New English Translation
A Locust Plague Foreshadows the Day of the Lord
2 Listen to this, you elders;[c]
pay attention,[d] all inhabitants of the land.
Has anything like this ever happened in your whole life[e]
or in the lifetime[f] of your ancestors?[g]
3 Tell your children[h] about it,
have your children tell their children,
and their children the following generation.[i]
4 What the gazam-locust left the ‘arbeh-locust consumed,[j]
what the ‘arbeh-locust left the yeleq-locust consumed,
and what the yeleq-locust left the hasil-locust consumed.[k]
5 Wake up, you drunkards,[l] and weep!
Wail, all you wine drinkers,[m]
because the sweet wine[n] has been taken away[o] from you.[p]
6 For a nation[q] has invaded[r] my land,
mighty and without number.
Their teeth are lion’s teeth;
they have the fangs of a lioness.[s]
7 They[t] have destroyed my vines;[u]
they have turned my fig trees into mere splinters.
They have completely stripped off the bark[v] and thrown it aside;
the twigs are stripped bare.[w]
A Call to Lament
8 Wail[x] like a young virgin[y] clothed in sackcloth,
lamenting the death of[z] her husband to be.[aa]
9 No one brings grain offerings or drink offerings
to the temple[ab] of the Lord anymore.[ac]
So the priests, those who serve the Lord, are in mourning.
10 The crops of the fields[ad] have been destroyed.[ae]
The ground is in mourning because the grain has perished.
The fresh wine has dried up;
the olive oil languishes.
11 Be distressed,[af] farmers;
wail, vinedressers, over the wheat and the barley.
For the harvest of the field has perished.
12 The vine has dried up;
the fig tree languishes—
the pomegranate, date, and apple[ag] as well.
In fact,[ah] all the trees of the field have dried up.
Indeed, the joy of the people[ai] has dried up!
13 Get dressed[aj] and lament, you priests.
Wail, you who minister at the altar.
Come, spend the night in sackcloth, you servants of my God,
because no one brings grain offerings or drink offerings
to the temple of your God anymore.[ak]
14 Announce a holy fast;[al]
proclaim a sacred assembly.
Gather the elders and[am] all the inhabitants of the land
to the temple of the Lord your God,
and cry out to the Lord.
15 How awful that day will be![an]
For the day of the Lord is near;
it will come as destruction from the Divine Destroyer.[ao]
16 Our food has been cut off right before our eyes![ap]
There is no longer any joy or gladness in the temple of our God.[aq]
17 The grains of seed[ar] have shriveled beneath their shovels.[as]
Storehouses have been decimated,
and granaries have been torn down,
because the grain has dried up.
18 Listen to the cattle groan![at]
The herds of livestock wander around in confusion[au]
because they have no pasture.
Even the flocks of sheep are suffering.
19 To you, O Lord, I call out for help,[av]
for fire[aw] has burned up[ax] the pastures of the wilderness,
flames have razed[ay] all the trees in the fields.
20 Even the wild animals[az] cry out to you,[ba]
for the river beds[bb] have dried up;
fire has destroyed[bc] the pastures of the wilderness.[bd]
The Locusts’ Devastation
2 Blow the trumpet[be] in Zion;
sound the alarm signal on my holy mountain!
Let all the inhabitants of the land shake with fear,
for the day of the Lord is about to come.
Indeed,[bf] it is near![bg]
2 It will be[bh] a day of dreadful darkness,[bi]
a day of foreboding storm clouds,[bj]
like blackness[bk] spread over the mountains.
It is a huge and powerful army[bl]—
there has never been anything like it ever before,
and there will not be anything like it for many generations to come![bm]
3 Like fire they devour everything in their path;[bn]
a flame blazes behind them.
The land looks like the Garden of Eden[bo] before them,
but behind them there is only a desolate wilderness—
for nothing escapes them![bp]
4 They look like horses;[bq]
they charge ahead like war horses.
