New English Translation
The Victorious Divine Warrior
63 Who is this who comes from Edom,[a]
dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah?[b]
Who[c] is this one wearing royal attire,[d]
who marches confidently[e] because of his great strength?
“It is I, the one who announces vindication,
and who is able to deliver!”[f]
2 Why are your clothes red?
Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat?[g]
3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself;
no one from the nations joined me.
I stomped on them[h] in my anger;
I trampled them down in my rage.
Their juice splashed on my garments,
and stained[i] all my clothes.
4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance,
and then payback time arrived.[j]
5 I looked, but there was no one to help;
I was shocked because there was no one offering support.[k]
So my right arm accomplished deliverance;
my raging anger drove me on.[l]
6 I trampled nations in my anger;
I made them drunk[m] in my rage;
I splashed their blood on the ground.”[n]
A Prayer for Divine Intervention
7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,
of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.
I will tell about all[o] the Lord did for us,
the many good things he did for the family of Israel,[p]
because of[q] his compassion and great faithfulness.
8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,
children who are not disloyal.”[r]
He became their deliverer.
9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too.[s]
The messenger sent from his very presence[t] delivered them.
In his love and mercy he protected[u] them;
he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times.[v]
10 But they rebelled and offended[w] his holy Spirit,[x]
so he turned into an enemy
and fought against them.
11 His people remembered the ancient times.[y]
Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,
along with the shepherd of[z] his flock?
Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them,[aa]
12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses,[ab]
who divided the water before them,
gaining for himself a lasting reputation,[ac]
13 who led them through the deep water?
Like a horse running through the wilderness[ad] they did not stumble.
14 As an animal that goes down into a valley to graze,[ae]
so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.
In this way[af] you guided your people,
gaining for yourself an honored reputation.[ag]
15 Look down from heaven and take notice,
from your holy, majestic palace!
Where are your zeal[ah] and power?
Do not hold back your tender compassion![ai]
16 For you are our father,
though Abraham does not know us
and Israel does not recognize us.
You, Lord, are our father;
you have been called our Protector from ancient times.[aj]
17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray[ak] from your ways,[al]
and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you?[am]
Return for the sake of your servants,
the tribes of your inheritance!
18 For a short time your special[an] nation possessed a land,[ao]
but then our adversaries knocked down[ap] your holy sanctuary.
19 We existed from ancient times,[aq]
but you did not rule over them;
they were not your subjects.[ar]
64 (63:19b)[as] If only you would tear apart the sky[at] and come down!
The mountains would tremble[au] before you!
2 (64:1) As when fire ignites dry wood,
or fire makes water boil,
let your adversaries know who you are,[av]
and may the nations shake at your presence!
3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise,[aw]
you came down, and the mountains trembled[ax] before you.
4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived,[ay]
no eye has seen any God besides you,
who intervenes for those who wait for him.
5 You assist[az] those who delight in doing what is right,[ba]
who observe your commandments.[bb]
Look, you were angry because we violated them continually.
How then can we be saved?[bc]
6 We are all like one who is unclean,
all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight.[bd]
We all wither like a leaf;
our sins carry us away like the wind.
7 No one invokes[be] your name,
or makes an effort[bf] to take hold of you.
For you have rejected us[bg]
and handed us over to our own sins.[bh]
8 Yet,[bi] Lord, you are our father.
We are the clay, and you are our potter;
we are all the product of your labor.[bj]
9 Lord, do not be too angry!
Do not hold our sins against us continually.[bk]
Take a good look at your people, at all of us.[bl]
10 Your chosen[bm] cities have become a wilderness;
Zion has become a wilderness,
Jerusalem, a desolate ruin.
11 Our holy temple, our pride and joy,[bn]
the place where our ancestors praised you,
has been burned with fire;
all our prized possessions have been destroyed.[bo]
12 In light of all this,[bp] how can you still hold back, Lord?
How can you be silent and continue to humiliate us?
The Lord Will Distinguish Between Sinners and the Godly
65 “I made myself available to those who did not ask for me;[bq]
I appeared to those who did not look for me.[br]
I said, ‘Here I am! Here I am!’
to a nation that did not invoke[bs] my name.
