to its king, so he did to Ai and to its king.”
- Joshua 10:1 tn Heb “and how.”
- Joshua 10:2 tn This statement is subordinated to v. 1 in the Hebrew text, which reads literally, “When Adoni-Zedek…they feared greatly.” The subject of the plural verb at the beginning of v. 2 is probably the residents of Jerusalem.
- Joshua 10:4 tn Heb “Come up to me and help me.”
- Joshua 10:5 tn Heb “and they camped against Gibeon and fought against it.”
- Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “do not let your hand drop from us.”
- Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “your servants!”
- Joshua 10:6 tn Heb “have gathered against us.”
- Joshua 10:7 tn Heb “And Joshua went up from Gilgal, he and all the people of war with him, and all the brave warriors.”
- Joshua 10:8 tn Heb “I have given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
- Joshua 10:8 tn Heb “and not a man [or “one”] of them will stand before you.”
- Joshua 10:9 tn Heb “Joshua came upon them suddenly, all the night he went up from Gilgal.”
- Joshua 10:10 tn Or “caused to panic.”
- Joshua 10:10 tn Heb “he.” The referent is probably Israel (mentioned at the end of the previous sentence in the verse; cf. NIV, NRSV), but it is also possible that the Lord should be understood as the referent (cf. NASB “and He slew them with a great slaughter at Gibeon”), or even Joshua (cf. NEB “and Joshua defeated them utterly in Gibeon”).
- Joshua 10:10 tn Heb “struck them down with a great striking down.”
- Joshua 10:10 tn Or “ascent.”
- Joshua 10:11 tn Heb “on the descent of.”
- Joshua 10:11 tn Or “heaven” (also in v. 13). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.
- Joshua 10:12 tn Heb “Then Joshua spoke to the Lord in the day the Lord placed the Amorites before the sons of Israel and he said in the eyes of Israel.” It is uncertain whether the phrase “before the sons of Israel” modifies the verb “placed” (as in the present translation, “delivered the Amorites over to the Israelites”) or the verb “spoke” (“Joshua spoke to the Lord before the sons of Israel in the day the Lord delivered over the Amorites”).
- Joshua 10:13 tn Heb “Is it not written down in the Scroll of the Upright One?” Many modern translations render this as “the Book of Jashar.” Yashar (יָשָׁר) means “Upright One.”sn The Scroll of the Upright One was apparently an ancient Israelite collection of songs and prayers (see also 2 Sam 1:18), but it has not been preserved.
- Joshua 10:13 tn Heb “and did not hurry to set [for] about a full day.”sn The nature of the event described here is debated. Various options have been suggested, including (1) the earth stopped rotating, (2) the light of the sun somehow shone longer than normal, (3) the light of the sun was blocked by an eclipse, (4) the position of the sun and moon in the sky was interpreted as an omen, or (5) the language is figurative and metaphorical, describing the battle in poetic terms. For a good discussion of these options, see D. M. Howard, Jr., Joshua (NAC), 241-49.
- Joshua 10:16 tn Heb “these five kings.”
- Joshua 10:18 tn Heb “and appoint by it men to guard them.”
- Joshua 10:19 tn Heb “But [as for] you, don’t stand still, chase after your enemies and attack them from the rear.”
- Joshua 10:19 tn Or “enter into.”
- Joshua 10:19 tn Heb “has given them into your hand.” The verbal form is a perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of the action.
- Joshua 10:20 tn Heb “When Joshua and the sons of Israel finished defeating them with a very great defeat until they were destroyed (now the survivors escaped to the fortified cities).” In the Hebrew text the initial temporal clause (“when Joshua…finished”) is subordinated to v. 21 (“the whole army returned”).
- Joshua 10:21 tn Heb “all the people returned to the camp, to Joshua [at] Makkedah [in] peace.”