5 They sound like[br] chariots rumbling[bs] over mountain tops,
like the crackling[bt] of blazing fire consuming stubble,
like the noise of[bu] a mighty army[bv] being drawn up for battle.[bw]
6 People[bx] writhe in fear when they see them.[by]
All their faces turn pale with fright.[bz]
7 They[ca] charge[cb] like warriors;
they scale walls like soldiers.[cc]
Each one proceeds on his course;
they do not alter[cd] their path.
8 They do not jostle one another;[ce]
each of them marches straight ahead.[cf]
They burst through[cg] the city defenses[ch]
and do not break ranks.
9 They rush into[ci] the city;
they scale[cj] its walls.
They climb up into the houses;
they go in through the windows like a thief.
10 The earth quakes[ck] before them;[cl]
the sky reverberates.[cm]
The sun and the moon grow dark;
the stars refuse to shine.[cn]
11 The voice of the Lord thunders[co] as he leads his army.[cp]
Indeed, his warriors[cq] are innumerable;[cr]
Surely his command is carried out![cs]
Yes, the day of the Lord is awesome[ct]
and very terrifying—who can survive[cu] it?
- Joel 1:1 sn The dating of the book of Joel is a matter of dispute. Some scholars date the book as early as the ninth century b.c., during the reign of the boy-king Joash. This view is largely based on the following factors: an argument from silence (e.g., the book of Joel does not mention a king, perhaps because other officials de facto carried out his responsibilities, and there is no direct mention in the book of such later Israelite enemies as the Assyrians, Babylonians, and Persians); inconclusive literary assumptions (e.g., the eighth-century prophet Amos in Amos 9:13 alludes to Joel 3:18); the canonical position of the book (i.e., it is the second book of the Minor Prophets); and literary style (i.e., the book is thought to differ in style from the postexilic prophetic writings). While such an early date for the book is not impossible, none of the arguments used to support it is compelling. Later dates for the book that have been defended by various scholars are, for example, the late seventh century or early sixth century or sometime in the postexilic period (anytime from late sixth century to late fourth century). Most modern scholars seem to date the book of Joel sometime between 400 and 350 b.c. For a helpful discussion of date see J. A. Thompson, “The Date of the Book of Joel,” A Light unto My Path, 453-64. Related to the question of date is a major exegetical issue: Is the army of chapter two to be understood figuratively as describing the locust invasion of chapter one, or is the topic of chapter two an invasion of human armies, either the Babylonians or an eschatological foe? If the enemy could be conclusively identified as the Babylonians, for example, this would support a sixth-century date for the book.
- Joel 1:1 sn The name Joel means in Hebrew “the Lord is God.”
- Joel 1:2 sn Elders here refers not necessarily to men advanced in years but to leaders within the community.
- Joel 1:2 tn Heb “give ear.”
- Joel 1:2 tn Heb “days.” The term “days” functions here as a synecdoche for one’s lifespan.
- Joel 1:2 tn Heb “days.”
- Joel 1:2 tn Heb “fathers.”
- Joel 1:3 tn Heb “sons.” This word occurs several times in this verse.
- Joel 1:3 sn The circumstances that precipitated the book of Joel surrounded a locust invasion in Palestine that was of unprecedented proportions. The locusts had devastated the country’s agrarian economy, with the unwelcome consequences extending to every important aspect of commercial, religious, and national life. To further complicate matters, a severe drought had exhausted water supplies, causing life-threatening shortages for animal and human life (see v. 20). Locust invasions occasionally present significant problems in Palestine in modern times. The year 1865 was commonly known among Arabic-speaking peoples of the Near East as sent el jarad, “year of the locust.” The years 1892, 1899, and 1904 witnessed significant locust invasions in Palestine. But in modern times there has been nothing equal in magnitude to the great locust invasion that began in Palestine in February of 1915. This modern parallel provides valuable insight into the locust plague the prophet Joel points to as a foreshadowing of the day of the Lord. For an eyewitness account of the 1915 locust invasion of Palestine see J. D. Whiting, “Jerusalem’s Locust Plague,” National Geographic 28 (December 1915): 511-50.
- Joel 1:4 tn Or “has eaten.” This verb is repeated three times in v. 4 to emphasize the total devastation of the crops by this locust invasion.