2 I spread out my hands all day long
to my rebellious people,
who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable,
and who did what they desired.[bt]
3 These people continually and blatantly offend me[bu]
as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards[bv]
and burn incense on brick altars.[bw]
4 They sit among the tombs[bx]
and keep watch all night long.[by]
They eat pork,[bz]
and broth[ca] from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans.
5 They say, ‘Keep to yourself!
Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’
These people are like smoke in my nostrils,
like a fire that keeps burning all day long.
6 Look, I have decreed:[cb]
I will not keep silent, but will pay them back;
I will pay them back exactly what they deserve,[cc]
7 for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,”[cd] says the Lord.
“Because they burned incense on the mountains
and offended[ce] me on the hills,
I will punish them in full measure.”[cf]
8 This is what the Lord says:
“When[cg] juice is discovered in a cluster of grapes,
someone says, ‘Don’t destroy it, for it contains juice.’[ch]
So I will do for the sake of my servants—
I will not destroy everyone.[ci]
9 I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,
and from Judah people to take possession of my mountains.
My chosen ones will take possession of the land;[cj]
my servants will live there.
10 Sharon[ck] will become a pasture for sheep,
and the Valley of Achor[cl] a place where cattle graze;[cm]
they will belong to my people, who seek me.[cn]
11 But as for you who abandon the Lord
and forget about worshiping at[co] my holy mountain,
who prepare a feast for the god called ‘Fortune,’[cp]
and fill up wine jugs for the god called ‘Destiny’[cq]—
12 I predestine you to die by the sword,[cr]
all of you will kneel down at the slaughtering block,[cs]
because I called to you, and you did not respond;
I spoke and you did not listen.
You did evil before me;[ct]
you chose to do what displeases me.”
13 So this is what the Sovereign Lord says:
“Look, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry.
Look, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty.
Look, my servants will rejoice, but you will be humiliated.
14 Look, my servants will shout for joy as happiness fills their hearts.[cu]
But you will cry out as sorrow fills your hearts;[cv]
you will wail because your spirits will be crushed.[cw]
15 Your names will live on in the curse formulas of my chosen ones.[cx]
The Sovereign Lord will kill you,
but he will give his servants another name.
16 Whoever pronounces a blessing in the earth[cy]
will do so in the name of the faithful God;[cz]
whoever makes an oath in the earth
will do so in the name of the faithful God.[da]
For past problems will be forgotten;
I will no longer think about them.[db]
17 For look, I am ready to create
new heavens and a new earth![dc]
The former ones[dd] will not be remembered;
no one will think about them anymore.[de]
18 But be happy and rejoice forevermore
over what I am about to create!
For look, I am ready to create Jerusalem to be a source of joy,[df]
and her people to be a source of happiness.[dg]
19 Jerusalem will bring me joy,
and my people will bring me happiness.[dh]
The sound of weeping or cries of sorrow
will never be heard in her again.
20 Never again will one of her infants live just a few days[di]
or an old man die before his time.[dj]
Indeed, no one will die before the age of one hundred;[dk]
anyone who fails to reach[dl] the age of one hundred will be considered cursed.
21 They will build houses and live in them;
they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.
22 No longer will they build a house only to have another live in it,[dm]
or plant a vineyard only to have another eat its fruit,[dn]
for my people will live as long as trees,[do]
and my chosen ones will enjoy to the fullest what they have produced.[dp]
23 They will not work in vain,
or give birth to children that will experience disaster.[dq]
For the Lord will bless their children
and their descendants.[dr]
24 Before they even call out,[ds] I will respond;
while they are still speaking, I will hear.
25 A wolf and a lamb will graze together;[dt]
a lion, like an ox, will eat straw,[du]
and a snake’s food will be dirt.[dv]
They will no longer injure or destroy
on my entire royal mountain,”[dw] says the Lord.
66 This is what the Lord says:
“The heavens are my throne
and the earth is my footstool.
Where then is the house you will build for me?
Where is the place where I will rest?
2 My hand made them;[dx]
that is how they came to be,”[dy] says the Lord.
