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II. Isaiah 40—55[a]

A. The Lord’s Glory in Israel’s Liberation

Chapter 40

Promise of Salvation

[b]Comfort, give comfort to my people,
    says your God.
Speak to the heart of Jerusalem, and proclaim to her
    that her service[c] has ended,
    that her guilt is expiated,
That she has received from the hand of the Lord
    double for all her sins.

    A voice proclaims:[d]
In the wilderness prepare the way of the Lord!
    Make straight in the wasteland a highway for our God!(A)
Every valley shall be lifted up,
    every mountain and hill made low;
The rugged land shall be a plain,
    the rough country, a broad valley.
Then the glory of the Lord shall be revealed,
    and all flesh shall see it together;
    for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.

A voice says, “Proclaim!”
    I answer, “What shall I proclaim?”
“All flesh is grass,
    and all their loyalty like the flower of the field.(B)
The grass withers, the flower wilts,
    when the breath of the Lord blows upon it.”
“Yes, the people is grass!
    The grass withers, the flower wilts,
    but the word of our God stands forever.”

Go up onto a high mountain,
    Zion, herald of good news![e]
Cry out at the top of your voice,
    Jerusalem, herald of good news!
Cry out, do not fear!
    Say to the cities of Judah:
    Here is your God!
10 Here comes with power
    the Lord God,
    who rules by his strong arm;
Here is his reward with him,
    his recompense before him.
11 Like a shepherd he feeds his flock;
    in his arms he gathers the lambs,
Carrying them in his bosom,
    leading the ewes with care.(C)

Power of God and the Vanity of Idols

12 Who has measured with his palm the waters,
    marked off the heavens with a span,
    held in his fingers the dust of the earth,
    weighed the mountains in scales
    and the hills in a balance?[f]
13 Who has directed the spirit of the Lord,
    or instructed him as his counselor?(D)
14 Whom did he consult to gain knowledge?
    Who taught him the path of judgment,
    or showed him the way of understanding?

15 See, the nations count as a drop in the bucket,
    as a wisp of cloud on the scales;
    the coastlands weigh no more than a speck.[g]
16 Lebanon would not suffice for fuel,[h]
    nor its animals be enough for burnt offerings.
17 Before him all the nations are as nought,
    as nothing and void he counts them.

18 To whom can you liken God?(E)
    With what likeness can you confront him?
19 An idol? An artisan casts it,
    the smith plates it with gold,
    fits it with silver chains.[i](F)
20 Is mulberry wood the offering?
    A skilled artisan picks out
    a wood that will not rot,
    Seeks to set up for himself
    an idol that will not totter.(G)

21 Do you not know? Have you not heard?
    Was it not told you from the beginning?
    Have you not understood from the founding of the earth?
22 The one who is enthroned above the vault of the earth,
    its inhabitants like grasshoppers,
Who stretches out the heavens like a veil
    and spreads them out like a tent to dwell in,(H)
23 Who brings princes to nought
    and makes the rulers of the earth as nothing.
24 Scarcely are they planted, scarcely sown,
    scarcely their stem rooted in the earth,
When he breathes upon them and they wither,
    and the stormwind carries them away like straw.

25 To whom can you liken me as an equal?
    says the Holy One.
26 Lift up your eyes on high
    and see who created[j] these:
He leads out their army and numbers them,
    calling them all by name.
By his great might and the strength of his power
    not one of them is missing!(I)
27 Why, O Jacob, do you say,[k]
    and declare, O Israel,
“My way is hidden from the Lord,
    and my right is disregarded by my God”?
28 Do you not know?
    Have you not heard?
The Lord is God from of old,
    creator of the ends of the earth.
He does not faint or grow weary,
    and his knowledge is beyond scrutiny.
29 He gives power to the faint,
    abundant strength to the weak.
30 Though young men faint and grow weary,
    and youths stagger and fall,
31 They that hope in the Lord will renew their strength,
    they will soar on eagles’ wings;
They will run and not grow weary,
    walk and not grow faint.

Chapter 41

The Liberator of Israel

Keep silence before me, O coastlands;[l]
    let the nations renew their strength.
Let them draw near and speak;
    let us come together for judgment.
Who has stirred up from the East the champion of justice,
    and summoned him to be his attendant?
To him he delivers nations
    and subdues kings;
With his sword he reduces them to dust,
    with his bow, to driven straw.
He pursues them, passing on without loss,
    by a path his feet scarcely touch.
Who has performed these deeds?
    Who has called forth the generations from the beginning?(J)
I, the Lord, am the first,
    and at the last[m] I am he.
The coastlands see, and fear;
    the ends of the earth tremble:
    they approach, they come on.

Each one helps his neighbor,
    one says to the other, “Courage!”
The woodworker encourages the goldsmith,
    the one who beats with the hammer, him who strikes on the anvil,
Saying of the soldering, “It is good!”
    then fastening it with nails so it will not totter.

But you, Israel, my servant,(K)
    Jacob, whom I have chosen,
    offspring of Abraham my friend—
You whom I have taken from the ends of the earth
    and summoned from its far-off places,
To whom I have said, You are my servant;
    I chose you, I have not rejected you—
10 Do not fear: I am with you;
    do not be anxious: I am your God.
I will strengthen you, I will help you,
    I will uphold you with my victorious right hand.

11 Yes, all shall be put to shame and disgrace
    who vent their anger against you;
Those shall be as nothing and perish
    who offer resistance.
12 You shall seek but not find
    those who strive against you;
They shall be as nothing at all
    who do battle with you.

13 For I am the Lord, your God,
    who grasp your right hand;
It is I who say to you, Do not fear,
    I will help you.
14 Do not fear, you worm Jacob,
    you maggot Israel;
I will help you—oracle of the Lord;
    the Holy One of Israel is your redeemer.[n]
15 I will make of you a threshing sledge,
    sharp, new, full of teeth,
To thresh the mountains and crush them,
    to make the hills like chaff.
16 When you winnow them, the wind shall carry them off,
    the storm shall scatter them.
But you shall rejoice in the Lord;
    in the Holy One of Israel you shall glory.

17 The afflicted and the needy seek water in vain,
    their tongues are parched with thirst.
I, the Lord, will answer them;
    I, the God of Israel, will not forsake them.
18 I will open up rivers on the bare heights,
    and fountains in the broad valleys;
I will turn the wilderness into a marshland,
    and the dry ground into springs of water.
19 In the wilderness I will plant the cedar,
    acacia, myrtle, and olive;
In the wasteland I will set the cypress,
    together with the plane tree and the pine,
20 That all may see and know,
    observe and understand,
That the hand of the Lord has done this,
    the Holy One of Israel has created it.

21 Present your case, says the Lord;[o]
    bring forward your arguments, says the King of Jacob.
22 Let them draw near and foretell to us
    what it is that shall happen!
What are the things of long ago?
    Tell us, that we may reflect on them
    and know their outcome;
Or declare to us the things to come,[p]
23     tell what is to be in the future,
    that we may know that you are gods!
Do something, good or evil,
    that will put us in awe and in fear.
24 Why, you are nothing
    and your work is nought;
    to choose you is an abomination!

25 I have stirred up one from the north, and he comes;
    from the east I summon him[q] by name;
He shall trample the rulers down like mud,
    like a potter treading clay.
26 Who announced this from the beginning, that we might know;
    beforehand, that we might say, “True”?
Not one of you foretold it, not one spoke;
    not one heard you say,
27 “The first news for Zion: here they come,”
    or, “I will give Jerusalem a herald of good news.”
28 When I look, there is not one,
    not one of them to give counsel,
    to make an answer when I question them.
29 Ah, all of them are nothing,
    their works are nought,
    their idols, empty wind!

Chapter 42

The Servant of the Lord

Here is my servant[r] whom I uphold,
    my chosen one with whom I am pleased.
Upon him I have put my spirit;
    he shall bring forth justice to the nations.(L)
He will not cry out, nor shout,
    nor make his voice heard in the street.
A bruised reed[s] he will not break,
    and a dimly burning wick he will not quench.
    He will faithfully bring forth justice.
He will not grow dim or be bruised
    until he establishes justice on the earth;
    the coastlands[t] will wait for his teaching.

Thus says God, the Lord,
    who created the heavens and stretched them out,
    who spread out the earth and its produce,
Who gives breath to its people
    and spirit to those who walk on it:
I, the Lord, have called you for justice,
    I have grasped you by the hand;
I formed you, and set you
    as a covenant for the people,
    a light for the nations,(M)
To open the eyes of the blind,
    to bring out prisoners from confinement,
    and from the dungeon, those who live in darkness.
I am the Lord, Lord is my name;
    my glory I give to no other,
    nor my praise to idols.
See, the earlier things have come to pass,
    new ones I now declare;
Before they spring forth
    I announce them to you.

The Lord’s Purpose for Israel

10 Sing to the Lord a new song,
    his praise from the ends of the earth:
Let the sea and what fills it resound,
    the coastlands, and those who dwell in them.
11 Let the wilderness and its cities cry out,
    the villages where Kedar[u] dwells;
Let the inhabitants of Sela exult,
    and shout from the top of the mountains.
12 Let them give glory to the Lord,
    and utter his praise in the coastlands.

13 The Lord goes forth like a warrior,
    like a man of war he stirs up his fury;
He shouts out his battle cry,
    against his enemies he shows his might:(N)
14 For a long time I have kept silent,
    I have said nothing, holding myself back;
Now I cry out like a woman in labor,
    gasping and panting.
15 [v]I will lay waste mountains and hills,
    all their undergrowth I will dry up;
I will turn the rivers into marshes,
    and the marshes I will dry up.(O)
16 I will lead the blind on a way they do not know;
    by paths they do not know I will guide them.
I will turn darkness into light before them,
    and make crooked ways straight.
These are my promises:
    I made them, I will not forsake them.(P)

17 They shall be turned back in utter shame
    who trust in idols;
Who say to molten images,
    “You are our gods.”
18 You deaf ones, listen,[w]
    you blind ones, look and see!
19 Who is blind but my servant,
    or deaf like the messenger I send?
Who is blind like the one I restore,
    blind like the servant of the Lord?
20 You see many things but do not observe;
    ears open, but do not hear.
21 It was the Lord’s will for the sake of his justice
    to make his teaching great and glorious.

22 This is a people[x] plundered and despoiled,
    all of them trapped in holes,
    hidden away in prisons.
They are taken as plunder, with no one to rescue them,
    as spoil, with no one to say, “Give back!”
23 Who among you will give ear to this,
    listen and pay attention from now on?
24 Who was it that gave Jacob to be despoiled,
    Israel to the plunderers?[y]
Was it not the Lord, against whom we have sinned?
    In his ways they refused to walk,
    his teaching they would not heed.
25 So he poured out wrath upon them,
    his anger, and the fury of battle;
It blazed all around them, yet they did not realize,
    it burned them, but they did not take it to heart.

Chapter 43

Promises of Redemption and Restoration

But now, thus says the Lord,
    who created you, Jacob, and formed you, Israel:
Do not fear, for I have redeemed you;
    I have called you by name: you are mine.
When you pass through waters, I will be with you;
    through rivers, you shall not be swept away.
When you walk through fire, you shall not be burned,
    nor will flames consume you.
For I, the Lord, am your God,
    the Holy One of Israel, your savior.
I give Egypt as ransom for you,
    Ethiopia and Seba[z] in exchange for you.
Because you are precious in my eyes
    and honored, and I love you,
I give people in return for you
    and nations in exchange for your life.(Q)
Fear not, for I am with you;
    from the east I will bring back your offspring,
    from the west I will gather you.
I will say to the north: Give them up!
    and to the south: Do not hold them!
Bring back my sons from afar,
    and my daughters from the ends of the earth:(R)
All who are called by my name
    I created for my glory;
    I formed them, made them.
Lead out the people, blind though they have eyes,
    deaf though they have ears.

Let all the nations gather together,
    let the peoples assemble!
Who among them could have declared this,
    or announced to us the earlier things?[aa]
Let them produce witnesses to prove themselves right,
    that one may hear and say, “It is true!”
10 You are my witnesses[ab]—oracle of the Lord
    my servant whom I have chosen
To know and believe in me
    and understand that I am he.
Before me no god was formed,
    and after me there shall be none.
11 I, I am the Lord;
    there is no savior but me.
12 It is I who declared, who saved,
    who announced, not some strange god among you;
You are my witnesses—oracle of the Lord.
    I am God,
13     yes, from eternity I am he;
There is none who can deliver from my hand:
    I act and who can cancel it?(S)

14 Thus says the Lord, your redeemer,[ac]
    the Holy One of Israel:
For your sake I send to Babylon;
    I will bring down all her defenses,
    and the Chaldeans shall cry out in lamentation.
15 I am the Lord, your Holy One,
    the creator of Israel, your King.
16 Thus says the Lord,
    who opens a way in the sea,
    a path in the mighty waters,(T)
17 Who leads out chariots and horsemen,
    a powerful army,
Till they lie prostrate together, never to rise,
    snuffed out, quenched like a wick.(U)
18 Remember not[ad] the events of the past,
    the things of long ago consider not;
19 See, I am doing something new!
    Now it springs forth, do you not perceive it?
In the wilderness I make a way,
    in the wasteland, rivers.
20 Wild beasts honor me,
    jackals and ostriches,
For I put water in the wilderness
    and rivers in the wasteland
    for my chosen people to drink,
21 The people whom I formed for myself,
    that they might recount my praise.