- Joel 1:4 tn The four Hebrew terms used in this verse are of uncertain meaning. English translations show a great deal of variation in dealing with these: (1) For גָּזָם (gazam) KJV has “palmerworm,” NEB “locust,” NAB “cutter,” NASB “gnawing locust,” NIV “locust swarm,” NKJV “chewing locust,” NRSV and NLT “cutting locust(s),”and NIrV “giant locusts”; (2) for אַרְבֶּה (ʾarbeh) KJV has “locust”; NEB “swarm”; NAB “locust swarm”; NASB, NKJV, NRSV, and NLT “swarming locust(s); NIV “great locusts”; and NIrV “common locusts”; (3) for יֶלֶק (yeleq) KJV has “cankerworm,” NEB “hopper,” NAB “grasshopper,” NASB “creeping locust,” NIV and NIrV “young locusts,” NKJV “crawling locust,” and NRSV and NLT “hopping locust(s)”; and (4) for חָסִיל (khasil) KJV has “caterpillar,” NEB “grub,” NAB “devourer,” NASB and NLT “stripping locust(s),” NIV and NIrV “other locusts,” NKJV “consuming locust,” and NRSV “destroying locust.” It is debated whether the Hebrew terms describe different species of locusts or similar insects, describe different developmental stages of the same species, or are virtual synonyms. While the last seems more likely, given the uncertainty over their exact meaning the present translation has transliterated the Hebrew terms in combination with the word “locust.”sn Four different words for “locust” are used in this verse. It is uncertain whether these words represent different life-stages of the locusts, or whether virtual synonyms are being used to underscore the severity of damage caused by the relentless waves of locust invasion. The latter seems more likely. Many interpreters have understood the locust plagues described here to be symbolic of invading armies that will devastate the land, but the symbolism could also work the other way, with real plagues of locusts described in the following verses as an invading army.
- Joel 1:5 sn The word drunkards has a double edge here. Those accustomed to drinking too much must now lament the unavailability of wine. It also may hint that the people in general have become religiously inebriated and are unresponsive to the Lord. They are, as it were, drunkards from a spiritual standpoint.
- Joel 1:5 sn Joel addresses the first of three groups particularly affected by the locust plague. In v. 5 he describes the effects on the drunkards, who no longer have a ready supply of intoxicating wine; in vv. 11-12 he describes the effects on the farmers, who have watched their labors come to naught because of the insect infestation; and in vv. 13-14 he describes the effects on the priests, who are no longer able to offer grain sacrifices and libations in the temple.
- Joel 1:5 tn Heb “over the sweet wine, because it.” Cf. KJV, NIV, TEV, NLT “new wine.”
- Joel 1:5 tn Heb “cut off” (so KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV); cf. NAB “will be withheld.”
- Joel 1:5 tn Heb “your mouth.” This is a synecdoche of part (the mouth) for whole (the person).
- Joel 1:6 sn As becomes increasingly clear in what follows, this nation is to be understood figuratively. It refers to the locust invasion as viewed from the standpoint of its methodical, destructive advance across the land (BDB 156 s.v. גּוֹי 2). This term is used figuratively to refer to animals one other time (Zeph 2:14).
- Joel 1:6 tn Heb “has come up against.”
- Joel 1:6 tn Heb “its incisors are those of a lioness.” The sharp, cutting teeth are metonymical for the action of tearing apart and eating prey. The language is clearly hyperbolic. Neither locusts nor human invaders literally have teeth of this size. The prophet is using exaggerated and picturesque language to portray in vivid terms the enormity of the calamity. English versions vary greatly on the specifics. KJV has, “cheek teeth”; ASV, “jaw-teeth”; NAB, “molars”; and NASB, NIV, and NRSV, “fangs.”
- Joel 1:7 tn Heb “it.” The Hebrew describes the locust swarm as a collective singular throughout vv. 6-7. The translation opts for plural forms envisioning the many locusts at work in order to better fit the descriptions from an English point of view.