“I show special favor[dz] to the humble and contrite,
who respect what I have to say.[ea]
3 The one who slaughters a bull also strikes down a man;[eb]
the one who sacrifices a lamb also breaks a dog’s neck;[ec]
the one who presents an offering includes pig’s blood with it;[ed]
the one who offers incense also praises an idol.[ee]
They have decided to behave this way;[ef]
they enjoy these disgusting practices.[eg]
4 So I will choose severe punishment[eh] for them;
I will bring on them what they dread,
because I called, and no one responded.
I spoke and they did not listen.
They did evil before me;[ei]
they chose to do what displeases me.”
5 Listen to the Lord’s message,
you who respect[ej] his word!
“Your countrymen,[ek] who hate you
and exclude you, supposedly for the sake of my name,
say, ‘May the Lord be glorified,
then we will witness your joy.’[el]
But they will be put to shame.
6 The sound of battle comes from the city;
the sound comes from the temple!
It is the sound of the Lord paying back his enemies.
7 Before she goes into labor, she gives birth!
Before her contractions begin, she delivers a boy!
8 Who has ever heard of such a thing?
Who has ever seen this?
Can a country[em] be brought forth in one day?
Can a nation be born in a single moment?
Yet as soon as Zion goes into labor she gives birth to sons!
9 Do I bring a baby to the birth opening and then not deliver it?”
asks the Lord.
“Or do I bring a baby to the point of delivery and then hold it back?”
asks your God.[en]
10 “Be happy for Jerusalem
and rejoice with her, all you who love her!
Share in her great joy,
all you who have mourned over her!
11 For[eo] you will nurse from her satisfying breasts and be nourished;[ep]
you will feed with joy from her milk-filled breasts.[eq]
12 For this is what the Lord says:
“Look, I am ready to extend to her prosperity that will flow like a river,
the riches of nations will flow into her like a stream that floods its banks.[er]
You will nurse from her breast[es] and be carried at her side;
you will play on her knees.
13 As a mother consoles a child,[et]
so I will console you,
and you will be consoled over Jerusalem.”
14 When you see this, you will be happy,[eu]
and you will be revived.[ev]
The Lord will reveal his power to his servants
and his anger to his enemies.[ew]
15 For look, the Lord comes with fire,
his chariots come like a windstorm,[ex]
to reveal his raging anger,
his battle cry, and his flaming arrows.[ey]
16 For the Lord judges all humanity[ez]
with fire and his sword;
the Lord will kill many.[fa]
17 “As for those who consecrate and ritually purify themselves so they can follow their leader and worship in the sacred orchards,[fb] those who eat the flesh of pigs and other disgusting creatures, like mice[fc]—they will all be destroyed together,”[fd] says the Lord. 18 “I hate their deeds and thoughts! So I am coming[fe] to gather all the nations and ethnic groups;[ff] they will come and witness my splendor. 19 I will perform a mighty act among them[fg] and then send some of those who remain to the nations—to Tarshish, Pul,[fh] Lud[fi] (known for its archers[fj]), Tubal, Javan,[fk] and to the distant coastlands[fl] that have not heard about me or seen my splendor. They will tell the nations of my splendor. 20 They will bring back all your countrymen[fm] from all the nations as an offering to the Lord. They will bring them[fn] on horses, in chariots, in wagons, on mules, and on camels[fo] to my holy hill Jerusalem,” says the Lord, “just as the Israelites bring offerings to the Lord’s temple in ritually pure containers. 21 And I will choose some of them as priests and Levites,” says the Lord. 22 “For just as the new heavens and the new earth I am about to make will remain standing before me,” says the Lord, “so your descendants and your name will remain. 23 From one month[fp] to the next and from one Sabbath to the next, all people[fq] will come to worship me,”[fr] says the Lord. 24 “They will go out and observe the corpses of those who rebelled against me, for the maggots that eat them will not die,[fs] and the fire that consumes them will not die out.[ft] All people will find the sight abhorrent.”[fu]
- Isaiah 63:1 sn Edom is here an archetype for the Lord’s enemies. See 34:5.
- Isaiah 63:1 tn Heb “[in] bright red garments, from Bozrah.”
- Isaiah 63:1 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis; note the first line of the verse.
- Isaiah 63:1 tn Heb “honored in his clothing”; KJV, ASV “glorious in his apparel.”
- Isaiah 63:1 tc The Hebrew text has צָעָה (tsaʿah), which means “stoop, bend” (51:14). The translation assumes an emendation to צָעַד (tsaʿad, “march”; see BDB 858 s.v. צָעָה).