22 Yet you did not call upon me, Jacob,[ae]
    for you grew weary of me, Israel.
23 You did not bring me sheep for your burnt offerings,
    nor honor me with your sacrifices.
I did not exact from you the service of offerings,
    nor weary you for frankincense.(V)
24 You did not buy me sweet cane,[af]
    nor did you fill me with the fat of your sacrifices;
Instead, you burdened me with your sins,
    wearied me with your crimes.
25 It is I, I, who wipe out,
    for my own sake, your offenses;
    your sins I remember no more.
26 Would you have me remember, have us come to trial?
    Speak up, prove your innocence!
27 Your first father[ag] sinned;
    your spokesmen rebelled against me
28 Till I repudiated the holy princes,
    put Jacob under the ban,
    exposed Israel to scorn.

Chapter 44

Hear then, Jacob, my servant,
    Israel, whom I have chosen.
Thus says the Lord who made you,
    your help, who formed you from the womb:
Do not fear, Jacob, my servant,
    Jeshurun,[ah] whom I have chosen.
I will pour out water upon the thirsty ground,
    streams upon the dry land;
I will pour out my spirit upon your offspring,
    my blessing upon your descendants.
They shall spring forth amid grass
    like poplars beside flowing waters.(W)
One shall say, “I am the Lord’s,”
    another shall be named after Jacob,
And this one shall write on his hand,[ai] “The Lord’s,”
    and receive the name Israel.(X)

The True God and False Gods

[aj]Thus says the Lord, Israel’s king,
    its redeemer, the Lord of hosts:
I am the first, I am the last;
    there is no God but me.[ak](Y)
Who is like me? Let him stand up and declare,
    make it evident, and confront me with it.
Who of old announced future events?
    Let them foretell to us the things to come.
Do not fear or be troubled.
Did I not announce it to you long ago?
    I declared it, and you are my witnesses.
Is there any God but me?
    There is no other Rock,[al] I know of none!(Z)

[am]Those who fashion idols are all nothing;
    their precious works are of no avail.
They are their witnesses:[an]
    they see nothing, know nothing,
    and so they are put to shame.(AA)
10 Who would fashion a god or cast an idol,
    that is of no use?
11 Look, all its company will be shamed;
    they are artisans, mere human beings!
They all assemble and stand there,
    only to cower in shame.
12 The ironsmith fashions a likeness,
    he works it over the coals,
Shaping it with hammers,
    working it with his strong arm.
With hunger his strength wanes,
    without water, he grows faint.(AB)
13 The woodworker stretches a line,
    and marks out a shape with a stylus.
He shapes it with scraping tools,
    with a compass measures it off,
Making it the copy of a man,[ao]
    human display, enthroned in a shrine.
14 He goes out to cut down cedars,
    takes a holm tree or an oak.
He picks out for himself trees of the forest,
    plants a fir, and the rain makes it grow.
15 It is used for fuel:
    with some of the wood he warms himself,
    makes a fire and bakes bread.
Yet he makes a god and worships it,
    turns it into an idol and adores it!
16 Half of it he burns in the fire,
    on its embers he roasts meat;
    he eats the roast and is full.
He warms himself and says, “Ah!
    I am warm! I see the flames!”
17 The rest of it he makes into a god,
    an image to worship and adore.
He prays to it and says,
    “Help me! You are my god!”
18 They do not know, do not understand;
    their eyes are too clouded to see,
    their minds, to perceive.
19 He does not think clearly;
    he lacks the wit and knowledge to say,
“Half the wood I burned in the fire,
    on its embers I baked bread,
    I roasted meat and ate.
Shall I turn the rest into an abomination?
    Shall I worship a block of wood?”
20 He is chasing ashes![ap]
A deluded mind has led him astray;
    He cannot save himself,
    does not say, “This thing in my right hand—is it not a fraud?”

21 Remember these things, Jacob,
    Israel, for you are my servant!
I formed you, a servant to me;
    Israel, you shall never be forgotten by me:
22 I have brushed away your offenses like a cloud,
    your sins like a mist;
    return to me, for I have redeemed you.

23 Raise a glad cry, you heavens—the Lord has acted!
    Shout, you depths of the earth.
Break forth, mountains, into song,
    forest, with all your trees.
For the Lord has redeemed Jacob,
    shows his glory through Israel.

Cyrus, Anointed of the Lord, Agent of Israel’s Liberation

24 Thus says the Lord, your redeemer,
    who formed you from the womb:
I am the Lord, who made all things,
    who alone stretched out the heavens,
    I spread out the earth by myself.(AC)
25 I bring to nought the omens of babblers,
    make fools of diviners,
Turn back the wise
    and make their knowledge foolish.
26 I confirm the words of my servant,
    carry out the plan my messengers announce.
I say to Jerusalem, Be inhabited!
    To the cities of Judah, Be rebuilt!
    I will raise up their ruins.
27 I say to the deep, Be dry!
    I will dry up your rivers.(AD)
28 I say of Cyrus,[aq] My shepherd!
    He carries out my every wish,
Saying of Jerusalem, “Let it be rebuilt,”
    and of the temple, “Lay its foundations.”(AE)

Chapter 45

Thus says the Lord to his anointed,[ar] Cyrus,
    whose right hand I grasp,
Subduing nations before him,
    stripping kings of their strength,
Opening doors before him,
    leaving the gates unbarred:
I will go before you
    and level the mountains;
Bronze doors[as] I will shatter,
    iron bars I will snap.(AF)
I will give you treasures of darkness,
    riches hidden away,
That you may know I am the Lord,
    the God of Israel, who calls you by name.

For the sake of Jacob, my servant,
    of Israel my chosen one,
I have called you by name,
    giving you a title, though you do not know me.(AG)
I am the Lord, there is no other,
    there is no God besides me.
It is I who arm you, though you do not know me,
    so that all may know, from the rising of the sun
    to its setting, that there is none besides me.[at]
I am the Lord, there is no other.
    I form the light, and create the darkness,
I make weal and create woe;[au]
    I, the Lord, do all these things.
Let justice descend, you heavens, like dew from above,
    like gentle rain let the clouds drop it down.
Let the earth open and salvation bud forth;
    let righteousness spring up with them![av]
    I, the Lord, have created this.(AH)
Woe to anyone who contends with their Maker;(AI)
    a potsherd among potsherds of the earth![aw]
Shall the clay say to the potter, “What are you doing?”
    or, “What you are making has no handles”?
10 Woe to anyone who asks a father, “What are you begetting?”
    or a woman, “What are you giving birth to?”
11 Thus says the Lord,
    the Holy One of Israel, his maker:
Do you question me about my children,
    tell me how to treat the work of my hands?
12 It was I who made the earth
    and created the people upon it;
It was my hands that stretched out the heavens;
    I gave the order to all their host.
13 It was I who stirred him[ax] up for justice;
    all his ways I make level.
He shall rebuild my city
    and let my exiles go free
Without price or payment,
    says the Lord of hosts.

14     Thus says the Lord:
The earnings of Egypt, the gain of Ethiopia,
    and the Sabeans,[ay] tall of stature,
Shall come over to you and belong to you;
    they shall follow you, coming in chains.
Before you they shall bow down,
    saying in prayer:
“With you alone is God; and there is none other,
    no other god!(AJ)
15 Truly with you God is hidden,[az]
    the God of Israel, the savior!(AK)
16 They are put to shame and disgrace, all of them;
    they go in disgrace who carve images.
17 Israel has been saved by the Lord,
    saved forever!
You shall never be put to shame or disgrace
    in any future age.”

18     For thus says the Lord,
The creator of the heavens,
    who is God,
The designer and maker of the earth
    who established it,
Not as an empty waste[ba] did he create it,
    but designing it to be lived in:
I am the Lord, and there is no other.
19     I have not spoken in secret
    from some place in the land of darkness,
I have not said to the descendants of Jacob,
    “Look for me in an empty waste.”
I, the Lord, promise justice,
    I declare what is right.

20 Come and assemble, gather together,
    you fugitives from among the nations!
They are without knowledge who bear wooden idols[bb]
    and pray to gods that cannot save.
21 Come close and declare;
    let them take counsel together:
Who announced this from the beginning,
    declared it from of old?
Was it not I, the Lord,
    besides whom there is no other God?
    There is no just and saving God but me.

22 Turn to me and be safe,
    all you ends of the earth,
    for I am God; there is no other!
23 By myself I swear,
    uttering my just decree,
    a word that will not return:
To me every knee shall bend;
    by me every tongue shall swear,(AL)
24 Saying, “Only in the Lord
    are just deeds and power.
Before him in shame shall come
    all who vent their anger against him.
25 In the Lord all the descendants of Israel
    shall have vindication and glory.”

Chapter 46

The Gods of Babylon

Bel bows down, Nebo[bc] stoops,
    their idols set upon beasts and cattle;
They must be borne upon shoulders,
    a load for weary animals.
They stoop and bow down together;
    unable to deliver those who bear them,
    they too go into captivity.

Hear me, O house of Jacob,
    all the remnant of the house of Israel,
My burden from the womb,
    whom I have carried since birth.(AM)
Even to your old age I am he,
    even when your hair is gray I will carry you;
I have done this, and I will lift you up,
    I will carry you to safety.

To whom would you liken me as an equal,
    compare me, as though we were alike?
There are those who pour out gold from a purse
    and weigh out silver on the scales;
They hire a goldsmith to make it into a god
    before which they bow down in worship.
They lift it to their shoulders to carry;
    when they set it down, it stays,
    and does not move from the place.
They cry out to it, but it cannot answer;
    it delivers no one from distress.

Remember this and be firm,
    take it to heart, you rebels;
    remember the former things, those long ago:
I am God, there is no other;
    I am God, there is none like me.
10 At the beginning I declare the outcome;
    from of old, things not yet done.
I say that my plan shall stand,
    I accomplish my every desire.

11 I summon from the east a bird of prey,[bd]
    from a distant land, one to carry out my plan.
Yes, I have spoken, I will accomplish it;
    I have planned it, and I will do it.
12 Listen to me, you fainthearted,
    far from the victory of justice:
13 I am bringing on that victory, it is not far off,
    my salvation shall not tarry;
I will put salvation within Zion,
    give to Israel my glory.

Chapter 47

The Fall of Babylon[be]

Come down, sit in the dust,
    virgin daughter Babylon;
Sit on the ground, dethroned,
    daughter of the Chaldeans.
No longer shall you be called
    dainty and delicate.(AN)
Take the millstone and grind flour,
    remove your veil;
Strip off your skirt, bare your legs,
    cross through the streams.
Your nakedness shall be uncovered,
    and your shame be seen;
I will take vengeance,
    I will yield to no entreaty,
    says our redeemer,
Whose name is the Lord of hosts,
    the Holy One of Israel.

Go into darkness and sit in silence,
    daughter of the Chaldeans,
No longer shall you be called
    sovereign mistress of kingdoms.
Angry at my people,
    I profaned my heritage
And gave them into your power;
    but you showed them no mercy;
Upon the aged
    you laid a very heavy yoke.
You said, “I shall remain always,
    a sovereign mistress forever!”
You did not take these things to heart,
    but disregarded their outcome.(AO)
Now hear this, voluptuous one,
    enthroned securely,
Saying in your heart,
    “I, and no one else![bf]
I shall never be a widow,
    bereft of my children”—(AP)
Both these things shall come to you
    suddenly, in a single day:
Complete bereavement and widowhood
    shall come upon you
Despite your many sorceries
    and the full power of your spells;[bg]
10 Secure in your wickedness,
    you said, “No one sees me.”
Your wisdom and your knowledge
    led you astray,
And you said in your heart,
    “I, and no one else!”
11 But upon you shall come an evil
    you will not be able to charm away;
Upon you shall fall a disaster
    you cannot ward off.
Upon you shall suddenly come
    a ruin you cannot imagine.

12 Keep on with your spells
    and your many sorceries,
    at which you toiled from your youth.
Perhaps you can prevail,
    perhaps you can strike terror!
13 You wore yourself out with so many consultations!
    Let the astrologers stand forth to save you,
The stargazers who forecast at each new moon
    what would happen to you.
14 See, they are like stubble,
    fire consumes them;
They cannot deliver themselves
    from the spreading flames.
This is no warming ember,
    no fire to sit before!
15 Thus do your wizards serve you
    with whom you have toiled from your youth;
They wander their separate ways,
    with none to save you.