- Joshua 10:21 tc Heb “No man.” The lamed (ל) prefixed to אִישׁ (ʾish, “man”) is probably dittographic (note the immediately preceding יִשְׂרָאֵל [yisraʾel] which ends in lamed, ל); cf. the LXX.
- Joshua 10:21 tn Heb “no man sharpened [or perhaps, “pointed”] his tongue against the sons of Israel.” Cf. NEB “not a man of the Israelites suffered so much as a scratch on his tongue,” which understands “sharpened” as “scratched” (referring to a minor wound). Most modern translations understand the Hebrew expression “sharpened his tongue” figuratively for opposition or threats against the Israelites.
- Joshua 10:22 tn Heb “these five kings.”
- Joshua 10:23 tn Heb “they did so.”
- Joshua 10:23 tn Heb “these five kings.”
- Joshua 10:24 tn Heb “Joshua.” The translation has replaced the proper name with the pronoun (“he”) because a repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style.
- Joshua 10:24 tn Or “Draw near.”
- Joshua 10:24 tn Or “drew near.”
- Joshua 10:25 tn Or perhaps “and don’t get discouraged!”
- Joshua 10:26 tn Heb “struck them down and killed them.”
- Joshua 10:27 sn For the legal background of the removal of the corpses before sundown, see Deut 21:22-23.
- Joshua 10:27 tn Heb “to this very day.” The words “They remain” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 10:29 tn Heb “Libnah.” Repetition of the proper name here would be redundant according to English style, so the pronoun (“it”) has been employed in the translation.
- Joshua 10:30 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
- Joshua 10:30 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “They did to its king” and “they had done.”
- Joshua 10:31 tn Heb “encamped against it.”
- Joshua 10:32 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
- Joshua 10:33 tn Heb “people.”
- Joshua 10:34 tn Heb “they encamped against it.”
- Joshua 10:35 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “they had done to Lachish.”
- Joshua 10:37 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “they had done” and “they annihilated.”
- Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “He”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army).
- Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “he”; the implied subject may be Israel, or Joshua (as the commanding general of the army). So also for “They did to Debir” and “they had done to Libnah.”
- Joshua 10:39 tn Heb “as he did to Hebron, so he did to Debir and its king, and as he did to Libnah and its king.” The clauses have been rearranged in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Joshua 10:40 sn The Negev is an area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqabah, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
- Joshua 10:40 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region from the hill country to the Mediterranean coastal plains.
- Joshua 10:40 sn In contrast to the foothills on the western side of the hill country, the slopes are on the eastern side leading down to the rift valley of the Dead Sea and Jordan river.
- Joshua 10:41 tn Heb “and Joshua struck them down, from Kadesh Barnea even to Gaza, and all the land of Goshen, even to Gibeon.”
- Joshua 10:42 tn Heb “at one time.”
- Joshua 11:1 tn The words “about Israel’s victories” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied for clarity.
- Joshua 11:1 tn Heb “he sent to.”
- Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “and to the kings who [are] from the north in.”
- Joshua 11:2 tn Heb “Chinneroth,” a city and plain located in the territory of Naphtali in Galilee (BDB 490 s.v. כִּנֶּרֶת, כִּנֲרוֹת).sn Kinnereth was a city in Galilee located near the Sea of Galilee (Deut 3:17). The surrounding region also became known by this name (1 Kgs 15:20; cf. Matt 14:34), and eventually even the lake itself (Josh 12:3; cf. Luke 5:1). The “rift valley south of” Galilee probably refers to the northern part of the Jordan Valley from the lake to where the Jezreel Valley joins the rift valley. Dor is nearly due west from that point.
- Joshua 11:3 tn The verb “came” is supplied in the translation (see v. 4).
- Joshua 11:3 tn Or “land.”
- Joshua 11:4 tn Heb “They and all their camps with them came out, a people as numerous as the sand which is on the edge of the sea in multitude, and [with] horses and chariots very numerous.”
- Joshua 11:5 tn Heb “and came and camped together.”