- Isaiah 63:1 tn Heb “I, [the one] speaking in vindication [or “righteousness”], great to deliver.”
- Isaiah 63:2 tn Heb “and your garments like one who treads in a vat?”
- Isaiah 63:3 sn Nations, headed by Edom, are the object of the Lord’s anger (see v. 6). He compares military slaughter to stomping on grapes in a vat.
- Isaiah 63:3 tn Heb “and I stained.” For discussion of the difficult verb form, see HALOT 170 s.v. II גאל. Perhaps the form is mixed, combining the first person forms of the imperfect (note the alef prefix) and perfect (note the תי- ending).
- Isaiah 63:4 tn Heb “for the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my revenge came.” The term גְּאוּלַי (geʾulay) is sometimes translated here “my redemption,” for the verbal root גאל often means “deliver, buy back.” A גֹּאֵל (goʾel, “kinsman-redeemer”) was responsible for protecting the extended family’s interests, often by redeeming property that had been sold outside the family. However, the responsibilities of a גֹּאֵל extended beyond financial concerns. He was also responsible for avenging the shed blood of a family member (see Num 35:19-27; Deut 19:6-12). In Isa 63:4, where vengeance is a prominent theme (note the previous line), it is probably this function of the family protector that is in view. The Lord pictures himself as a blood avenger who waits for the day of vengeance to arrive and then springs into action.
- Isaiah 63:5 sn See Isa 59:16 for similar language.
- Isaiah 63:5 tn Heb “and my anger, it supported me”; NIV “my own wrath sustained me.”
- Isaiah 63:6 sn See Isa 49:26 and 51:23 for similar imagery.
- Isaiah 63:6 tn Heb “and I brought down to the ground their juice.” “Juice” refers to their blood (see v. 3).
- Isaiah 63:7 tn Heb “according to all which.”
- Isaiah 63:7 tn Heb “greatness of goodness to the house of Israel which he did for them.”
- Isaiah 63:7 tn Heb “according to.”
- Isaiah 63:8 tn Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.
- Isaiah 63:9 tn Heb “in all their distress, there was distress to him” (reading לוֹ [lo] with the margin/Qere).
- Isaiah 63:9 tn Heb “the messenger [or “angel”] of his face”; NIV “the angel of his presence.”sn This may refer to the “angel of God” mentioned in Exod 14:19, who in turn may be identical to the divine “presence” (literally, “face”) referred to in Exod 33:14-15 and Deut 4:37. Here in Isa 63 this messenger may be equated with God’s “holy Spirit” (see vv. 10-11) and “the Spirit of the Lord” (v. 14). See also Ps 139:7, where God’s “Spirit” seems to be equated with his “presence” (literally, “face”) in the synonymous parallelistic structure.
- Isaiah 63:9 tn Or “redeemed” (KJV, NAB, NIV), or “delivered.”
- Isaiah 63:9 tn Heb “all the days of antiquity”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “days of old.”
- Isaiah 63:10 tn Or “grieved, hurt the feelings of.”
- Isaiah 63:10 sn The phrase “holy Spirit” occurs in the OT only here (in v. 11 as well) and in Ps 51:11 (51:13 HT), where it is associated with the divine presence.
- Isaiah 63:11 tn Heb “and he remembered the days of antiquity, Moses, his people.” The syntax of the statement is unclear. The translation assumes that “his people” is the subject of the verb “remembered.” If original, “Moses” is in apposition to “the days of antiquity,” more precisely identifying the time period referred to. However, the syntactical awkwardness suggests that “Moses” may have been an early marginal note (perhaps identifying “the shepherd of his flock” two lines later) that has worked its way into the text.
- Isaiah 63:11 tn The Hebrew text has a plural form, which if retained and taken as a numerical plural, would probably refer to Moses, Aaron, and the Israelite tribal leaders at the time of the Exodus. Most prefer to emend the form to the singular (רָעָה, raʿah) and understand this as a reference just to Moses.
- Isaiah 63:11 sn See the note at v. 10.
- Isaiah 63:12 tn Heb “who caused to go at the right hand of Moses the arm of his splendor.”