Chapter 48

Exhortations to the Exiles

Hear this, house of Jacob
    called by the name Israel,
    sprung from the stock of Judah,
You who swear by the name of the Lord
    and invoke the God of Israel
    without sincerity, without justice,
Though you are named after the holy city
    and rely on the God of Israel,
    whose name is the Lord of hosts.
Things of the past I declared long ago,
    they went forth from my mouth, I announced them;
    then suddenly I took action and they came to be.
Because I know that you are stubborn
    and that your neck is an iron sinew
    and your forehead bronze,
I declared them to you of old;
    before they took place I informed you,
That you might not say, “My idol did them,
    my statue, my molten image commanded them.”
Now that you have heard, look at all this;
    must you not admit it?(AQ)
From now on I announce new things to you,
    hidden events you never knew.
Now, not from of old, they are created,
    before today you did not hear of them,
    so that you cannot claim, “I have known them.”
You never heard, you never knew,
    they never reached your ears beforehand.
Yes, I know you are utterly treacherous,
    a rebel you were named from the womb.(AR)
For the sake of my name I restrain my anger,
    for the sake of my renown I hold it back from you,
    lest I destroy you.
10 See, I refined you, but not like silver;
    I tested you in the furnace of affliction.(AS)
11 For my sake, for my own sake, I do this;
    why should my name be profaned?
    My glory I will not give to another.

12 Listen to me, Jacob,
    Israel, whom I called!
I, it is I who am the first,
    and am I the last.(AT)
13 Yes, my hand laid the foundations of the earth;
    my right hand spread out the heavens.
When I summon them,
    they stand forth at once.(AU)

14 All of you assemble and listen:
    Who among you declared these things?
The one the Lord loves[bh] shall do his will
    against Babylon and the offspring of Chaldea.
15 I myself have spoken, I have summoned him,
    I have brought him, and his way succeeds!
16 Come near to me and hear this!
    From the beginning I did not speak in secret;
At the time it happens, I am there:
    “Now the Lord God has sent me, and his spirit.”[bi]

17 Thus says the Lord, your redeemer,
    the Holy One of Israel:
I am the Lord, your God,
    teaching you how to prevail,
    leading you on the way you should go.
18 If only you would attend to my commandments,
    your peace would be like a river,
    your vindication like the waves of the sea,
19 Your descendants like the sand,
    the offspring of your loins like its grains,
Their name never cut off
    or blotted out from my presence.
20 Go forth from Babylon, flee from Chaldea!
    With shouts of joy declare this, announce it;
Make it known to the ends of the earth,
    Say: “The Lord has redeemed his servant Jacob.
21 They did not thirst
    when he led them through dry lands;
Water from the rock he set flowing for them;
    he cleft the rock, and waters welled forth.”(AV)

22 There is no peace[bj] for the wicked,
    says the Lord.

B. Expiation of Sin, Spiritual Liberation of Israel

Chapter 49

The Servant of the Lord[bk]

Hear me, coastlands,
    listen, distant peoples.(AW)
Before birth the Lord called me,
    from my mother’s womb he gave me my name.[bl]
He made my mouth like a sharp-edged sword,
    concealed me, shielded by his hand.
He made me a sharpened arrow,
    in his quiver he hid me.
He said to me, You are my servant,
    in you, Israel,[bm] I show my glory.

Though I thought I had toiled in vain,
    for nothing and for naught spent my strength,
Yet my right is with the Lord,
    my recompense is with my God.(AX)
For now the Lord has spoken
    who formed me as his servant from the womb,
That Jacob may be brought back to him
    and Israel gathered to him;
I am honored in the sight of the Lord,
    and my God is now my strength!
It is too little, he says, for you to be my servant,
    to raise up the tribes of Jacob,
    and restore the survivors of Israel;(AY)
I will make you a light to the nations,
    that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth.[bn]
Thus says the Lord,
    the redeemer, the Holy One of Israel,
To the one despised, abhorred by the nations,
    the slave of rulers:
When kings see you, they shall stand up,
    and princes shall bow down
Because of the Lord who is faithful,
    the Holy One of Israel who has chosen you.(AZ)

The Liberation and Restoration of Zion

    Thus says the Lord:
In a time of favor I answer you,[bo]
    on the day of salvation I help you;
I form you and set you
    as a covenant for the people,
To restore the land
    and allot the devastated heritages,(BA)
To say to the prisoners: Come out!
    To those in darkness: Show yourselves!
Along the roadways they shall find pasture,
    on every barren height shall their pastures be.(BB)
10 They shall not hunger or thirst;
    nor shall scorching wind or sun strike them;
For he who pities them leads them
    and guides them beside springs of water.(BC)
11 I will turn all my mountains into roadway,
    and make my highways level.(BD)
12 See, these shall come from afar:
    some from the north and the west,
    others from the land of Syene.[bp]

13 Sing out, heavens, and rejoice, earth,
    break forth into song, you mountains,
For the Lord comforts his people
    and shows mercy to his afflicted.

14 But Zion said, “The Lord has forsaken me;
    my Lord has forgotten me.”(BE)
15 Can a mother forget her infant,
    be without tenderness for the child of her womb?
Even should she forget,
    I will never forget you.(BF)
16 See, upon the palms of my hands I have engraved you;[bq]
    your walls are ever before me.
17 Your children hasten—
    your levelers, your destroyers
    go forth from you;
18 Look about and see,
    they are all gathering and coming to you.
As I live—oracle of the Lord
    you shall don them as jewels,
    bedeck yourself like a bride.

19 Though you were waste and desolate,
    a land of ruins,
Now you shall be too narrow for your inhabitants,
    while those who swallowed you up will be far away.
20 The children of whom you were bereft
    shall yet say in your hearing,
“This place is too narrow for me,
    make room for me to live in.”
21 You shall ask yourself:
    “Who has borne me these,
    when I was bereft and barren?
Exiled and repudiated,
    who has reared them?
I was left all alone;
    where then do these come from?”(BG)
22     Thus says the Lord God:
See, I will lift up my hand to the nations,
    and to the peoples raise my signal;
They shall bring your sons in their arms,
    your daughters shall be carried on their shoulders.(BH)
23 Kings shall be your guardians,
    their princesses your nursemaids;
Face to the ground, they shall bow down before you
    and lick the dust at your feet.
Then you shall know that I am the Lord,
    none who hope in me shall be ashamed.
24 Can plunder be taken from a warrior,
    or captives rescued from a tyrant?
25     Thus says the Lord:
Yes, captives can be taken from a warrior,
    and plunder rescued from a tyrant;
Those who oppose you I will oppose,
    and your sons I will save.
26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh,
    and they shall be drunk with their own blood
    as though with new wine.
All flesh shall know
    that I, the Lord, am your savior,
    your redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.(BI)

Chapter 50

Salvation Through the Lord’s Servant

    Thus says the Lord:
Where is the bill of divorce
    with which I dismissed your mother?[br]
Or to which of my creditors
    have I sold you?
It was for your sins you were sold,
    for your rebellions your mother was dismissed.(BJ)

Why was no one there when I came?
    Why did no one answer when I called?[bs]
Is my hand too short to ransom?
    Have I not the strength to deliver?
See, with my rebuke I dry up the sea,
    I turn rivers into wilderness;
Their fish rot for lack of water,
    and die of thirst.(BK)
I clothe the heavens in black,
    and make sackcloth their covering.

[bt]The Lord God has given me
    a well-trained tongue,
That I might know how to answer the weary
    a word that will waken them.
Morning after morning
    he wakens my ear to hear as disciples do;
The Lord God opened my ear;
    I did not refuse,
    did not turn away.[bu]
I gave my back to those who beat me,
    my cheeks to those who tore out my beard;[bv]
My face I did not hide
    from insults and spitting.(BL)

The Lord God is my help,
    therefore I am not disgraced;
Therefore I have set my face like flint,
    knowing that I shall not be put to shame.(BM)
He who declares my innocence is near.
    Who will oppose me?
    Let us appear together.
Who will dispute my right?
    Let them confront me.
See, the Lord God is my help;
    who will declare me guilty?
See, they will all wear out like a garment,
    consumed by moths.(BN)
10 Who among you fears the Lord,[bw]
    heeds his servant’s voice?
Whoever walk in darkness,
    without any light,
Yet trust in the name of the Lord
    and rely upon their God!(BO)
11 All you who kindle flames
    and set flares alight,
Walk by the light of your own fire
    and by the flares you have burnt!
This is your fate from my hand:
    you shall lie down in a place of torment.

Chapter 51

Exhortation to Trust in the Lord

Listen to me, you who pursue justice,
    who seek the Lord;
Look to the rock from which you were hewn,
    to the quarry[bx] from which you were taken;(BP)
Look to Abraham, your father,
    and to Sarah, who gave you birth;
Though he was but one when I called him,
    I blessed him and made him many.(BQ)
Yes, the Lord shall comfort Zion,
    shall comfort all her ruins;
Her wilderness he shall make like Eden,
    her wasteland like the garden of the Lord;
Joy and gladness shall be found in her,
    thanksgiving and the sound of song.

Be attentive to me, my people;[by]
    my nation, give ear to me.
For teaching shall go forth from me,
    and my judgment, as light to the peoples.(BR)
I will make my victory come swiftly;
    my salvation shall go forth
    and my arm shall judge the nations;
In me the coastlands shall hope,
    and my arm they shall await.

Raise your eyes to the heavens,
    look at the earth below;
Though the heavens vanish like smoke,
    the earth wear out like a garment
    and its inhabitants die like flies,
My salvation shall remain forever
    and my victory shall always be firm.[bz]
Hear me, you who know justice,
    you people who have my teaching at heart:
Do not fear the reproach of others;
    remain firm at their revilings.
They shall be like a garment eaten by moths,
    like wool consumed by grubs;
But my victory shall remain forever,
    my salvation, for all generations.(BS)

Awake, awake, put on strength,
    arm of the Lord!
Awake as in the days of old,
    in ages long ago!
Was it not you who crushed Rahab,[ca]
    you who pierced the dragon?(BT)
10 Was it not you who dried up the sea,
    the waters of the great deep,[cb]
You who made the depths of the sea into a way
    for the redeemed to pass through?
11 Those whom the Lord has ransomed will return
    and enter Zion singing,
    crowned with everlasting joy;
They will meet with joy and gladness,
    sorrow and mourning will flee.

12 I, it is I who comfort you.
    Can you then fear mortals who die,
    human beings who are just grass,
13 And forget the Lord, your maker,
    who stretched out the heavens
    and laid the foundations of earth?
All the day you are in constant dread
    of the fury of the oppressor
When he prepares himself to destroy;
    but where is the oppressor’s fury?

14 The captives shall soon be released;
    they shall not die and go down into the pit,
    nor shall they want for bread.
15 For I am the Lord, your God,
    who stirs up the sea so that its waves roar;
    the Lord of hosts by name.(BU)
16 I have put my words into your mouth,
    I covered you, shielded by my hand,
Stretching out the heavens,
    laying the foundations of the earth,
    saying to Zion: You are my people.

The Cup of the Lord

17 Wake up, wake up!
    Arise, Jerusalem,
You who drank at the Lord’s hand
    the cup of his wrath;
Who drained to the dregs
    the bowl of staggering!(BV)
18 She has no one to guide her
    of all the children she bore;
She has no one to take her by the hand,
    of all the children she reared!—
19 Your misfortunes are double;
    who is there to grieve with you?
Desolation and destruction, famine and sword!
    Who is there to comfort you?
20 Your children lie helpless
    at every street corner
    like antelopes in a net.
They are filled with the wrath of the Lord,
    the rebuke of your God.

21 But now, hear this, afflicted one,
    drunk, but not with wine,(BW)
22 Thus says the Lord, your Master,
    your God, who defends his people:
See, I am taking from your hand
    the cup of staggering;
The bowl of my wrath
    you shall no longer drink.
23 I will put it into the hands of your tormentors,
    those who said to you,
    “Bow down, that we may walk over you.”
So you offered your back like the ground,
    like the street for them to walk on.

Chapter 52

Let Zion Rejoice

Awake, awake!
    Put on your strength, Zion;
Put on your glorious garments,
    Jerusalem, holy city.
Never again shall the uncircumcised
    or the unclean enter you.
Arise, shake off the dust,
    sit enthroned, Jerusalem;
Loose the bonds from your neck,
    captive daughter Zion!
    For thus says the Lord:
For nothing you were sold,
    without money you shall be redeemed.

