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16 The Lord roars from Zion;
from Jerusalem his voice bellows out.[a]
The heavens[b] and the earth shake.
But the Lord is a refuge for his people;
he is a stronghold for the citizens[c] of Israel.

The Lord’s Presence in Zion

17 “You will be convinced[d] that I the Lord am your God,
dwelling on Zion, my holy mountain.
Jerusalem will be holy—
conquering armies[e] will no longer pass through it.
18 “On that day[f] the mountains will drip with sweet wine,[g]
and the hills will flow with milk.[h]
All the dry stream beds[i] of Judah will flow with water.
A spring will flow out from the temple[j] of the Lord,
watering the Valley of Acacia Trees.[k]

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  1. Joel 3:16 tn Heb “he sounds forth his voice.”
  2. Joel 3:16 tn Or “the sky.” See the note on “sky” in 2:30.
  3. Joel 3:16 tn Heb “sons.”
  4. Joel 3:17 tn Heb “know.”
  5. Joel 3:17 tn Heb “strangers” or “foreigners.” In context, this refers to invasions by conquering armies.
  6. Joel 3:18 tn Heb “and it will come about in that day.”
  7. Joel 3:18 tn Many English translations read “new wine” or “sweet wine,” meaning unfermented wine, i.e., grape juice.
  8. Joel 3:18 sn The language used here is a hyperbolic way of describing both a bountiful grape harvest (“the mountains will drip with juice”) and an abundance of cattle (“the hills will flow with milk”). In addition to being hyperbolic, the language is also metonymical (effect for cause).
  9. Joel 3:18 tn Or “seasonal streams.”
  10. Joel 3:18 tn Heb “house.”
  11. Joel 3:18 tn Heb “Valley of Shittim.” The exact location of the Valley of Acacia Trees is uncertain. The Hebrew word שִׁטִּים (shittim) refers to a place where the acacia trees grow, which would be a very arid and dry place. The acacia tree can survive in such locations, whereas most other trees require more advantageous conditions. Joel’s point is that the stream that has been mentioned will proceed to the most dry and barren of locations in the vicinity of Jerusalem.

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