- Isaiah 63:12 tn Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”
- Isaiah 63:13 tn Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”
- Isaiah 63:14 tn The words “to graze” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Isaiah 63:14 tn Or “so” (KJV, ASV), or “thus” (NAB, NRSV).
- Isaiah 63:14 tn Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”
- Isaiah 63:15 tn This probably refers to his zeal for his people, which motivates him to angrily strike out against their enemies.
- Isaiah 63:15 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitation of your intestines” is metonymic, referring to the way in which one’s nervous system reacts when one feels pity and compassion toward another. אֵלַי (ʾelay, “to me”) is awkward in this context, where the speaker represents the nation and, following the introduction (see v. 7), utilizes first person plural forms. The translation assumes an emendation to the negative particle אַל (ʾal). This also necessitates emending the following verb form (which is a plural perfect) to a singular jussive (תִתְאַפָּק, titʾappaq). The Hitpael of אָפַק (ʾafaq) also occurs in 42:14.
- Isaiah 63:16 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”
- Isaiah 63:17 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (taʿah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.
- Isaiah 63:17 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.
- Isaiah 63:17 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).
- Isaiah 63:18 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).
- Isaiah 63:18 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”
- Isaiah 63:18 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”
- Isaiah 63:19 tn Heb “we were from antiquity” (see v. 16). The collocation of הָיָה, מִן, and עוֹלָם (hayah, min, and ʿolam) occurs only here.
- Isaiah 63:19 tn Heb “you did not rule them; your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership; see the note at 4:1. As these two lines stand, they are very difficult to interpret. They appear to be stating that the adversaries just mentioned in v. 18 have not been subject to the Lord’s rule in the past, perhaps explaining why they could commit the atrocity described in v. 18b.
- Isaiah 64:1 sn In BHS the chapter division occurs in a different place from the English Bible: 64:1 ET (63:19b HT) and 64:2-12 (64:1-11 HT). Beginning with 65:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.
- Isaiah 64:1 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
- Isaiah 64:1 tn Or “quake.” נָזֹלּוּ (nazollu) is from the verbal root זָלַל (zalal, “quake”; see HALOT 272 s.v. II זלל). Perhaps there is a verbal allusion to Judg 5:5, the only other passage where this verb occurs. In that passage the poet tells how the Lord’s appearance to do battle caused the mountains to shake.
- Isaiah 64:2 tn Heb “to make known your name to your adversaries.” Perhaps the infinitive construct with preposition לְ (lamed) should be construed with “come down” in v. 1a, or subordinated to the following line: “To make known your name to your adversaries, let the nations shake from before you.”
- Isaiah 64:3 tn Heb “[for which] we were not waiting.”
- Isaiah 64:3 tn See the note at v. 1.
- Isaiah 64:4 tn Heb “from ancient times they have not heard, they have not listened.”
- Isaiah 64:5 tn Heb “meet [with kindness].”
- Isaiah 64:5 tn Heb “the one who rejoices and does righteousness.”
- Isaiah 64:5 tn Heb “in your ways they remember you.”
- Isaiah 64:5 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “look, you were angry, and we sinned against them continually [or perhaps, “in ancient times”] and we were delivered.” The statement makes little sense as it stands. The first vav [ו] consecutive (“and we sinned”) must introduce an explanatory clause here (see Num 1:48 and Isa 39:1 for other examples of this relatively rare use of the vav [ו] consecutive). The final verb (if rendered positively) makes no sense in this context—God’s anger at their sin resulted in judgment, not deliverance. One of the alternatives involves an emendation to וַנִּרְשָׁע (vannirshaʿ, “and we were evil”; LXX, NRSV, TEV). The Vulgate and the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa support the MT reading. One can either accept an emendation or cast the statement as a question (as above).
- Isaiah 64:6 tn Heb “and like a garment of menstruation [are] all our righteous acts”; KJV, NIV “filthy rags”; ASV “a polluted garment.”
- Isaiah 64:7 tn Or “calls out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “calls on.”
- Isaiah 64:7 tn Or “rouses himself”; NASB “arouses himself.”
- Isaiah 64:7 tn Heb “for you have hidden your face from us.”