    For thus says the Lord God:
To Egypt long ago my people went down,
    to sojourn there;
    Assyria, too, oppressed them for nought.
But now, what am I to do here?
    —oracle of the Lord.
My people have been taken away for nothing;
    their rulers mock, oracle of the Lord;
    constantly, every day, my name is reviled.
Therefore my people shall know my name
    on that day, that it is I who speaks: Here I am!
How beautiful upon the mountains[cc]
    are the feet of the one bringing good news,
Announcing peace, bearing good news,
    announcing salvation, saying to Zion,
    “Your God is King!”(BX)

Listen! Your sentinels raise a cry,
    together they shout for joy,
For they see directly, before their eyes,
    the Lord’s return to Zion.(BY)
Break out together in song,
    O ruins of Jerusalem!
For the Lord has comforted his people,
    has redeemed Jerusalem.
10 The Lord has bared his holy arm
    in the sight of all the nations;
All the ends of the earth can see
    the salvation of our God.

11 Depart, depart, go out from there,
    touch nothing unclean!
Out from there![cd] Purify yourselves,
    you who carry the vessels of the Lord.
12 But not in hurried flight will you go out,
    nor leave in headlong haste,
For the Lord goes before you,
    and your rear guard is the God of Israel.(BZ)

Suffering and Triumph of the Servant of the Lord[ce]

13 See, my servant shall prosper,
    he shall be raised high and greatly exalted.
14 Even as many were amazed at him—
    so marred were his features,
    beyond that of mortals
    his appearance, beyond that of human beings—(CA)
15 So shall he startle many nations,
    kings shall stand speechless;
For those who have not been told shall see,
    those who have not heard shall ponder it.(CB)

Chapter 53

Who would believe what we have heard?[cf]
    To whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed?(CC)
He grew up like a sapling before him,(CD)
    like a shoot from the parched earth;
He had no majestic bearing to catch our eye,
    no beauty to draw us to him.
He was spurned and avoided by men,
    a man of suffering, knowing pain,
Like one from whom you turn your face,
    spurned, and we held him in no esteem.(CE)

Yet it was our pain that he bore,
    our sufferings he endured.
We thought of him as stricken,
    struck down by God[cg] and afflicted,(CF)
But he was pierced for our sins,
    crushed for our iniquity.
He bore the punishment that makes us whole,
    by his wounds we were healed.(CG)
We had all gone astray like sheep,
    all following our own way;
But the Lord laid upon him[ch]
    the guilt of us all.(CH)

Though harshly treated, he submitted
    and did not open his mouth;
Like a lamb led to slaughter
    or a sheep silent before shearers,
    he did not open his mouth.(CI)
Seized and condemned, he was taken away.
    Who would have thought any more of his destiny?
For he was cut off from the land of the living,
    struck for the sins of his people.
He was given a grave among the wicked,
    a burial place with evildoers,
Though he had done no wrong,
    nor was deceit found in his mouth.(CJ)
10 But it was the Lord’s will to crush him with pain.
By making his life as a reparation offering,[ci]
    he shall see his offspring, shall lengthen his days,
    and the Lord’s will shall be accomplished through him.
11 Because of his anguish he shall see the light;
    because of his knowledge he shall be content;
My servant, the just one, shall justify the many,
    their iniquity he shall bear.
12 Therefore I will give him his portion among the many,
    and he shall divide the spoils with the mighty,
Because he surrendered himself to death,
    was counted among the transgressors,
Bore the sins of many,
    and interceded for the transgressors.(CK)

Chapter 54

The New Zion

Raise a glad cry, you barren one[cj] who never bore a child,
    break forth in jubilant song, you who have never been in labor,
For more numerous are the children of the deserted wife
    than the children of her who has a husband,
    says the Lord.(CL)
Enlarge the space for your tent,
    spread out your tent cloths unsparingly;
    lengthen your ropes and make firm your pegs.(CM)
For you shall spread abroad to the right and left;
    your descendants shall dispossess the nations
    and shall people the deserted cities.[ck]

[cl]Do not fear, you shall not be put to shame;
    do not be discouraged, you shall not be disgraced.
For the shame of your youth you shall forget,
    the reproach of your widowhood no longer remember.
For your husband is your Maker;
    the Lord of hosts is his name,
Your redeemer,[cm] the Holy One of Israel,
    called God of all the earth.

The Lord calls you back,
    like a wife forsaken and grieved in spirit,
A wife married in youth and then cast off,
    says your God.(CN)
For a brief moment I abandoned you,
    but with great tenderness I will take you back.
In an outburst of wrath, for a moment
    I hid my face from you;
But with enduring love I take pity on you,
    says the Lord, your redeemer.

This is for me like the days of Noah:
As I swore then that the waters of Noah
    should never again flood the earth,
So I have sworn now not to be angry with you,
    or to rebuke you.(CO)
10 Though the mountains fall away
    and the hills be shaken,
My love shall never fall away from you
    nor my covenant of peace[cn] be shaken,
    says the Lord, who has mercy on you.(CP)

11 O afflicted one,[co] storm-battered and unconsoled,
    I lay your pavements in carnelians,
    your foundations in sapphires;(CQ)
12 I will make your battlements of rubies,
    your gates of jewels,
    and all your walls of precious stones.
13 All your children shall be taught by the Lord;
    great shall be the peace of your children.
14 In justice shall you be established,
    far from oppression, you shall not fear,
    from destruction, it cannot come near.
15 If there be an attack, it is not my doing;
    whoever attacks shall fall before you.

16 See, I have created the smith
    who blows on the burning coals
    and forges weapons as his work;
It is I also who have created
    the destroyer to work havoc.
17 Every weapon fashioned against you shall fail;
    every tongue that brings you to trial
    you shall prove false.

This is the lot of the servants of the Lord,
    their vindication from me—oracle of the Lord.

Chapter 55

An Invitation to Grace

All you who are thirsty,[cp]
    come to the water!
You who have no money,
    come, buy grain and eat;
Come, buy grain without money,
    wine and milk without cost!(CR)
Why spend your money for what is not bread;
    your wages for what does not satisfy?
Only listen to me, and you shall eat well,
    you shall delight in rich fare.
Pay attention and come to me;
    listen, that you may have life.
I will make with you an everlasting covenant,
    the steadfast loyalty promised to David.(CS)
As I made him a witness to peoples,
    a leader and commander of peoples,
So shall you summon a nation you knew not,
    and a nation[cq] that knew you not shall run to you,
Because of the Lord, your God,
    the Holy One of Israel, who has glorified you.(CT)

[cr]Seek the Lord while he may be found,
    call upon him while he is near.
Let the wicked forsake their way,
    and sinners their thoughts;
Let them turn to the Lord to find mercy;
    to our God, who is generous in forgiving.
For my thoughts are not your thoughts,
    nor are your ways my ways—oracle of the Lord.
For as the heavens are higher than the earth,
    so are my ways higher than your ways,
    my thoughts higher than your thoughts.

10 [cs]Yet just as from the heavens
    the rain and snow come down
And do not return there
    till they have watered the earth,
    making it fertile and fruitful,
Giving seed to the one who sows
    and bread to the one who eats,
11 So shall my word be
    that goes forth from my mouth;
It shall not return to me empty,
    but shall do what pleases me,
    achieving the end for which I sent it.

12 Yes, in joy you shall go forth,
    in peace you shall be brought home;
Mountains and hills shall break out in song before you,
    all trees of the field shall clap their hands.
13 In place of the thornbush, the cypress shall grow,
    instead of nettles,[ct] the myrtle.
This shall be to the Lord’s renown,
    as an everlasting sign that shall not fail.

III. Isaiah 56—66

Chapter 56

Salvation for the Just[cu]

    [cv]Thus says the Lord:
Observe what is right, do what is just,
    for my salvation is about to come,
    my justice, about to be revealed.(CU)
Happy is the one who does this,
    whoever holds fast to it:
Keeping the sabbath without profaning it,
    keeping one’s hand from doing any evil.(CV)

Obligations and Promises to Share in the Covenant

[cw]The foreigner joined to the Lord should not say,
    “The Lord will surely exclude me from his people”;
Nor should the eunuch say,
    “See, I am a dry tree.”(CW)
    For thus says the Lord:
To the eunuchs who keep my sabbaths,
    who choose what pleases me,
    and who hold fast to my covenant,(CX)
I will give them, in my house
    and within my walls, a monument and a name[cx]
Better than sons and daughters;
    an eternal name, which shall not be cut off, will I give them.
And foreigners who join themselves to the Lord,
    to minister to him,
To love the name of the Lord,
    to become his servants—
All who keep the sabbath without profaning it
    and hold fast to my covenant,
[cy]Them I will bring to my holy mountain
    and make them joyful in my house of prayer;
Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices
    will be acceptable on my altar,
For my house shall be called
    a house of prayer for all peoples.(CY)
[cz]Oracle of the Lord God,
    who gathers the dispersed of Israel—
Others will I gather to them
    besides those already gathered.(CZ)

Unworthy Shepherds[da]

All you beasts of the field,[db]
    come to devour,
    all you beasts in the forest!(DA)
10 [dc]All the sentinels of Israel are blind,
    they are without knowledge;
They are all mute dogs,
    unable to bark;
Dreaming, reclining,
    loving their sleep.
11 Yes, the dogs have a ravenous appetite;
    they never know satiety,
Shepherds who have no understanding;
    all have turned their own way,
    each one covetous for gain:
12 “Come, let me bring wine;
    let us fill ourselves with strong drink,
And tomorrow will be like today,
    or even greater.”(DB)

Chapter 57

The just have perished,
    but no one takes it to heart;
The steadfast are swept away,
    while no one understands.
Yet the just are taken away from the presence of evil,
    [dd]and enter into peace;
They rest upon their couches,
    the sincere, who walk in integrity.(DC)

An Idolatrous People[de]

But you, draw near,
    you children of a sorceress,
    offspring of an adulterer and a prostitute![df]
Against whom do you make sport,
    against whom do you open wide your mouth,
    and stick out your tongue?
Are you not rebellious children,
    deceitful offspring—
You who burn with lust among the oaks,
    under every green tree;
You who immolate children in the wadies,
    among the clefts of the rocks?[dg](DD)
Among the smooth stones[dh] of the wadi is your portion,
    they, they are your allotment;
Indeed, you poured out a drink offering to them,
    and brought up grain offerings.
    With these things, should I be appeased?
Upon a towering and lofty mountain
    you set up your bed,
    and there you went up to offer sacrifice.(DE)
Behind the door and the doorpost
    you set up your symbol.
Yes, deserting me, you carried up your bedding;
    and spread it wide.
You entered an agreement with them,
    you loved their couch, you gazed upon nakedness.[di]
You approached the king[dj] with oil,
    and multiplied your perfumes;
You sent your ambassadors far away,
    down even to deepest Sheol.
10 Though worn out with the length of your journey,
    you never said, “It is hopeless”;
You found your strength revived,
    and so you did not weaken.
11 Whom did you dread and fear,
    that you told lies,
And me you did not remember
    nor take to heart?
Am I to keep silent and conceal,
    while you show no fear of me?
12 I will proclaim your justice[dk]
    and your works;
    but they shall not help you.
13 [dl]When you cry out,
    let your collection of idols save you.
All these the wind shall carry off,
    a mere breath shall bear them away;
But whoever takes refuge in me shall inherit the land,
    and possess my holy mountain.