- Joel 1:7 tn Both “vines” and “fig trees” are singular in the Hebrew text, but are regarded as collective singulars. Either the prophet speaks in the first person singular about his own vine in order to personalize the description, or we hear the voice of God speaking, and “my vine” and “my fig tree” do double duty to both represent the foliage being destroyed as well as the nation.
- Joel 1:7 tn Heb “it has completely stripped it bare.”
- Joel 1:7 tn Heb “grow white.”sn Once choice leafy vegetation is no longer available to them, locusts have been known to consume the bark of small tree limbs, leaving them in an exposed and vulnerable condition. It is apparently this whitened condition of limbs that Joel is referring to here.
- Joel 1:8 sn The verb is feminine singular, raising a question concerning its intended antecedent. A plural verb would be expected here, the idea being that all the inhabitants of the land should grieve. Perhaps Joel is thinking specifically of the city of Jerusalem, albeit in a representative sense. The choice of the feminine singular verb form has probably been influenced to some extent by the allusion to the young widow in the simile of v. 8.
- Joel 1:8 tn Or “a young woman” (TEV, CEV). See the note on the phrase “husband to be” in the next line. The word בְּתוּלָה (betulah) can be used as a technical term for “virgin” but often just refers to a young woman, perhaps to a woman who has not had children.
- Joel 1:8 tn Heb “over the husband of her youth.” The death of the husband is implied by the wailing.
- Joel 1:8 sn Heb “the husband of her youth.” The woman described here may already be married, so the reference is to the death of a husband rather than a fiancé (a husband-to-be). Either way, the simile describes a painful and unexpected loss to which the national tragedy Joel is describing may be compared.
- Joel 1:9 tn Heb “house.” So also in vv. 13, 14, 16.
- Joel 1:9 tn Heb “grain offering and drink offering are cut off from the house of the Lord.”
- Joel 1:10 tn Heb “the field has been utterly destroyed.” The term “field,” a collective singular for “fields,” is a metonymy for crops produced by the fields.
- Joel 1:10 tn Joel uses intentionally alliterative language in the phrases שֻׁדַּד שָׂדֶה (shuddad sadeh, “the field is destroyed”) and אֲבְלָה אֲדָמָה (ʾavelah ʾadamah, “the ground is in mourning”).
- Joel 1:11 tn Heb “embarrassed”; or “be ashamed.”
- Joel 1:12 tn This Hebrew word וְתַפּוּחַ (vetappuakh) probably refers to the apple tree (so most English versions), but other suggestions that scholars have offered include the apricot, citron, or quince.
- Joel 1:12 tn These words are not in the Hebrew text but are supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Joel 1:12 tn Heb “the sons of man.”
- Joel 1:13 tn Heb “put on.” There is no object present in the Hebrew text, but many translations assume “sackcloth” to be the understood object of the verb “put on.” Its absence in the Hebrew text of v. 13 is probably due to metrical considerations. The meter here is 3 + 3, and that has probably influenced the prophet’s choice of words.
- Joel 1:13 tn Heb “for grain offering and drink offering are withheld from the house of your God.”
- Joel 1:14 tn Heb “consecrate a fast” (so NASB).
- Joel 1:14 tc The conjunction “and” does not appear in MT or LXX but does appear in some Qumran texts (4QXIIc and 4QXIIg).
- Joel 1:15 tn Heb “Alas for the day!”
- Joel 1:15 tn There is a wordplay in Hebrew here with the word used for “destruction” (שׁוֹד, shod) and the term used for God (שַׁדַּי, shadday). The exact meaning of “Shaddai” in the OT is somewhat uncertain, although the ancient versions and many modern English versions tend to translate it as “Almighty” (e.g., Greek παντοκράτωρ [pantokratōr], Latin omnipotens). Here it might be rendered “Destroyer,” with the thought being that “destruction will come from the Divine Destroyer,” which should not be misunderstood as a reference to the destroying angel. The name “Shaddai” (outside Genesis and without the element “El” [“God”]) is normally used when God is viewed as the sovereign king who blesses/protects or curses/brings judgment. The name appears in the introduction to two of Balaam’s oracles (Num 24:4, 16) of blessing upon Israel. Naomi employs the name when accusing the Lord of treating her bitterly by taking the lives of her husband and sons (Ruth 1:20-21). In Ps 68:14; Isa 13:6; and the present passage, Shaddai judges his enemies through warfare, while Ps 91:1 depicts him as the protector of his people. In Ezek 1:24 and 10:5 the sound of the cherubim’s wings is compared to Shaddai’s powerful voice. The reference may be to the mighty divine warrior’s battle cry that accompanies his angry judgment.