- Isaiah 64:7 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and you caused us to melt in the hand of our sin.” The verb וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ (vattemugenu) is a Qal preterite second person masculine singular with a first person common plural suffix from the root מוּג (mug, “melt”). However, elsewhere the Qal of this verb is intransitive. If the verbal root מוּג (mug) is retained here, the form should be emended to a Polel pattern (וַתְּמֹגְגֵנוּ, vattemogegenu). The translation assumes an emendation to וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ (vattemaggenenu, “and you handed us over”). This form is a Piel preterite second person masculine singular with a first person common plural suffix from the verb מָגָן (magan, “hand over, surrender”; see HALOT 545 s.v. מגן and BDB 171 s.v. מָגָן). The point is that God has abandoned them to their sinful ways and no longer seeks reconciliation.
- Isaiah 64:8 tn On the force of וְעַתָּה (veʿattah) here, see HALOT 902 s.v. עַתָּה.
- Isaiah 64:8 tn Heb “the work of your hand.”
- Isaiah 64:9 tn Heb “do not remember sin continually.”
- Isaiah 64:9 tn Heb “Look, gaze at your people, all of us.” Another option is to translate, “Take a good look! We are all your people.”
- Isaiah 64:10 tn Heb “holy” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, NLT); NIV “sacred.”
- Isaiah 64:11 tn Heb “our source of pride.”
- Isaiah 64:11 tn Or “all that we valued has become a ruin.”
- Isaiah 64:12 tn Heb “because of these”; KJV, ASV “for these things.”
- Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask.”
- Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek.”
- Isaiah 65:1 tn Heb “call out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “call on.”
- Isaiah 65:2 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”
- Isaiah 65:3 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”
- Isaiah 65:3 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
- Isaiah 65:3 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”
- Isaiah 65:4 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.
- Isaiah 65:4 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (netsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).
- Isaiah 65:4 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”
- Isaiah 65:4 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (meraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).
- Isaiah 65:6 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”
- Isaiah 65:6 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”
- Isaiah 65:7 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”
- Isaiah 65:7 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”
- Isaiah 65:7 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.
- Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “just as.” In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, “Just as…, so I will do….”
- Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “for a blessing is in it.”
- Isaiah 65:8 tn Heb “by not destroying everyone.”
- Isaiah 65:9 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land that contains the aforementioned mountains.
- Isaiah 65:10 sn Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.
- Isaiah 65:10 sn The Valley of Achor (“Achor” means “trouble” in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.
- Isaiah 65:10 tn Heb “a resting place for cattle”; NASB, NIV “for herds.”
- Isaiah 65:10 tn Heb “for my people who seek me.”
- Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “forget.” The words “about worshiping at” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
- Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, “for Gad”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.
- Isaiah 65:11 tn The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, “for Meni”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.
- Isaiah 65:12 tn Heb “I assign you to the sword.” Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, “I assign”) to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, “ I ordain”). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, meni, “Destiny, Fate”). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among God’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Lord is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.
- Isaiah 65:12 tn Or “at the slaughter”; NIV “for the slaughter”; NLT “before the executioner.”
- Isaiah 65:12 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”
- Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the good of the heart.”
- Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the pain of the heart.”
- Isaiah 65:14 tn Heb “from the breaking of the spirit.”
- Isaiah 65:15 tn Heb “you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones.”sn For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22.
- Isaiah 65:16 tn Or “in the land” (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.
- Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “will pronounce a blessing by the God of truth.”
- Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “will take an oath by the God of truth.”
- Isaiah 65:16 tn Heb “for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes.”
- Isaiah 65:17 sn This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18-19) to a new creation of the cosmos.
- Isaiah 65:17 tn Or perhaps, “the former things” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “The events of the past.”
- Isaiah 65:17 tn Heb “and they will not come up on the mind.”
- Isaiah 65:18 tn Heb “Jerusalem, joy.” The next verse suggests the meaning: The Lord will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.
- Isaiah 65:18 tn Heb “her people, happiness.” See the preceding note.
- Isaiah 65:19 tn Heb “and I will rejoice in Jerusalem and be happy in my people.”
- Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days,” i.e., one that lives just a few days.
- Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “or an old [man] who does not fill out his days.”
- Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “for the child as a son of one hundred years will die.” The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category “child” will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.