The Way to Peace for God’s People

14 And I say:
Build up, build up, prepare the way,
    remove every obstacle from my people’s way.[dm](DF)
15 [dn]For thus says the high and lofty One,
    the One who dwells forever, whose name is holy:
I dwell in a high and holy place,
    but also with the contrite and lowly of spirit,
To revive the spirit of the lowly,
    to revive the heart of the crushed.
16 For I will not accuse forever,
    nor always be angry;
For without me their spirit fails,
    the life breath that I have given.(DG)
17 Because of their wicked avarice I grew angry;
    I struck them, hiding myself from them in wrath.
But they turned back, following the way
    of their own heart.(DH)
18 I saw their ways,
    but I will heal them.
I will lead them and restore full comfort to them
    and to those who mourn for them,(DI)
19     creating words of comfort.[do]
Peace! Peace to those who are far and near,
    says the Lord; and I will heal them.
20 But the wicked are like the tossing sea
    which cannot be still,
Its waters cast up mire and mud.(DJ)
21     There is no peace for the wicked!
    says my God.(DK)

Chapter 58

Reasons for Judgment[dp]

Cry out full-throated and unsparingly,
    lift up your voice like a trumpet blast;
Proclaim to my people their transgression,
    to the house of Jacob their sins.(DL)
They seek me day after day,
    and desire to know my ways,
Like a nation that has done what is just
    and not abandoned the judgment of their God;
They ask of me just judgments,
    they desire to draw near to God.
“Why do we fast, but you do not see it?
    afflict ourselves, but you take no note?”
See, on your fast day you carry out your own pursuits,
    and drive all your laborers.(DM)
See, you fast only to quarrel and fight
    and to strike with a wicked fist!
Do not fast as you do today
    to make your voice heard on high!
Is this the manner of fasting I would choose,
    a day to afflict oneself?
To bow one’s head like a reed,
    and lie upon sackcloth and ashes?
Is this what you call a fast,
    a day acceptable to the Lord?(DN)

Authentic Fasting That Leads to Blessing[dq]

Is this not, rather, the fast that I choose:
    releasing those bound unjustly,
    untying the thongs of the yoke;
Setting free the oppressed,
    breaking off every yoke?(DO)
Is it not sharing your bread with the hungry,
    bringing the afflicted and the homeless into your house;
Clothing the naked when you see them,
    and not turning your back on your own flesh?(DP)
Then your light shall break forth like the dawn,
    and your wound shall quickly be healed;
Your vindication shall go before you,
    and the glory of the Lord shall be your rear guard.
Then you shall call, and the Lord will answer,
    you shall cry for help, and he will say: “Here I am!”
If you remove the yoke from among you,
    the accusing finger, and malicious speech;(DQ)
10 If you lavish your food on the hungry
    and satisfy the afflicted;
Then your light shall rise in the darkness,
    and your gloom shall become like midday;
11 Then the Lord will guide you always
    and satisfy your thirst in parched places,
    will give strength to your bones
And you shall be like a watered garden,
    like a flowing spring whose waters never fail.(DR)
12 Your people shall rebuild the ancient ruins;
    the foundations from ages past you shall raise up;
“Repairer of the breach,” they shall call you,
    “Restorer of ruined dwellings.”(DS)

Authentic Sabbath Observance That Leads to Blessing[dr]

13 If you refrain from trampling the sabbath,
    from following your own pursuits on my holy day;
If you call the sabbath a delight,
    the Lord’s holy day glorious;
If you glorify it by not following your ways,
    seeking your own interests, or pursuing your own affairs—
14 Then you shall delight in the Lord,
    and I will make you ride upon the heights of the earth;
I will nourish you with the heritage of Jacob, your father,
    for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.(DT)

Chapter 59

Salvation Delayed

[ds]No, the hand of the Lord is not too short to save,
    nor his ear too dull to hear.(DU)
Rather, it is your crimes
    that separate you from your God,
It is your sins that make him hide his face
    so that he does not hear you.
For your hands are defiled with blood,
    and your fingers with crime;
Your lips speak falsehood,
    and your tongue utters deceit.(DV)
No one brings suit justly,
    no one pleads truthfully;
They trust an empty plea and tell lies;
    they conceive mischief and bring forth malice.
[dt]They hatch adders’ eggs,
    and weave spiders’ webs:
Whoever eats the eggs will die,
    if one of them is crushed, it will hatch a viper;(DW)
Their webs cannot serve as clothing,
    nor can they cover themselves with their works.
Their works are evil works,
    and deeds of violence are in their hands.
Their feet run to evil,
    and they hasten to shed innocent blood;
Their thoughts are thoughts of wickedness,
    violence and destruction are on their highways.(DX)
The way of peace they know not,
    and there is no justice on their paths;
Their roads they have made crooked,
    no one who walks in them knows peace.

Acknowledgment of Transgressions

[du]That is why judgment is far from us
    and justice does not reach us.
We look for light, but there is darkness;
    for brightness, and we walk in gloom!(DY)
10 Like those who are blind we grope along the wall,
    like people without eyes we feel our way.
We stumble at midday as if at twilight,
    among the vigorous, we are like the dead.
11 Like bears we all growl,
    like doves we moan without ceasing.
We cry out for justice, but it is not there;
    for salvation, but it is far from us.(DZ)
12 For our transgressions before you are many,
    our sins bear witness against us.
Our transgressions are present to us,
    and our crimes we acknowledge:
13 Transgressing, and denying the Lord,
    turning back from following our God,
Planning fraud and treachery,
    uttering lying words conceived in the heart.
14 Judgment is turned away,
    and justice stands far off;
For truth stumbles in the public square,
    and uprightness cannot enter.(EA)
15 Fidelity is lacking,
    and whoever turns from evil is despoiled.

Divine Intervention

The Lord saw this, and was aggrieved
    that there was no justice.
16 He saw that there was no one,
    was appalled that there was none to intervene;
Then his own arm brought about the victory,
    and his justice sustained him.
17 He put on justice as his breastplate,
    victory as a helmet on his head;
He clothed himself with garments of vengeance,
    wrapped himself in a mantle of zeal.(EB)
18 According to their deeds he repays his enemies
    and requites his foes with wrath;
    to the coastlands he renders recompense.
19 Those in the west shall fear the name of the Lord,
    and those in the east, his glory,
Coming like a pent-up stream
    driven on by the breath of the Lord.
20 Then for Zion shall come a redeemer,
    to those in Jacob who turn from transgression—oracle of the Lord.(EC)
21 [dv]This is my covenant with them,
    which I myself have made, says the Lord:
My spirit which is upon you
    and my words that I have put in your mouth
Shall not depart from your mouth,
    nor from the mouths of your children
Nor the mouths of your children’s children
    from this time forth and forever, says the Lord.(ED)

Chapter 60

The Dawning of Divine Glory for Zion

[dw]Arise! Shine, for your light has come,
    the glory of the Lord has dawned upon you.(EE)
Though darkness covers the earth,
    and thick clouds, the peoples,
Upon you the Lord will dawn,
    and over you his glory will be seen.
Nations shall walk by your light,
    kings by the radiance of your dawning.(EF)

The Nations Come to Zion

Raise your eyes and look about;
    they all gather and come to you—
Your sons from afar,
    your daughters in the arms of their nurses.(EG)
Then you shall see and be radiant,
    your heart shall throb and overflow.
For the riches of the sea shall be poured out before you,
    the wealth of nations shall come to you.
Caravans of camels shall cover you,
    dromedaries of Midian and Ephah;
All from Sheba shall come
    bearing gold and frankincense,
    and heralding the praises of the Lord.
All the flocks of Kedar shall be gathered for you,
    the rams of Nebaioth shall serve your needs;
They will be acceptable offerings on my altar,
    and I will glorify my glorious house.
Who are these that fly along like a cloud,
    like doves to their cotes?
The vessels of the coastlands are gathering,
    with the ships of Tarshish in the lead,
To bring your children from afar,
    their silver and gold with them—
For the name of the Lord, your God,
    for the Holy One of Israel who has glorified you.

Honor and Service for Zion[dx]

10 Foreigners shall rebuild your walls,
    their kings shall minister to you;
Though in my wrath I struck you,
    yet in my good will I have shown you mercy.(EH)
11 Your gates shall stand open constantly;
    day and night they shall not be closed
So that they may bring you the wealth of nations,
    with their kings in the vanguard.(EI)
12 For the nation or kingdom that will not serve you shall perish;
    such nations shall be utterly destroyed!(EJ)
13 The glory of Lebanon shall come to you—
    the juniper, the fir, and the cypress all together—
To bring beauty to my sanctuary,
    and glory to the place where I stand.(EK)
14 The children of your oppressors shall come,
    bowing before you;
All those who despised you,
    shall bow low at your feet.
They shall call you “City of the Lord,”
    “Zion of the Holy One of Israel.”
15 No longer forsaken and hated,
    with no one passing through,
Now I will make you the pride of the ages,
    a joy from generation to generation.
16 You shall suck the milk of nations,
    and be nursed at royal breasts;
And you shall know that I, the Lord, am your savior,
    your redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob.
17 Instead of bronze I will bring gold,
    instead of iron I will bring silver;
Instead of wood, bronze;
    instead of stones, iron.
I will appoint peace your governor,
    and justice your ruler.(EL)
18 No longer shall violence be heard of in your land,
    or plunder and ruin within your borders.
You shall call your walls “Salvation”
    and your gates “Praise.”

Eternal Light for Zion

19 [dy]No longer shall the sun
    be your light by day,
Nor shall the brightness of the moon
    give you light by night;
Rather, the Lord will be your light forever,
    your God will be your glory.(EM)
20 No longer will your sun set,
    or your moon wane;
For the Lord will be your light forever,
    and the days of your grieving will be over.
21 Your people will all be just;
    for all time they will possess the land;
They are the shoot that I planted,
    the work of my hands, that I might be glorified.(EN)
22 The least one shall become a clan,
    the smallest, a mighty nation;
I, the Lord, will swiftly accomplish
    these things when the time comes.(EO)

Chapter 61

The Anointed Bearer of Glad Tidings

[dz]The spirit of the Lord God is upon me,
    because the Lord has anointed me;
He has sent me to bring good news to the afflicted,
    to bind up the brokenhearted,
To proclaim liberty to the captives,
    release to the prisoners,(EP)
To announce a year of favor from the Lord
    and a day of vindication by our God;
To comfort all who mourn;(EQ)
    to place on those who mourn in Zion
    a diadem instead of ashes,
To give them oil of gladness instead of mourning,
    a glorious mantle instead of a faint spirit.

Restoration and Blessing

They will be called oaks of justice,
    the planting of the Lord to show his glory.
They shall rebuild the ancient ruins,
    the former wastes they shall raise up
And restore the desolate cities,
    devastations of generation upon generation.(ER)
Strangers shall stand ready to pasture your flocks,
    foreigners shall be your farmers and vinedressers.
[ea]You yourselves shall be called “Priests of the Lord,”
    “Ministers of our God” you shall be called.
You shall eat the wealth of the nations
    and in their riches you will boast.(ES)
Because their shame was twofold[eb]
    and disgrace was proclaimed their portion,
They will possess twofold in their own land;
    everlasting joy shall be theirs.(ET)

God’s Word of Promise

For I, the Lord, love justice,
    I hate robbery and wrongdoing;
I will faithfully give them their recompense,
    an everlasting covenant I will make with them.(EU)
Their offspring shall be renowned among the nations,
    and their descendants in the midst of the peoples;
All who see them shall acknowledge them:
    “They are offspring the Lord has blessed.”

Thanksgiving for God’s Deliverance

10 [ec]I will rejoice heartily in the Lord,
    my being exults in my God;
For he has clothed me with garments of salvation,
    and wrapped me in a robe of justice,
Like a bridegroom adorned with a diadem,
    as a bride adorns herself with her jewels.(EV)
11 As the earth brings forth its shoots,
    and a garden makes its seeds spring up,
So will the Lord God make justice spring up,
    and praise before all the nations.

Chapter 62

A New Name for Zion

[ed]For Zion’s sake I will not be silent,
    for Jerusalem’s sake I will not keep still,
Until her vindication shines forth like the dawn
    and her salvation like a burning torch.(EW)
Nations shall behold your vindication,
    and all kings your glory;
You shall be called by a new name
    bestowed by the mouth of the Lord.(EX)
You shall be a glorious crown in the hand of the Lord,
    a royal diadem in the hand of your God.
No more shall you be called “Forsaken,”
    nor your land called “Desolate,”
But you shall be called “My Delight is in her,”
    and your land “Espoused.”
For the Lord delights in you,
    and your land shall be espoused.(EY)
For as a young man marries a virgin,
    your Builder shall marry you;
And as a bridegroom rejoices in his bride
    so shall your God rejoice in you.
Upon your walls, Jerusalem,
    I have stationed sentinels;
By day and by night,
    they shall never be silent.
You who are to remind the Lord,
    take no rest,
And give him no rest,
    until he re-establishes Jerusalem
And makes it the praise of the earth.

The Blessings of Salvation for God’s People

[ee]The Lord has sworn by his right hand
    and by his mighty arm:
No more will I give your grain
    as food to your enemies;
Nor shall foreigners drink the wine,
    for which you toiled.(EZ)
But those who harvest shall eat,
    and praise the Lord;
Those who gather shall drink
    in my holy courts.(FA)
10 [ef]Pass through, pass through the gates,
    prepare a way for the people;(FB)
Build up, build up the highway, clear it of stones,
    raise up a standard over the nations.
11 The Lord has proclaimed
    to the ends of the earth:
Say to daughter Zion,
    “See, your savior comes!
See, his reward is with him,
    his recompense before him.”(FC)
12 They shall be called “The Holy People,”
    “The Redeemed of the Lord.”
And you shall be called “Cared For,”
    “A City Not Forsaken.”(FD)

Chapter 63

The Divine Warrior[eg]

Who is this that comes from Edom,
    in crimsoned garments, from Bozrah?
Who is this, glorious in his apparel,
    striding in the greatness of his strength?
“It is I, I who announce vindication,
    mighty to save.”(FE)
Why is your apparel red,
    and your garments like one who treads the wine press?(FF)
“The wine press I have trodden alone,
    and from the peoples no one was with me.
I trod them in my anger,
    and trampled them down in my wrath;
Their blood spurted on my garments,
    all my apparel I stained.
For a day of vindication was in my heart,
    my year for redeeming had come.(FG)
I looked about, but there was no one to help,
    I was appalled that there was no one to lend support;
So my own arm brought me victory
    and my own wrath lent me support.(FH)
I trampled down the peoples in my anger,
    I made them drunk in my wrath,
    and I poured out their blood upon the ground.”