- Joel 1:16 tn Heb “Has not the food been cut off right before our eyes?” This rhetorical question expects an affirmative answer; the question has been translated as an affirmation for the sake of clarity and emphasis.
- Joel 1:16 tn Heb “joy and gladness from the house of our God?” Verse 16b is a continuation of the rhetorical question begun in v. 16a but has been translated as an affirmative statement to make the meaning clear. The words “There is no longer any” are not in the Hebrew text but have been supplied in the translation for clarity.
- Joel 1:17 tn Heb “seed.” The phrase “the grains of” does not appear in the Hebrew but has been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity and smoothness.
- Joel 1:17 tc This line is textually uncertain. The MT reads, “the seed shrivels in their shovels/clods.” One Qumran manuscript (4QXXIIc) reads, “the heifers decay in [their] s[talls].” LXX reads, “the heifers leap in their stalls.”tn These two lines of v. 17 comprise only four words in the Hebrew; three of the four are found only here in the OT. The translation and meaning are rather uncertain. A number of English versions render the word translated “shovels” as “clods,” referring to lumps of soil (e.g., KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
- Joel 1:18 tn Heb “how the cattle groan!”
- Joel 1:18 tn Heb “the herds of cattle are confused.” The verb בּוּךְ (bukh, “be confused”) sometimes refers to wandering aimlessly in confusion (cf. Exod 14:3).
- Joel 1:19 tn The phrase “for help” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.
- Joel 1:19 sn Fire here and in v. 20 is probably not to be understood in a literal sense. The locust plague, accompanied by conditions of extreme drought, has left the countryside looking as though everything has been burned up (so also in Joel 2:3).
- Joel 1:19 tn Heb “consumed.” This entire line is restated at the end of v. 20.
- Joel 1:19 tn Heb “a flame has set ablaze.” This fire was one of the effects of the drought.
- Joel 1:20 tn Heb “beasts of the field.”
- Joel 1:20 tn Heb “long for you.” Animals of course do not have religious sensibilities as such; they do not in any literal sense long for Yahweh. Rather, the language here is figurative (metonymy of cause for effect). The animals long for food and water (so BDB 788 s.v. עָרַג), the ultimate source of which is Yahweh.
- Joel 1:20 tn Heb “sources of water.”
- Joel 1:20 tn Heb “consumed.”
- Joel 1:20 tn Heb “the pastures of the wilderness.”
- Joel 2:1 tn The word translated “trumpet” here (so most English versions) is the Hebrew שׁוֹפָר (shofar). The shophar was a wind instrument made from a cow or ram’s horn and used as a military instrument for calling people to attention in the face of danger or as a religious instrument for calling people to occasions of communal celebration.
- Joel 2:1 tn Or “for.”
- Joel 2:1 sn The interpretation of 2:1-11 is very difficult. Four views may be mentioned here. (1) Some commentators understand this section to be describing a human invasion of Judah on the part of an ancient army. The exact identity of this army (e.g., Assyrian or Babylonian) varies among interpreters depending upon issues of dating for the book of Joel. (2) Some commentators take the section to describe an eschatological scene in which the army according to some is human, or according to others is nonhuman (i.e., angelic). (3) Some interpreters argue for taking the section to refer to the potential advent in the fall season of a severe east wind (i.e., Sirocco) that would further exacerbate the conditions of the land described in chapter one. (4) Finally, some interpreters understand the section to continue the discussion of locust invasion and drought described in chapter one, partly on the basis that there is no clear exegetical evidence in 2:1-11 to suggest a shift of referent from that of chapter one.