- Joshua 11:6 tn Heb “burn with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:7 tn Heb “Joshua and all the people of war with him came upon them at the Waters of Merom suddenly and fell upon them.”
- Joshua 11:8 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 641 s.v. מִשְׂרָפוֹת).
- Joshua 11:9 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:10 tn Or “formerly.”
- Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “and they struck down all life which was in it with the edge of the sword, annihilating.”
- Joshua 11:11 tn Heb “burned with fire”; the words “with fire” are redundant in English and have not been included in the translation.
- Joshua 11:12 tn Heb “and he struck them down with the edge of the sword, he annihilated them.”
- Joshua 11:13 tn Heb “standing on their mounds.”
- Joshua 11:14 tn Heb “but all the people they struck down with the edge of the sword until they destroyed them.”
- Joshua 11:15 tn Heb “As the Lord commanded Moses his servant, so Moses commanded Joshua, and Joshua acted accordingly; he did not turn aside a thing from all which the Lord commanded Moses.”
- Joshua 11:16 tn Heb “Joshua took all this land.”
- Joshua 11:16 sn The Negev is an area south of the Judean hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is an arid depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqabah, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern part of this region.
- Joshua 11:16 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, “shephelah”) refer to the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain.
- Joshua 11:16 sn As a geographic feature, the rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) extends from Galilee to the Gulf of Aqaba. The reference here is probably to the Jordan Valley and the wider part of the rift valley below the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 11:17 tn Heb “and struck them down and killed them.”
- Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “made war with.”
- Joshua 11:18 tn Heb “for many days.”
- Joshua 11:19 tn The LXX omits this parenthetical note, which may represent a later scribal addition.
- Joshua 11:19 tn Heb “the whole they took in battle.”
- Joshua 11:20 tn Heb “for from the Lord it was to harden their heart[s] to meet for the battle with Israel, in order to annihilate them, so that they would receive no mercy, in order annihilate them, as the Lord commanded Moses.”
- Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “went and cut off the Anakites from the hill country.”
- Joshua 11:21 tn Heb “and from all the hill country of Israel.”
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “took.”
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “according to all which the Lord said to Moses.” The translation assumes this refers to the promise of the land (see 1:3). Another possibility is that it refers to the Lord’s instructions, in which case the phrase could be translated, “just as the Lord had instructed Moses” (so NLT; cf. also NIV “had directed Moses”).
- Joshua 11:23 tn Heb “and Joshua gave it for an inheritance to Israel according to their allotted portions by their tribes.”
- Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “and took possession of their land.”
- Joshua 12:1 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, toward the rising of the sun.”
- Joshua 12:1 sn The rift valley is a geographic feature that extends from Mt. Hermon to the Gulf of Aqaba and includes the Sea of Galilee, the Jordan River, and the Dead Sea. The section described here extends from the border of Moab, the Arnon which runs into the middle of the Dead Sea, northward up the entire Jordan valley and beyond Galilee to Mt. Hermon at the border of Lebanon.
- Joshua 12:2 tn Or perhaps, “reigned.”
- Joshua 12:2 tc The MT reads here “and the middle of the valley,” but the reading “the city in the middle of valley” can be reconstructed on the basis of Josh 13:9, 16.
- Joshua 12:3 tn The words “his kingdom included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The Salt Sea is another name for the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 12:3 sn The slopes of Pisgah lie east of the northern tip of the Dead Sea.
- Joshua 12:4 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
- Joshua 12:4 tn Or perhaps “who reigned.”
- Joshua 12:6 tn Heb “gave it for a possession.”
- Joshua 12:7 tn Heb “Joshua gave it to the tribes of Israel as a possession according to their allotted portions.”