- Isaiah 65:20 tn Heb “the one who misses.” חָטָא (khataʾ) is used here in its basic sense of “miss the mark.” See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, “and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed.”
- Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “they will not build, and another live [in it].”
- Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “they will not plant, and another eat.”
- Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people.”
- Isaiah 65:22 tn Heb “the work of their hands” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “their hard-won gains.”
- Isaiah 65:23 tn Heb “and they will not give birth to horror.”
- Isaiah 65:23 tn Heb “for offspring blessed by the Lord they [will be], and their descendants along with them.”
- Isaiah 65:24 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.
- Isaiah 65:25 sn A similar statement appears in 11:6.
- Isaiah 65:25 sn These words also appear in 11:7.
- Isaiah 65:25 sn Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14 (note “you will eat dirt”). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under God’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14, the primary allusion is to 11:8, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement “you will eat dirt” in Gen 3:14 means “you will crawl on the ground.” In the same way the statement “dirt will be its food” in Isa 65:25 means “it will crawl on the ground.”)
- Isaiah 65:25 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” These same words appear in 11:9. See the note there.sn As in 11:1-9 the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of 11:8.
- Isaiah 66:2 tn Heb “all these.” The phrase refers to the heavens and earth, mentioned in the previous verse.
- Isaiah 66:2 tn Heb “and all these were.” Some prefer to emend וַיִּהְיוּ (vayyihyu, “and they were”) to וְלִי הָיוּ (veli hayu, “and to me they were”), i.e., “and they belong to me.”
- Isaiah 66:2 tn Heb “and to this one I look” (KJV and NASB both similar).
- Isaiah 66:2 tn Heb “to the humble and the lowly in spirit and the one who trembles at my words.”
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “one who slaughters a bull, one who strikes down a man.” Some understand a comparison here and in the following lines. In God’s sight the one who sacrifices is like (i.e., regarded as) a murderer or one whose worship is ritually defiled or idolatrous. The translation above assumes that the language is not metaphorical, but descriptive of the sinners’ hypocritical behavior. (Note the last two lines of the verse, which suggest they are guilty of abominable practices.) On the one hand, they act pious and offer sacrifices, but at the same time they commit violent crimes against men, defile their sacrifices, and worship other gods.
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “one who sacrifices a lamb, one who breaks a dog’s neck.” Some understand a comparison, but see the previous note.sn The significance of breaking a dog’s neck is uncertain, though the structure of the statement when compared to the preceding and following lines suggests the action is viewed in a negative light. According to Exod 13:13 and 34:20, one was to “redeem” a firstborn donkey by offering a lamb; if one did not “redeem” the firstborn donkey in this way, then its neck must be broken. According to Deut 21:1-9 a heifer’s neck was to be broken as part of the atonement ritual to purify the land from the guilt of bloodshed. It is not certain if these passages relate in any way to the action described in Isa 66:3.
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “one who offers an offering, pig’s blood.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line.
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “one who offers incense as a memorial offering, one who blesses something false.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line. אָוֶן (ʾaven), which has a wide variety of attested nuances, here refers metonymically to an idol. See HALOT 22 s.v. and BDB 20 s.v. 2.
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “also they have chosen their ways.”
- Isaiah 66:3 tn Heb “their being [or “soul”] takes delight in their disgusting [things].”
- Isaiah 66:4 tn The precise meaning of the noun is uncertain. It occurs only here and in 3:4 (but see the note there). It appears to be derived from the verbal root עָלַל (ʿalal), which can carry the nuance “deal severely.”
- Isaiah 66:4 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”
- Isaiah 66:5 tn Heb “tremble.”
- Isaiah 66:5 tn Heb “brothers” (so NASB, NIV); NRSV “Your own people”; NLT “Your close relatives.”
- Isaiah 66:5 tn Or “so that we might witness your joy.” The point of this statement is unclear.
- Isaiah 66:8 tn Heb “land,” but here אֶרֶץ (ʾerets) stands metonymically for an organized nation (see the following line).
- Isaiah 66:9 sn The rhetorical questions expect the answer, “Of course not!”
- Isaiah 66:11 tn Or “in order that”; ASV, NRSV “that.”
- Isaiah 66:11 tn Heb “you will suck and be satisfied from her comforting breast.”