Prayer for the Return of God’s Favor

[eh]The loving deeds of the Lord I will recall,
    the glorious acts of the Lord,
Because of all the Lord has done for us,
    the immense goodness to the house of Israel,
Which he has granted according to his mercy
    and his many loving deeds.(FI)
He said: “They are indeed my people,
    children who are not disloyal.”
So he became their savior
    in their every affliction.
It was not an envoy or a messenger,
    but his presence that saved them.
Because of his love and pity
    the Lord redeemed them,
Lifting them up and carrying them
    all the days of old.(FJ)
10 But they rebelled
    and grieved his holy spirit;
So he turned to become their enemy,
    and warred against them.(FK)

11 Then they remembered the days of old, of Moses, his servant:

Where is the one who brought up out of the sea
    the shepherd of his flock?
Where is the one who placed in their midst
    his holy spirit,(FL)
12 Who guided Moses by the hand,
    with his glorious arm?
Where is the one who divided the waters before them—
    winning for himself an everlasting renown—
13 Who guided them through the depths,
    like horses in open country?
14 As cattle going down into the valley,
    they did not stumble.
    The spirit of the Lord guided them.
Thus you led your people,
    to make for yourself a glorious name.
15 Look down from heaven and regard us
    from your holy and glorious palace!
Where is your zealous care and your might,
    your surge of pity?(FM)
Your mercy hold not back!
16     For you are our father.
Were Abraham not to know us,
    nor Israel to acknowledge us,
You, Lord, are our father,
    our redeemer you are named from of old.
17 Why do you make us wander, Lord, from your ways,
    and harden our hearts so that we do not fear you?[ei]
Return for the sake of your servants,
    the tribes of your heritage.
18 Why have the wicked invaded your holy place,
    why have our enemies trampled your sanctuary?
19 [ej]Too long have we been like those you do not rule,
    on whom your name is not invoked.
Oh, that you would rend the heavens and come down,
    with the mountains quaking before you,(FN)

Chapter 64

As when brushwood is set ablaze,
    or fire makes the water boil!
Then your name would be made known to your enemies
    and the nations would tremble before you,
While you worked awesome deeds we could not hope for,[ek]
    such as had not been heard of from of old.
No ear has ever heard, no eye ever seen,
    any God but you
    working such deeds for those who wait for him.(FO)
Would that you might meet us doing right,
    that we might be mindful of you in our ways!
Indeed, you are angry; we have sinned,
    we have acted wickedly.
We have all become like something unclean,
    all our just deeds are like polluted rags;
We have all withered like leaves,
    and our crimes carry us away like the wind.(FP)
There are none who call upon your name,
    none who rouse themselves to take hold of you;
For you have hidden your face from us
    and have delivered us up to our crimes.

A Final Plea

[el]Yet, Lord, you are our father;
    we are the clay and you our potter:
    we are all the work of your hand.
Do not be so very angry, Lord,
    do not remember our crimes forever;
    look upon us, who are all your people!
Your holy cities have become a wilderness;
    Zion has become wilderness, Jerusalem desolation!(FQ)
10 Our holy and glorious house
    in which our ancestors praised you
Has been burned with fire;
    all that was dear to us is laid waste.
11 Can you hold back, Lord, after all this?
    Can you remain silent, and afflict us so severely?

Chapter 65

[em]I was ready to respond to those who did not ask,
    to be found by those who did not seek me.
I said: Here I am! Here I am!
    To a nation that did not invoke my name.(FR)
I have stretched out my hands all day
    to a rebellious people,
Who walk in a way that is not good,
    following their own designs;(FS)
A people who provoke me
    continually to my face,
Offering sacrifices in gardens
    and burning incense on bricks,
Sitting in tombs
    and spending the night in caves,
Eating the flesh of pigs,
    with broth of unclean meat in their dishes;
Crying out, “Hold back,
    do not come near me, lest I render you holy!”[en]
These things are smoke in my nostrils,
    a fire that burns all the day.
See, it stands written before me;
    I will not remain quiet until I have repaid in full
Your crimes and the crimes of your ancestors as well,
    says the Lord.
Since they burned incense on the mountains,
    and insulted me on the hills,
I will at once pour out in full measure
    their recompense into their laps.

Fate of the Just and Unjust in Israel

    [eo]Thus says the Lord:
As when the juice is pressed from a cluster,
    and someone says, “Do not destroy it,
    for there is still good in it,”
So will I do for the sake of my servants:
    I will not destroy them all.
From Jacob I will bring forth offspring,
    from Judah, those who are to possess my mountains;
My chosen ones shall possess the land,
    my servants shall dwell there.
10 Sharon shall become a pasture for the flocks,
    the Valley of Achor a resting place for the cattle,
    for my people who have sought me.(FT)
11 But you who forsake the Lord,
    who forget my holy mountain,
Who spread a table for Fortune
    and fill cups of mixed wine for Destiny,[ep]
12 You I will destine for the sword;
    you shall all bow down for slaughter;
Because I called and you did not answer,
    I spoke and you did not listen,
But did what is evil in my sight
    and things I do not delight in, you chose,(FU)
13     therefore thus says the Lord God:
My servants shall eat,
    but you shall go hungry;
My servants shall drink,
    but you shall be thirsty;
My servants shall rejoice,
    but you shall be put to shame;
14 My servants shall shout
    for joy of heart,
But you shall cry out for grief of heart,
    and howl for anguish of spirit.
15 You will leave your name for a curse to my chosen ones
    when the Lord God slays you,
    and calls his servants by another name.
16 Whoever invokes a blessing in the land
    shall bless by the God of truth;[eq]
Whoever takes an oath in the land
    shall swear by the God of truth;
For the hardships of the past shall be forgotten
    and hidden from my eyes.

A World Renewed

17 [er]See, I am creating new heavens
    and a new earth;
The former things shall not be remembered
    nor come to mind.(FV)
18 Instead, shout for joy and be glad forever
    in what I am creating.
Indeed, I am creating Jerusalem to be a joy
    and its people to be a delight;
19 I will rejoice in Jerusalem
    and exult in my people.
No longer shall the sound of weeping be heard there,
    or the sound of crying;
20 No longer shall there be in it
    an infant who lives but a few days,
    nor anyone who does not live a full lifetime;
One who dies at a hundred years shall be considered a youth,
    and one who falls short of a hundred shall be thought accursed.(FW)
21 They shall build houses and live in them,
    they shall plant vineyards and eat their fruit;
22 They shall not build and others live there;
    they shall not plant and others eat.
As the years of a tree, so the years of my people;
    and my chosen ones shall long enjoy
    the work of their hands.
23 They shall not toil in vain,
    nor beget children for sudden destruction;
For they shall be a people blessed by the Lord
    and their descendants with them.
24 Before they call, I will answer;
    while they are yet speaking, I will hear.