- Joshua 12:8 sn The foothills (שְׁפֵלָה, shephelah) are the transition region between the Judean hill country and the Mediterranean coastal plain. These are areas of eocene limestone with a distinct pattern of erosion, soil, and vegetation cover.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The rift valley (עֲרָבָה, ʿaravah) is a geographic feature extending from Galilee to the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. Here it probably refers to the Jordan valley and an area extending south of the Dead Sea by the Negev.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The slopes (אֲשֵׁדוֹת, ʾashedot) refer to the ascent from the rift valley up to the hill country and to the flatlands (or wilderness) south of the hill country.
- Joshua 12:8 sn The Negev is the area of central southern Judah, south of the hill country and west of the rift valley. As a geographic feature it is a depression extending south to the Gulf of Aqaba, but the biblical reference is probably to the northern portion of the region.
- Joshua 12:8 tn The words “the land of” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 13:1 tn Heb “was old, coming into the days.” This expression, referring to advancing in years, also occurs in the following clause.
- Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “the Shihor”; the word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
- Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “in front of.”
- Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “it is reckoned to the Canaanites.”
- Joshua 13:3 tn Heb “the five lords of the Philistines, the Gazaite, the Ashdodite, the Ashkelonite, the Gathite, and the Ekronite, and the Avvites.”
- Joshua 13:4 tn Or “from Teman.” The phrase is especially problematic if taken with what follows, as the traditional verse division suggests. For further discussion see T. C. Butler, Joshua (WBC), 146.
- Joshua 13:4 tn Heb “all the land of the Canaanites.”
- Joshua 13:4 tc The reading “Arah” assumes a slight emendation of the Hebrew vowel pointing. The MT reads, “and a cave,” or “and Mearah” (if one understands the word as a proper noun).
- Joshua 13:4 tn Heb “which belongs to the Sidonians.”
- Joshua 13:5 tn Heb “and the land of the Gebalites.”
- Joshua 13:5 tn Or “the entrance to Hamath.” Most modern translations take the phrase “Lebo Hamath” to be a proper name, but often provide a note with the alternative, where “Hamath” is the proper name and לְבוֹא (levoʾ) is taken to mean “entrance to.”
- Joshua 13:6 tn The meaning of the Hebrew name “Misrephoth Maim” is perhaps “lime-kilns by the water” (see HALOT 641 s.v. מִשְׂרָפוֹת).
- Joshua 13:6 tn Heb “only you, assign it by lots to Israel as an inheritance as I commanded you.”
- Joshua 13:7 tn Heb “now apportion this land as an inheritance.”
- Joshua 13:8 tn The MT reads “with him,” which is problematic, since the reference would be to the other half of the tribe of Manasseh (not the half mentioned in v. 7).
- Joshua 13:8 tn Heb “received their inheritance, which Moses had assigned to them beyond the Jordan to the east.”
- Joshua 13:9 tn The words “their territory started” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 13:11 tn The words “their territory also included” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 13:12 tn Heb “from the remnant of the Rephaites.”sn The Rephaites were apparently an extremely tall ethnic group. See Deut 2:10-11, 20; 3:11.
- Joshua 13:12 tn Or “dispossessed them.”
- Joshua 13:13 tn Or “dispossess.”
- Joshua 13:14 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Moses) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
- Joshua 13:14 tn Heb “did not assign an inheritance.”
- Joshua 13:14 tn That is, “their source of food and life.”
- Joshua 13:14 tn Or “offerings made by fire.”
- Joshua 13:14 tn Or “promised” (Heb “spoke”).sn For the background of this observation, see Deut 18:1-2.
- Joshua 13:15 tn Heb “assigned to the sons of Reuben.”
- Joshua 13:16 tn Heb “their territory was from.”
- Joshua 13:21 tn The words “it encompassed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Joshua 13:21 tn Heb “princes of Sihon, inhabitants of the land.”
- Joshua 13:22 tn Or “diviner.”
- Joshua 13:22 tn Heb “Balaam son of Beor, the omen-reader, the Israelites killed with the sword, along with their slain ones.”
- Joshua 13:23 tn Heb “This is the inheritance of the sons of Reuben by their clans, the cities and their towns.”