- Joel 2:2 tn The phrase “It will be” does not appear in the Hebrew but is supplied in the translation for the sake of smoothness and style.
- Joel 2:2 tn Heb “darkness and gloom.” These two terms probably form a hendiadys here. This picture recalls the imagery of the supernatural darkness in Egypt during the judgments of the exodus (Exod 10:22). These terms are also frequently used as figures (metonymy of association) for calamity and divine judgment (Isa 8:22; 59:9; Jer 23:12; Zeph 1:15). Darkness is often a figure (metonymy of association) for death, dread, distress and judgment (BDB 365 s.v. חשֶׁךְ 3).
- Joel 2:2 tn Heb “a day of cloud and darkness.”
- Joel 2:2 tc The present translation here follows the proposed reading שְׁחֹר (shekhor, “blackness”) rather than the MT שַׁחַר (shakhar, “morning”). The change affects only the vocalization; the Hebrew consonants remain unchanged. Here the context calls for a word describing darkness. The idea of morning or dawn speaks instead of approaching light, which does not seem to fit here. The other words in the verse (e.g., “darkness,” “gloominess,” “cloud,” “heavy overcast”) all emphasize the negative aspects of the matter at hand and lead the reader to expect a word like “blackness” rather than “dawn.” However, NIrV paraphrases the MT nicely: “A huge army of locusts is coming. They will spread across the mountains like the sun when it rises.”
- Joel 2:2 tn Heb “A huge and powerful people”; cf. KJV, ASV “a great people and a strong.” Many interpreters understand Joel 2 to describe an invasion of human armies, whether in Joel’s past or near future (e.g., the Babylonian invasion of Palestine in the sixth century b.c., depending on the dating of the book), or in an eschatological setting. Others view the language of this chapter referring to “people” and “armies” as a metaphorical description of the locusts of chapter one (cf. TEV “The great army of locusts advances like darkness”). Typically, “day of the Lord” language relates to a future event, so the present-tense language of chapter 1 may look ahead.
- Joel 2:2 tn Heb “it will not be repeated for years of generation and generation.”
- Joel 2:3 tn Heb “a fire devours before it.”
- Joel 2:3 tn Heb “like the garden of Eden, the land is before them.” Gen 2:8-9 is clear that Eden is more of an orchard (“all kinds of trees”), but the translation retains “Garden of Eden” here because the phrase has now become a metaphor for the bounty, beauty, and fertility of the land, and as such is much more familiar to modern readers.
- Joel 2:3 tn Heb “and surely a survivor there is not for it.” The antecedent of the pronoun “it” is apparently עַם (ʿam, “people”) of v. 2, which seems to be a figurative way of referring to the locusts and describes ants and rock badgers in Prov 30:25-26. K&D 26:191-92 thought that the antecedent of this pronoun was “land,” but the masculine gender of the pronoun does not support this.
- Joel 2:4 tn Heb “Like the appearance of horses [is] its appearance.”sn The fact that a locust’s head resembles a miniature replica of a horse’s head has often been noticed. For example, the German word for locust (Heupferd, “hay horse”) and the Italian word as well (cavaletta, “little horse”) are based on this similarity in appearance.
- Joel 2:5 tn Heb “like the sound of.”sn The repetition of the word of comparison (“like”) in vv. 4-7 should not go unnoticed. The author is comparing the locust invasion to familiar aspects of human invasion. If the preposition has its normal force here, it is similarity and not identity that is intended. In other words, locusts are being likened to human armies, but human armies are not actually present. On the other hand, this Hebrew preposition is also on occasion used to indicate exactitude, a function described by grammarians as kaph veritatis.
- Joel 2:5 tn Heb “jostling” or “leaping.” There is question whether this pictures chariots rumbling over the mountains (e.g., 2 Sam 6:14, 16; 1 Chr 15:29; Nah 3:2) or the locusts flying—or “leaping”—over the mountains (e.g., Job 21:11); see BDB 955 s.v. רָקַד.