- Isaiah 66:11 tn Heb “you will slurp and refresh yourselves from her heavy breast.”sn Zion’s residents will benefit from and enjoy her great material prosperity. See v. 12.
- Isaiah 66:12 tn Heb “Look, I am ready to extend to her like a river prosperity [or “peace”], and like an overflowing stream, the riches of nations.”
- Isaiah 66:12 tn The words “from her breast” are supplied in the translation for clarification (see v. 11).
- Isaiah 66:13 tn Heb “like a man whose mother comforts him.”
- Isaiah 66:14 tn “and you will see and your heart will be happy.”
- Isaiah 66:14 tn Heb “and your bones like grass will sprout.”
- Isaiah 66:14 tn Heb “and the hand of the Lord will be made known to his servants, and anger to his enemies.”
- Isaiah 66:15 sn Chariots are like a windstorm in their swift movement and in the way that they kick up dust.
- Isaiah 66:15 tn Heb “to cause to return with the rage of his anger, and his battle cry [or “rebuke”] with flames of fire.”
- Isaiah 66:16 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “upon all men”; TEV “all the people of the world.”
- Isaiah 66:16 tn Heb “many are the slain of the Lord.”
- Isaiah 66:17 tn Heb “the ones who consecrate themselves and the ones who purify themselves toward the orchards [or “gardens”] after the one in the midst.” The precise meaning of the statement is unclear, though it is obvious that some form of idolatry is in view.
- Isaiah 66:17 tn Heb “ones who eat the flesh of the pig and the disgusting thing and the mouse.”
- Isaiah 66:17 tn Heb “together they will come to an end.”
- Isaiah 66:18 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and I, their deeds and their thoughts, am coming.” The syntax here is very problematic, suggesting that the text may need emendation. Some suggest that the words “their deeds and their thoughts” have been displaced from v. 17. This line presents two primary challenges. In the first place, the personal pronoun “I” has no verb after it. Most translations insert “know” for the sake of clarity (NASB, NRSV, NLT, ESV). The NIV has “I, because of their actions and their imaginations…” Since God’s “knowledge” of Israel’s sin occasions judgment, the verb “hate” is an option as well (see above translation). The feminine form of the next verb (בָּאָה, baʾah) could be understood in one of two ways. One could provide an implied noun “time” (עֵת, ʿet) and render the next line “the time is coming/has come” (NASB, ESV). One could also emend the feminine verb to the masculine בָּא (baʾ) and have the “I” at the beginning of the line govern this verb as well (for the Lord is speaking here): “I am coming” (cf. NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT).
- Isaiah 66:18 tn Heb “and the tongues”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “and tongues.”
- Isaiah 66:19 tn Heb “and I will set a sign among them.” The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Elsewhere “to set a sign” means “perform a mighty act” (Ps 78:43; Jer 32:20), “make [someone] an object lesson” (Ezek 14:8), and “erect a [literal] standard” (Ps 74:4).
- Isaiah 66:19 tn Some prefer to read “Put” (i.e., Libya).
- Isaiah 66:19 sn That is, Lydia (in Asia Minor).
- Isaiah 66:19 tn Heb “drawers of the bow” (KJV and ASV both similar).
- Isaiah 66:19 sn Javan is generally identified today as Greece (so NIV, NCV, NLT).
- Isaiah 66:19 tn Or “islands” (NIV).
- Isaiah 66:20 tn Heb “brothers” (so NIV); NCV “fellow Israelites.”
- Isaiah 66:20 tn The words “they will bring them” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
- Isaiah 66:20 tn The precise meaning of this word is uncertain. Some suggest it refers to “chariots.” See HALOT 498 s.v. *כִּרְכָּרָה.
- Isaiah 66:23 tn Heb “new moon.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.
- Isaiah 66:23 tn Heb “all flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NAB, NASB, NIV “all mankind”; NLT “All humanity.”
- Isaiah 66:23 tn Or “bow down before” (NASB).
- Isaiah 66:24 tn Heb “for their worm will not die.”
- Isaiah 66:24 tn Heb “and their fire will not be extinguished.”
- Isaiah 66:24 tn Heb “and they will be an abhorrence to all flesh.”sn This verse depicts a huge mass burial site where the seemingly endless pile of maggot-infested corpses are being burned.