- Joshua 13:24 tn Heb “assigned to the tribe of Gad, to the sons of Gad.”
- Joshua 13:25 tn Heb “and half of the land of the sons of Ammon.”
- Joshua 13:25 tn Heb “which [is] in front of.”
- Joshua 13:26 tn The words “Their territory ran” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied for clarification.
- Joshua 13:27 tn Or “it included in the valley, Beth Haram.”
- Joshua 13:27 sn The Sea of Kinnereth is another name for the Sea of Galilee. See the note on the word “Kinnereth” in 11:2.
- Joshua 13:28 tn Heb “This is the inheritance of the sons of Gad by their clans, the cities and their towns.”
- Joshua 13:29 tn Heb “assigned to the half-tribe of Manasseh, and it belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh.”
- Joshua 13:30 tn The words “their territory started at” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied for clarification.
- Joshua 13:30 sn The Hebrew name Havvoth Jair means “the tent villages of Jair.”
- Joshua 13:32 tn Heb “These are [the lands] which Moses gave as an inheritance.”
- Joshua 13:32 sn This is the area of rift valley basin to the north of the Dead Sea and east of the Jordan. Some translate as the “plains of Moab” (NASB, NIV, ESV) but this can give the wrong impression of the larger part of Moab above the rift valley. See the note at Num 22:1.
- Joshua 13:32 tn Heb “beyond the Jordan, east of Jericho.” The word “River” is not in the Hebrew text, but has been supplied to clarify the meaning.
- Joshua 13:33 tn Heb “Moses did not assign an inheritance.” The word “land” has been supplied in the translation to clarify what the inheritance consisted of.
- Joshua 13:33 tn That is, “their source of food and life.”
- Joshua 13:33 tn Or “as he promised”; Heb “as he spoke to.”sn For the background of this observation, see Deut 18:1-2.
- Joshua 14:1 tn Heb “These are [the lands] which the sons of Israel received as an inheritance in the land of Canaan, which Eleazar the priest, Joshua son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes assigned as an inheritance to the sons of Israel.”
- Joshua 14:2 tn Heb “By lot was their inheritance, as the Lord had commanded by Moses, to the nine tribes and the half-tribe.”
- Joshua 14:3 tn Or “assigned an inheritance.”
- Joshua 14:3 tn Or “no inheritance.”
- Joshua 14:3 tn The Hebrew text adds, “in their midst.”
- Joshua 14:4 tn Heb “and they did not assign a portion to the Levites in the land, except cities [in which] to live and their pastures for their cattle and property.”
- Joshua 14:5 tn Heb “Just as the Lord had commanded Moses, so the sons of Israel did, and they divided up the land.”
- Joshua 14:6 tn Heb “You know the word which the Lord spoke to Moses, the man of God, because of me and because of you in Kadesh Barnea.”sn On this incident at Kadesh Barnea see Num 14:30.
- Joshua 14:7 tn Heb “and I brought back to him a word just as [was] in my heart.”
- Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “brothers.”
- Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “went up with.”
- Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “made the heart[s] of the people melt.”
- Joshua 14:8 tn Heb “I filled up after the Lord my God,” an idiomatic statement meaning that Caleb remained loyal to the Lord.
- Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “swore an oath.”
- Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “on which your foot has walked.”
- Joshua 14:9 tn Heb “will belong to you for an inheritance, and to your sons forever.”
- Joshua 14:11 tn Heb “like my strength then, like my strength now, for battle and for going out and coming in.”
- Joshua 14:12 tn Heb “are there and large, fortified cities.”
- Joshua 14:12 tn Or “will dispossess.”
- Joshua 14:13 tn Heb “Joshua blessed him and gave Hebron to Caleb son of Jephunneh as an inheritance.”
- Joshua 14:14 tn Heb “Therefore Hebron belongs to Caleb son of Jephunneh for an inheritance to this day.”
- Joshua 14:15 tn Heb “And he was the great man among the Anakites.”