  1. 40:1–55:13 Chapters 40–55 are usually designated Second Isaiah (or Deutero-Isaiah) and are believed to have been written by an anonymous prophet toward the end of the Babylonian exile. Isaiah, who is named frequently in chaps. 1–39, does not appear here; the Assyrians, the great threat during the eighth century, hardly appear; the Judeans are in Babylon, having been taken there by the victorious Babylonians; Cyrus, the Persian king, is named; he will defeat Babylon and release the captives. Second Isaiah, who sees this not as a happy circumstance but as part of God’s age-old plan, exhorts the Judeans to resist the temptations of Babylonian religion and stirs up hopes of an imminent return to Judah, where the Lord will again be acknowledged as King (52:7). Because the prophet proclaimed the triumph of Persia over Babylon, his message would have been considered seditious, and it is very likely for this reason that the collection would have circulated anonymously. At some point it was appended to Is 1–39 and consequently was long considered the work of Isaiah of Jerusalem of the eighth century. But the fact that it is addressed to Judean exiles in Babylon indicates a sixth-century date. Nevertheless, this eloquent prophet in many ways works within the tradition of Isaiah and develops themes found in the earlier chapters, such as the holiness of the Lord (cf. note on 1:4) and his lordship of history. Second Isaiah also develops other Old Testament themes, such as the Lord as Israel’s redeemer or deliverer (cf. Ex 3:8; 6:6; 15:13; 18:8).
  2. 40:1 The “voices” of vv. 3, 6 are members of the heavenly court addressing the prophet; then v. 1 can be understood as the Lord addressing them. It is also possible to translate, with the Vulgate, “Comfort, give comfort, O my people” (i.e., the exiles are called to comfort Jerusalem). The juxtaposition of “my people” and “your God” recalls the covenant formulary.
  3. 40:2 Service: servitude (cf. Jb 7:1) and exile.
  4. 40:3–5 A description of the return of the exiles from Babylon to Jerusalem (Zion). The language used here figuratively describes the way the exiles will take. The Lord leads them, so their way lies straight across the wilderness rather than along the well-watered routes usually followed from Mesopotamia to Israel. Mt 3:3 and gospel parallels adapt these verses to the witness of John the Baptizer to Jesus.
  5. 40:9 Herald of good news: i.e., of the imminent restoration of the people to their land. This theme of the proclamation of the good news occurs elsewhere in Second Isaiah; cf. also 41:27; 52:7.
  6. 40:12 The implicit answer is “the hand of the Lord” (v. 2). Waters…heavens…earth: together form the universe; cf. Gn 1:1–2. Span: the distance between the extended little finger and the thumb. Fingers: lit., “three fingers” (i.e., thumb, index, and middle).
  7. 40:15 Drop…wisp of cloud…a speck: the smallest constituent parts of the cosmic waters, heavens, and earth mentioned in v. 12.
  8. 40:16 Lebanon…fuel: the famed cedars would not be enough to keep the fires of sacrifice burning.
  9. 40:19 Chains: needed to hold the idol steady when carried in processions; cf. v. 20; Jer 10:4.
  10. 40:26 Created: see note on Gn 1:1–2:3. By name: for he is their Creator.
  11. 40:27–28 The exiles, here called Jacob-Israel (Gn 32:29), must not give way to discouragement: their Lord is the eternal God.
  12. 41:1–4 Earlier prophets had spoken of the Assyrians and Babylonians as the Lord’s instruments for the punishment of Israel’s sins; here the Lord is described as raising up and giving victory to a foreign ruler in order to deliver Israel from the Babylonian exile. The ruler is Cyrus (44:28; 45:1), king of Anshan in Persia, a vassal of the Babylonians. He rebelled against the Babylonian overlords in 556 B.C., and after a series of victories, entered Babylon as victor in 539; the following year he issued a decree which allowed the Jewish captives to return to their homeland (2 Chr 36:22–23; Ezr 1:1–4). For Second Isaiah, the meteoric success of Cyrus was the work of the Lord to accomplish the deliverance promised by earlier prophets.
  13. 41:4 The first…the last: God as the beginning and end encompasses all reality. The same designation is used in 44:6 and 48:12.
  14. 41:14 Redeemer: in Hebrew, go’el, one who frees others from slavery and avenges their sufferings; cf. Lv 25:48; Dt 19:6, 12. Cf. note on Ru 2:20.
  15. 41:21–29 This indictment of Babylonian gods is patterned on a legal trial, in which they are challenged to prove power over events of history and so justify their status as gods (vv. 21–24). Israel’s God, on the other hand, has foretold and now brings to pass Israel’s deliverance (vv. 25–27). The accused are unable to respond (vv. 28–29). By such polemics (see also 43:12) the prophet declares that all gods other than the Lord are nonexistent; this implicit claim of monotheism later becomes explicit (see 43:10–11; 45:5–7, 14, 18, 21–22; 46:9; and note on 44:6).
  16. 41:22 Things of long ago…things to come: there are no predictions attributed to idols that have since been fulfilled. Second Isaiah makes frequent reference to “things of long ago,” sometimes in conjunction with “things to come” or “new things” in connection with the Lord’s activity (cf. 42:9; 43:9, 18; 46:9–10; 48:3–8); both the old things (e.g., creation, exodus) and the new things (release from exile) God brings to pass (cf. 51:9–11), which is why he can declare them beforehand.
  17. 41:25 I summon him: Cyrus.
  18. 42:1–4 Servant: three other passages have been popularly called “servant of the Lord” poems: 49:1–7; 50:4–11; 52:13–53:12. Whether the servant is an individual or a collectivity is not clear (e.g., contrast 49:3 with 49:5). More important is the description of the mission of the servant. In the early Church and throughout Christian tradition, these poems have been applied to Christ; cf. Mt 12:18–21.
  19. 42:3 Bruised reed…: images to express the gentle manner of the servant’s mission.
  20. 42:4 Coastlands: for Israel, the world to the west: the islands and coastal nations of the Mediterranean.
  21. 42:11 Kedar: cf. note on 21:16. Sela: Petra, the capital of Edom.
  22. 42:15–16 Active once more, God will remove the obstacles that hinder the exiles’ return, and will lead them by new roads to Jerusalem; cf. 40:3–4.
  23. 42:18–20 The Lord rebukes his people for their failures, but their role and their mission endure: they remain his servant, his messenger to the nations.
  24. 42:22 A people: Israel in exile.
  25. 42:24 Plunderers: the Assyrians and Babylonians. We…they: the switch from first- to third-person speech, though puzzling, does not obscure the fact that “the people” is meant.
  26. 43:3–4 Egypt…Ethiopia and Seba: countries which God permitted the Persians to conquer in return for having given Israel its freedom.
  27. 43:9 Who among them…?: God, and only God, can foretell the future because it is he who brings it to pass. The argument from prediction is an important theme in Second Isaiah and occurs also in 41:22; 43:10; 44:7–8, 26.
  28. 43:10 You are my witnesses: Israel’s role as chosen people now takes a new turn as they are given the active role of bearing witness before humankind to the Lord’s role in history by proclaiming events beforehand and bringing them to pass; see also 44:8. The false gods, on the other hand, cannot produce such witnesses (v. 9; cf. 44:9). I am he: this formula of self-identification, repeated in vv. 13 and 25, is used here to support the assertion that the Lord alone is God; see also 41:4; 46:4; 48:12; 51:12; 52:6. This expression in part may be behind the self-identification formula used by Jesus in John’s gospel (cf. Jn 8:58). Before…after: another example of the same assertion, that the Lord alone is God; see also note on 44:6.
  29. 43:14–17 The destruction of Babylon is described in language that recalls the drowning of the Egyptian army in the Red Sea (Ex 14–15).
  30. 43:18 Remember not: God’s new act of delivering Israel from the Babylonian captivity is presented as so great a marvel as to eclipse even the memory of the exodus from Egypt. This comparison of the return from Babylon to the exodus from Egypt recurs throughout Second Isaiah (cf. 41:17–20; 43:18–21; 48:20–21; 49:8–13; 51:9–11).
  31. 43:22–28 The reason for the liberation of the Israelites is not their constancy but rather God’s faithfulness to his promise (cf. 40:6–8).
  32. 43:24 Sweet cane: a fragrant substance used in making incense and the sacred anointing oil; cf. Ex 30:23; Jer 6:20.
  33. 43:27 First father: Jacob. Spokesmen: leaders, priests, prophets.
  34. 44:2 Jeshurun: see note on Dt 32:15; cf. also Dt 33:5, 26.
  35. 44:5 Write on his hand: an allusion to the Babylonian custom of tattooing the owner’s name on the hand of his slave.
  36. 44:6–8 Prediction and fulfillment are here seen as the hallmarks of true divinity. See note on 43:9.
  37. 44:6 No god but me: with Second Isaiah, Israel’s faith is declared to be explicitly monotheistic. However implicit it may have been, earlier formulas did not exclude the existence of other gods, not even that of the first commandment: “You shall not have other gods besides me” (Ex 20:3). Cf. also note on 41:21–29.
  38. 44:8 Rock: place of refuge, a title here used of God; cf., e.g., Dt 32:4, 18; 1 Sm 2:2; Ps 18:3.
  39. 44:9–20 A satire on the makers and worshipers of idols.
  40. 44:9 Their witnesses: Israel has been called to bear witness to the awesome power of God (cf. 43:10, 12; 44:8), but idol makers cannot testify in support of their creations, for idols cannot act (Dt 4:28; Ps 135:15–18).
  41. 44:13 Copy of a man: in the biblical view human beings are made in the image of God; here gods are made in the image of human beings.
  42. 44:20 Chasing ashes: an exercise in futility.
  43. 44:28 Cyrus: king of Persia (559–529 B.C.); cf. note on 41:1–4.
  44. 45:1 Anointed: in Hebrew, mashiah, from which the word “Messiah” is derived; from its Greek translation, Christos, we have the title “Christ.” Applied to kings, “anointed” originally referred only to those of Israel, but it is here given to Cyrus because he is the agent of the Lord.
  45. 45:2 Bronze doors: those defending the city gates of Babylon.
  46. 45:6 The nations will come to know that Israel’s God is the only God; cf. also vv. 20–25.
  47. 45:7 Create woe: God created and controls all aspects of creation (light and darkness, order and chaos).
  48. 45:8 The Vulgate rendering gave a messianic sense to this verse, using “just one” and “savior” in place of “justice” and “salvation,” phraseology taken over in the Advent liturgy, e.g., the “Rorate coeli.”
  49. 45:9 No one may challenge God’s freedom of action, exemplified here by the selection of Cyrus as his anointed.
  50. 45:13 Him: Cyrus, called by God for the deliverance and restoration of Israel. Justice: the Hebrew word (sedeq) has multiple connotations; here it relates to the saving victory that the Lord will give to Cyrus for the deliverance of his people Israel. This word and others from the same root frequently have this connotation in Second Isaiah, occurring as a parallel term with “deliverance,” “salvation,” etc. Cf. its use in 41:10 (rendered “victorious”) and 51:5 (rendered “victory”).
  51. 45:14 Egypt…Ethiopia…Sabeans: the Egyptians and their allies who, when conquered by Cyrus, are seen as acknowledging the God of Israel; cf. 43:3.
  52. 45:15 God is hidden: i.e., the one known only to Israel, who cannot be represented by wooden or molten images. The concept of the “Deus absconditus,” “the hidden God,” becomes an important theme in later theology.
  53. 45:18 Empty waste: an allusion to Gn 1:2, where the earth is waste and void; the same Hebrew word, tohu, is used in both passages. Here it points to devastated Judah and Jerusalem, where God wishes to resettle the returning exiles.
  54. 45:20 Who bear wooden idols: in their religious processions. Such gods have feet but cannot walk; cf. Ps 115:7; Bar 6:25.
  55. 46:1–4 Bel…Nebo: gods of Babylon; their complete helplessness is here contrasted with God’s omnipotence; whereas they must be carried about, the Lord carries Israel as a parent does a child.
  56. 46:11 From the east a bird of prey: Cyrus; cf. 41:2–4.
  57. 47:1–15 A taunt-song, mocking Babylon, once queen of the nations, now a mere slave.
  58. 47:8, 10 I, and no one else: Babylon is mockingly presented as making the same claim as the Lord (cf. 45:6, 14, 22; 46:9), a claim that events will soon prove to be false and foolish (v. 11).
  59. 47:9–13, 15 Babylon was known for its sorcery and astrology.
  60. 48:14 The one the Lord loves: the reference is no doubt to Cyrus, who does the Lord’s will by overcoming Babylon and releasing Israel from captivity.
  61. 48:16 “Now the Lord…spirit”: said by Cyrus; cf. v. 14.
  62. 48:22 No peace: while the good news proclaimed by the prophet is directed to the people as a whole, “peace,” which can represent the fullness of God’s blessings and which would here include deliverance from exile, is not extended to all regardless of disposition.
  63. 49:1–7 The second of the four “servant of the Lord” oracles (cf. note on 42:1–4).
  64. 49:1 Gave me my name: designated me for a special task or mission (cf. Jer 1:5).
  65. 49:3 Israel: the servant is identified with the people of Israel as their ideal representative; however, vv. 5–6 seem to distinguish the servant from Israel.
  66. 49:6 The servant’s vocation extends beyond the restoration of Israel in order to bring the knowledge of Israel’s God to the rest of the earth; cf. Lk 2:32.
  67. 49:8 You: the individual is not named; perhaps Cyrus or the prophet.
  68. 49:12 Syene: now called Aswan, at the first cataract of the Nile in southern Egypt.
  69. 49:16 Upon the palms…you: for continual remembrance; cf. Ex 13:9, 16; Dt 6:6–9.
  70. 50:1 Responding to the people’s complaint of utter abandonment by God, the prophet asserts that their sins were responsible for their banishment. Since there was no bill of divorce, the bond between the Lord and his people still exists and he has the power to deliver them (v. 2).
  71. 50:2 Israel’s faith in God is weak; the people do not answer God’s call, nor believe promises of deliverance.
  72. 50:4–11 The third of the four “servant of the Lord” oracles (cf. note on 42:1–4); in vv. 4–9 the servant speaks; in vv. 10–11 God addresses the people directly.
  73. 50:5 The servant, like a well-trained disciple, does not refuse the divine vocation.
  74. 50:6 He willingly submits to insults and beatings. Tore out my beard: a grave and painful insult.
  75. 50:10–11 The Lord offers a choice to those who walk in darkness: either trust in the true light (v. 10), or walk in their false light and suffer the consequences.
  76. 51:1 Rock…quarry: your glorious ancestry.
  77. 51:4–5 The conversion of the nations.
  78. 51:6 While the heavens and the earth appear eternal and changeless, they are not so firm and lasting as God’s saving will for Israel.
  79. 51:9 Rahab: see note on 30:7. The dragon: see notes on 27:1; Ps 74:12–17.
  80. 51:10 Great deep: a reference to the primeval chaos (cf. Gn 1:2; 7:11; 49:25; Jb 28:14; Ps 36:7; Jon 2:4).
  81. 52:7–10 God leads the people back from Babylon to Zion, from whose ruined walls sentinels greet the returning exiles.
  82. 52:11 From there: from Babylon. Vessels of the Lord: taken to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, now carried back by the exiles returning in procession to Zion; cf. Ezr 1:7.