- Joel 2:5 tn Heb “sound.”
- Joel 2:5 tn The phrase “the noise of” does not appear in the Hebrew, but is implied by the parallelism, so it has been supplied in the translation for the sake of clarity.
- Joel 2:5 tn Heb “people.”
- Joel 2:5 tn Heb “being arrayed of battle.”
- Joel 2:6 tn Or “nations.”
- Joel 2:6 tn Heb “before it.”
- Joel 2:6 tn Heb “all faces gather beauty”; or “all faces gather a glow.” The Hebrew word פָּארוּר (paʾrur) is found in the OT only here and in Nah 2:11. Its meaning is very uncertain. Some scholars associate it with a root that signifies “glowing”; hence, “all faces gather a glow of dread.” Others associate the word with פָּרוּר (parur, “pot”); hence, “all faces gather blackness.” Still others take the root to signify “beauty”; hence, “all faces gather in their beauty,” in the sense of growing pale due to fear. This is the view assumed here.
- Joel 2:7 sn Since the invaders are compared to warriors, this suggests that they are not actually human but instead an army of locusts.
- Joel 2:7 tn Heb “run.”
- Joel 2:7 tn Heb “men of battle.”
- Joel 2:7 tc The translation reads יְעַבְּתוּן (yeʿabbetun) for MT יְעַבְּטוּן (yeʿabbetun). The verb found in MT (עָבַט, ʿavat) means “take or give a pledge” (cf. Deut 15:6, 8; 24:10) and does not fit the context. Some scholars have proposed various emendations: (1) יְעַוְּתוּן (yeʿavvetun, “they make crooked”); (2) יָטּוּן (yattun, “they turn aside”); (3) יָעַוּוּן (yaʿavvun, “they err”); and (4) יְעַבְּתוּן (adopted in the present translation) from the root I עָבַת (ʿavat, “to twist, pervert”) or II עָבַת (ʿavat, “to change, abandon”). KBL adopt the latter option, but the only biblical evidence for this is the problematic reference in Joel 2:7. Another option is to view it as a variant of the root חבט (khavat, “turn aside from”), a meaning attested for the Arabic cognate. The difference in spelling would be due to the interchange of the guttural letters khet (ח) and ayin (ע). This may lay behind LXX rendering ἐκκλίνωσιν (ekklinōsin; cf. Syriac Peshitta: nstwn and Vg: declinabunt). See S. F. Whitley, “ʿbt in Joel 2, 7, ” Bib 65 (1984): 101-2.
- Joel 2:8 tn “each one does not crowd his brother.”
- Joel 2:8 tn Heb “each warrior walks in his own course.”
- Joel 2:8 tn Heb “they fall upon.” This line has been interpreted in two different ways: (1) although they fall upon the sword, they shall not be wounded (KJV), or (2) when they “burst through” the city’s defenses, they will not break ranks (RSV, NASB, NIV, NIrV).
- Joel 2:8 tn Heb “missile” or “javelin.” This term appears to function as a synecdoche for the city’s defenses as a whole (cf. NASB, NIV, TEV). Some scholars instead understand the reference to be an aqueduct by which the locusts (or armies) entered the city.
- Joel 2:9 tn Heb “dart about in.”
- Joel 2:9 tn Or “they run upon its wall.”
- Joel 2:10 sn Witnesses of locust invasions have described the visual effect of large numbers of these creatures crawling over one another on the ground. At such times the ground is said to appear to be in motion, creating a dizzying effect on some observers. The reference in v. 10 to the darkening of the sun and moon probably has to do with the obscuring of visibility due to large numbers of locusts swarming in the sky.
- Joel 2:10 tn Heb “before it.”
- Joel 2:10 tn Heb “trembles.”
- Joel 2:10 tn Heb “gather their brightness.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “the Lord gives his voice.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “before his army.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “military encampment.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “very large.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “he makes his word powerful.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Or “powerful.” Heb “great.”
- Joel 2:11 tn Heb “endure.” The MT and LXX read, “endure,” while one of the Qumran manuscripts (4QXXIIc) has, “bear.”