  83. 52:13–53:12 The last of the “servant of the Lord” oracles (see note on 42:1–4). Taken together, these oracles depict a figure of one called by God for a vocation to Israel and the nations (42:4; 49:5–6); the servant’s exaltation both opens and closes the passage (52:13; 53:12). The servant responded in fidelity but has suffered opposition (50:4–6). In this fourth oracle the servant is characterized as “a man of suffering” (53:3) and appears to be unjustly put to death (53:8–9). Those who have witnessed his career somehow recognize that he is innocent, has undergone suffering for their sins (53:4–6), and his death is referred to as a reparation offering (see note on 53:10–11). The servant is described in ways that identify him with Israel (which is frequently referred to as “servant” in the context of Second Isaiah—e.g., 41:8, 9; 44:2, 21; 43:4) and is designated as “Israel” in 49:3; yet Israel outside the “servant of the Lord” oracles is not presented as sinless, but rather in exile because of sin (40:2; 42:21–25) and even as servant as deaf and blind (42:18–19). The servant is thus both identified with Israel and distinguished from it. As with the previous servant poems, this chapter helped the followers of Jesus to interpret his suffering, death, and resurrection; see especially the passion narratives.
  84. 53:1–10 What we have heard: this fourth servant oracle is introduced by words of the Lord (52:13–15) but is now continued by speakers who are not identified, perhaps those referred to in 52:15, perhaps Israel (cf. “struck for the sins of his people”—v. 8). The Lord is again the speaker in vv. 11–13.
  85. 53:4 Struck down by God: the Bible often sees suffering as a punishment for sin (e.g., Ps 6:2; 32:1–5), yet sin sometimes appears to go unpunished and the innocent often suffer (cf. Ps 73; the Book of Job). In the case of the servant, the onlookers initially judge him guilty because of his suffering but, in some way not explained, they come to understand that his sufferings are for the sins of others. One notes the element of surprise, for such vicarious suffering, in the form described here, is without parallel in the Old Testament.
  86. 53:6 The Lord laid upon him: the servant’s suffering is no accidental or casual matter, but part of God’s plan; see also v. 10. The bystanders’ speculation of v. 4 is verified, but not in the sense intended by them.
  87. 53:10–11 Reparation offering: the Hebrew term ’asham is used of a particular kind of sacrifice, one that is intended as compensation for that which is due because of guilt. See Lv 5:14–26 and note. Justify: the verb means “to be acquitted,” “declared innocent,” but since the servant bears “their iniquity,” an effective rather than simply legal action is suggested.
  88. 54:1 Jerusalem, pictured as a wife who had been barren and deserted, now suddenly finds herself with innumerable children (the returning exiles); cf. Gal 4:27 for an application to a new context.
  89. 54:3 Those who had taken advantage of the exile to encroach on Jerusalem’s territory will be driven out, and the returning exiles will repopulate the cities of Judah.
  90. 54:4–8 As with some other Old Testament themes, Second Isaiah uses that of Israel as the Lord’s bride in a new manner. Whereas Hosea and Jeremiah had depicted Israel as the Lord’s spouse to emphasize both Israel’s infidelity and the Lord’s continued love (Hos 1–3; Jer 2:2; 3:1–15) and Ezekiel to accuse Israel unsparingly (Ez 16; 23), Second Isaiah speaks only of the love with which the Lord restores the people, speaking tender words with no hint of reproach.
  91. 54:5 Redeemer: cf. note on 41:14.
  92. 54:10 Covenant of peace: this whole section, vv. 9–17, is given to various assurances of God’s love for Israel and of safety from various possible threats; the phrase sums up both the positive aspects of shalom, which implies a fullness of blessing, and protection from all that might harm. Cf. also 55:3; Nm 25:12; Ez 34:25; 37:26; Mal 2:5.
  93. 54:11 Afflicted one: Jerusalem.
  94. 55:1–3 The prophet invites all to return, under the figure of a banquet; cf. the covenant banquet in Ex 24:9–11 and wisdom’s banquet in Prv 9:1–6. The Lord’s covenant with David (2 Sm 7) is now to be extended beyond his dynasty.
  95. 55:5 The “nation” is Persia under Cyrus, but the perspective is worldwide.
  96. 55:6–9 The invitation to seek the Lord is motivated by the mercy of a God whose “ways” are completely mysterious.
  97. 55:10–11 The efficacy of the word of God recalls 40:5, 8.
  98. 55:13 Thornbush…nettles: suggestive of the desert and therefore symbolic of suffering and hardship; cypress…myrtle: suggestive of fertile land and therefore symbolic of joy and strength. To the Lord’s renown: lit., “to the name of the Lord.”
  99. 56:1–8 This poem inaugurates the final section of the Book of Isaiah, often referred to as Third or Trito-Isaiah. While Second or Deutero-Isaiah (Is 40–55) gave numerous references to the hopes of the community of Israel during the Babylonian exile (ca. 587–538 B.C.), Third Isaiah witnesses to the struggles and hoped-for blessings of the postexilic community now back in the homeland of Israel. In this opening poem, the references to “keeping the sabbath” (vv. 2, 4, 6), “holding fast to the covenant” (vv. 4, 6) and “God’s holy mountain” as a house of prayer (v. 7), all tell of the postexilic community that was establishing itself again in the land according to the pattern of God’s word given through the prophet. The poem can be classified as a “prophetic exhortation” in which the prophet gives instruction for those who wish to live according to God’s word and covenant. What is important to note are the conditions placed upon the people of God; while Is 40–55 show an unconditional promise of redemption, these final chapters delineate clear expectations for receiving God’s salvific promises. Both the expectations and the great promises of God will unfold in the succeeding chapters of Third Isaiah.
  100. 56:1 This opening verse echoes themes that are well known throughout the Book of Isaiah: justice and right judgment (1:27; 5:7, 16; 9:6; 16:5; 26:9; 28:17; 32:1, 16; 33:5; 42:1, 4, 6; 45:8, 13, 19), salvation and deliverance (12:3; 26:18; 33:2; 45:8, 21; 46:13; 51:5, 6, 8). These themes will be developed also throughout Third Isaiah.
  101. 56:3 Eunuchs had originally been excluded from the community of the Lord; cf. Dt 23:2; Neh 13:1–3; Wis 3:14.
  102. 56:5 A monument and a name: literally in Hebrew, “a hand and a name”; a memorial inscription to prevent oblivion for one who had no children; cf. 2 Sm 18:18; Neh 7:5; 13:14.
  103. 56:7 This verse continues the theme of universalism found in Is 49:6. As Israel was to be “a light to the nations” so that God’s “salvation may reach to the ends of the earth,” so now does that come to pass as foreigners, faithful to the divine commands, are brought to the Temple by God and joined to the covenant community of Israel.
  104. 56:8 For the gathering of the dispersed people of Israel, cf. Jer 23:3; 31:8–9; Ez 11:17. Here the Lord not only gathers the displaced of Israel, but also unites other peoples to them. Cf. Is 60:3–10; 66:18–21.
  105. 56:9–57:21 This section is made up of two pronouncements of judgment (56:9–57:2; 57:3–13) and an oracle of salvation (57:14–21), each of which ends with a reversal of imagery and language. While there are harsh indictments against the corrupt leaders of Israel (56:9–12), a promise of peace is offered to those who are just (57:1–2). Then the judgment and its subsequent punishment for idolaters (57:3–13a) change to an announcement of reward for those who place their trust in God (57:13c). And the promises of salvation (57:14–19) then shift to a word of warning to the wicked (57:20–21).
  106. 56:9 Beasts of the field: foreign nations, which are invited to come and ravage Israel.
  107. 56:10–11 These shepherds of Israel are without “knowledge,” a theme developed earlier in the Isaian corpus; cf. 1:3; 6:9–10. Ezekiel 34 has similar condemnatory words against the unfaithful shepherds of Israel.
  108. 57:2 Despite their sad fate, the just will ultimately attain peace (most likely in this world); cf. v. 13.
  109. 57:3–13 In this courtroom imagery, the idolaters are summoned before the judge (v. 3), their crimes are graphically described (vv. 4–11), their guilt is established, and condemnation is carried out (vv. 12–13b). In contrast to this, v. 13c describes the inheritance of God’s land and holy mountain given to those who place their confidence in God instead of in idols.
  110. 57:3 Language of sexual infidelity is often used in a figurative way to describe idolatry. Cf. Ez 16:15–22; Hos 2:4–7; Col 3:5.
  111. 57:5 Child sacrifice is also attested in 2 Kgs 23:10; Jer 7:31; Ez 16:20; 20:28, 31; 23:37–39.
  112. 57:6 Smooth stones: the Hebrew word for this expression has the same consonants as the word for “portion”; instead of making the Lord their portion (cf. Ps 16:5), the people adored slabs of stone which they took from the streambeds in valleys and set up as idols; cf. Jer 3:9. Therefore, it is implied, they will be swept away as by a sudden torrent of waters carrying them down the rocky-bottomed gorge to destruction and death without burial.
  113. 57:8 Nakedness: literally in Hebrew, “hand.” In this context, it may euphemistically refer to a phallus.
  114. 57:9 The king: in Hebrew, the word for king is melek, similar in sound to the Canaanite god Molech, to whom children were offered as a sacrifice in pagan ritual. The expression “your ambassadors” could be a figurative expression for the children whose death served as an offering to this deity.
  115. 57:12 Justice: here used sarcastically. The activity described in these verses is far from the justice which God demands of those who are aligned with the covenant (cf. 56:1, 4, 6). In the larger context of Third Isaiah and the whole of the Isaian tradition, justice is a key theological motif. The justice to which God calls Israel will eventually come to its fulfillment in an act of divine intervention (cf. 60:21; 61:3c). Until then, the people of God must strive to live in the ways of justice and right judgment (56:1).
  116. 57:13 In v. 6, the smooth stones of the valley are the portion which the unfaithful will receive as their due reward (cf. note on v. 6); while in v. 13c, an inheritance of the land and possession of God’s holy mountain will be the portion of the upright.
  117. 57:14 The way…my people’s way: the language and imagery are reminiscent of 40:1–2, but in this context, when the people have already returned, the physical road through the desert is replaced by the spiritual way that leads to redemption.
  118. 57:15 The God of Israel is presented in both a transcendent and an immanent manner. God’s holiness is the transcendent quality; the immanence is shown in the choice of dwelling among the downtrodden and humble.
  119. 57:19 Creating words of comfort: lit., “fruit of the lips,” perhaps referring to praise and thanksgiving for the divine healing; cf. Hos 14:3.
  120. 58:1–5 The prophet is commanded to condemn the formalism of the people, specifically their hypocritical fasting.
  121. 58:6–12 Fasting is not genuine without reforming one’s way of life. A true social morality will ensure prosperity.
  122. 58:13–14 Sabbath observance becomes a cornerstone of postexilic piety; cf. 56:2, 4, 6.
  123. 59:1–20 This poem brings together a lament of the postexilic community and a harsh word of judgment from the prophet. After the opening rhetorical question, each of the stanzas begins with a reference to the justice and right judgment which are lacking among the people (vv. 4, 9, 14). Toward the end of the poem, God is depicted as a Divine Warrior (vv. 16–20) who is the only one who can intervene in order to bring redemption. This same Divine Warrior imagery is repeated in a similar fashion in 63:1–6.
  124. 59:5–6 The eggs signify evil works, doing positive harm; the webs are devices that serve no useful purpose.
  125. 59:9–15 The turning point in the poem comes when the people acknowledge their transgressions and describe the horror of their present state. Light is a metaphor for salvation (cf. 9:1; 42:16; 60:1–3, 19–20) and darkness represents sin and disaster.
  126. 59:21 This verse makes the transition from chaps. 56–59 to chaps. 60–62. Oracles of judgment yield to oracles about God’s redemptive action.
  127. 60:1–9 The light the prophet proclaims to Zion symbolizes the blessing to come to her: the glory of the Lord, the return of her children, the wealth of nations who themselves will walk by her light. The passage is famous from its use in the Latin liturgy for the feast of Epiphany.
  128. 60:10–18 The glorious promises for the future continue: the wealth of the nations (vv. 5, 10), tribute from kings, glorification of the Temple, peace and justice (cf. Ps 85:11).
  129. 60:19–20 The theme of light is taken up again, but in an apocalyptic vein: the Lord’s radiant presence replaces physical light.
  130. 61:1–2 The prophet proclaims that he has been anointed by the Lord to bring good news (cf. 40:9) to the afflicted and to comfort Zion. The background to the “year of favor” is the jubilee year of release from debts (Lv 25:10–11; Is 49:8).
  131. 61:6 The bestowal of a new name suggests a new identity and mission. The whole people will be priests (cf. Ex 19:6), even ministering to nations who will serve God’s people.
  132. 61:7 Twofold: Israel was punished double for infidelity (40:2); the blessings of its restoration will also be double.
  133. 61:10–11 The new life of the restored Zion is expressed in nuptial (cf. also 62:5) and agricultural (cf. v. 3; 60:21) imagery.
  134. 62:1–12 As in chap. 60, the prophet addresses Zion, announcing the reversal of her fortune. Several motifs reappear: light and glory (60:1–3, 19–20), tribute of nations (60:11), and especially the marriage (61:10; cf. also 54:5–8).
  135. 62:8–9 Peace and prosperity are indicated by the absence of invaders who would live off the land.
  136. 62:10–11 The gates of Babylon are to be opened for the exiles to return, led by the Lord, as in 40:3–5, 10.
  137. 63:1–6 Two questions are raised at the approach of a majestic figure coming from Edom. It is the Lord, his garments red with the blood from the judgment battle. Edom (its capital Bozrah) plundered Judah after the fall of Jerusalem; cf. 34:5–17. Wine press: here a symbol of a bloody judgment; cf. Lam 1:15; Jl 4:13.
  138. 63:7–64:11 This lament of the exilic community recalls God’s protection, and especially the memories of the exodus (vv. 7–14), before begging the Lord to come once more to their aid (63:15–64:3), as they confess their sins (64:4–11). The prayer is marked by God’s “holy spirit” (63:10–11, 14) and fatherhood (63:8, 9, 16; 64:7).
  139. 63:17 The hardening of the heart (Ex 4:21; 7:3) serves to explain Israel’s sins—a motif to induce the Lord to relent.
  140. 63:19–64:3 A new theophany, like Sinai of old, is invoked so that Israel’s enemies will be humbled by God’s intervention.
  141. 64:2 The translation here omits some words repeated in the Hebrew from 63:19 (“would that you would come down, with the mountains trembling before you”).
  142. 64:7–11 The motifs of father (63:16) and creator (clay and potter, 29:16; 45:9) are adduced to move the Lord to action in view of the damage done to his “holy cities” and “glorious house.”
  143. 65:1–7 These verses serve as a response to the preceding questions about God’s inaction (64:6, 11). It is not God who has been absent, but the people who have walked away from God by idolatrous acts and rituals (vv. 3–4). That is the reason for their punishment (vv. 6–7).
  144. 65:5 Render you holy: unclean food is what these people claim has made them sacred! The prophet ridicules them. Sacredness was understood as something communicable (cf. Ex 19:9–15).
  145. 65:8 This verse reflects the remnant theology found elsewhere in the Book of Isaiah: 1:8–9; 4:3; 6:11–13; etc.
  146. 65:11–12 Destiny: the play on words is found in the Hebrew, in which “destiny” and “destine” are menî and manîthî.
  147. 65:16 God of truth: lit., “God of Amen,” i.e., the one who keeps his word.
  148. 65:17–18 The new creation (cf. 66:22) is described with apocalyptic exuberance: long life, material prosperity, and so forth. As the former events in 43:18 are to be forgotten, so also the new creation wipes out memory of the first creation.