Bible Book List

Isaiah 56-57 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

III. Isaiah 56—66

Chapter 56

Salvation for the Just[a]

    [b]Thus says the Lord:
Observe what is right, do what is just,
    for my salvation is about to come,
    my justice, about to be revealed.
Happy is the one who does this,
    whoever holds fast to it:
Keeping the sabbath without profaning it,
    keeping one’s hand from doing any evil.

Obligations and Promises to Share in the Covenant

[c]The foreigner joined to the Lord should not say,
    “The Lord will surely exclude me from his people”;
Nor should the eunuch say,
    “See, I am a dry tree.”
    For thus says the Lord:
To the eunuchs who keep my sabbaths,
    who choose what pleases me,
    and who hold fast to my covenant,
I will give them, in my house
    and within my walls, a monument and a name[d]
Better than sons and daughters;
    an eternal name, which shall not be cut off, will I give them.
And foreigners who join themselves to the Lord,
    to minister to him,
To love the name of the Lord,
    to become his servants—
All who keep the sabbath without profaning it
    and hold fast to my covenant,
[e]Them I will bring to my holy mountain
    and make them joyful in my house of prayer;
Their burnt offerings and their sacrifices
    will be acceptable on my altar,
For my house shall be called
    a house of prayer for all peoples.
[f]Oracle of the Lord God,
    who gathers the dispersed of Israel—
Others will I gather to them
    besides those already gathered.

Unworthy Shepherds[g]

All you beasts of the field,[h]
    come to devour,
    all you beasts in the forest!
10 [i]All the sentinels of Israel are blind,
    they are without knowledge;
They are all mute dogs,
    unable to bark;
Dreaming, reclining,
    loving their sleep.
11 Yes, the dogs have a ravenous appetite;
    they never know satiety,
Shepherds who have no understanding;
    all have turned their own way,
    each one covetous for gain:
12 “Come, let me bring wine;
    let us fill ourselves with strong drink,
And tomorrow will be like today,
    or even greater.”

Chapter 57

The just have perished,
    but no one takes it to heart;
The steadfast are swept away,
    while no one understands.
Yet the just are taken away from the presence of evil,
    [j]and enter into peace;
They rest upon their couches,
    the sincere, who walk in integrity.

An Idolatrous People[k]

But you, draw near,
    you children of a sorceress,
    offspring of an adulterer and a prostitute![l]
Against whom do you make sport,
    against whom do you open wide your mouth,
    and stick out your tongue?
Are you not rebellious children,
    deceitful offspring—
You who burn with lust among the oaks,
    under every green tree;
You who immolate children in the wadies,
    among the clefts of the rocks?[m]
Among the smooth stones[n] of the wadi is your portion,
    they, they are your allotment;
Indeed, you poured out a drink offering to them,
    and brought up grain offerings.
    With these things, should I be appeased?
Upon a towering and lofty mountain
    you set up your bed,
    and there you went up to offer sacrifice.
Behind the door and the doorpost
    you set up your symbol.
Yes, deserting me, you carried up your bedding;
    and spread it wide.
You entered an agreement with them,
    you loved their couch, you gazed upon nakedness.[o]
You approached the king[p] with oil,
    and multiplied your perfumes;
You sent your ambassadors far away,
    down even to deepest Sheol.
10 Though worn out with the length of your journey,
    you never said, “It is hopeless”;
You found your strength revived,
    and so you did not weaken.
11 Whom did you dread and fear,
    that you told lies,
And me you did not remember
    nor take to heart?
Am I to keep silent and conceal,
    while you show no fear of me?
12 I will proclaim your justice[q]
    and your works;
    but they shall not help you.
13 [r]When you cry out,
    let your collection of idols save you.
All these the wind shall carry off,
    a mere breath shall bear them away;
But whoever takes refuge in me shall inherit the land,
    and possess my holy mountain.

The Way to Peace for God’s People

14 And I say:
Build up, build up, prepare the way,
    remove every obstacle from my people’s way.[s]
15 [t]For thus says the high and lofty One,
    the One who dwells forever, whose name is holy:
I dwell in a high and holy place,
    but also with the contrite and lowly of spirit,
To revive the spirit of the lowly,
    to revive the heart of the crushed.
16 For I will not accuse forever,
    nor always be angry;
For without me their spirit fails,
    the life breath that I have given.
17 Because of their wicked avarice I grew angry;
    I struck them, hiding myself from them in wrath.
But they turned back, following the way
    of their own heart.
18 I saw their ways,
    but I will heal them.
I will lead them and restore full comfort to them
    and to those who mourn for them,
19     creating words of comfort.[u]
Peace! Peace to those who are far and near,
    says the Lord; and I will heal them.
20 But the wicked are like the tossing sea
    which cannot be still,
Its waters cast up mire and mud.
21     There is no peace for the wicked!
    says my God.


  1. 56:1–8 This poem inaugurates the final section of the Book of Isaiah, often referred to as Third or Trito-Isaiah. While Second or Deutero-Isaiah (Is 40–55) gave numerous references to the hopes of the community of Israel during the Babylonian exile (ca. 587–538 B.C.), Third Isaiah witnesses to the struggles and hoped-for blessings of the postexilic community now back in the homeland of Israel. In this opening poem, the references to “keeping the sabbath” (vv. 2, 4, 6), “holding fast to the covenant” (vv. 4, 6) and “God’s holy mountain” as a house of prayer (v. 7), all tell of the postexilic community that was establishing itself again in the land according to the pattern of God’s word given through the prophet. The poem can be classified as a “prophetic exhortation” in which the prophet gives instruction for those who wish to live according to God’s word and covenant. What is important to note are the conditions placed upon the people of God; while Is 40–55 show an unconditional promise of redemption, these final chapters delineate clear expectations for receiving God’s salvific promises. Both the expectations and the great promises of God will unfold in the succeeding chapters of Third Isaiah.
  2. 56:1 This opening verse echoes themes that are well known throughout the Book of Isaiah: justice and right judgment (1:27; 5:7, 16; 9:6; 16:5; 26:9; 28:17; 32:1, 16; 33:5; 42:1, 4, 6; 45:8, 13, 19), salvation and deliverance (12:3; 26:18; 33:2; 45:8, 21; 46:13; 51:5, 6, 8). These themes will be developed also throughout Third Isaiah.
  3. 56:3 Eunuchs had originally been excluded from the community of the Lord; cf. Dt 23:2; Neh 13:1–3; Wis 3:14.
  4. 56:5 A monument and a name: literally in Hebrew, “a hand and a name”; a memorial inscription to prevent oblivion for one who had no children; cf. 2 Sm 18:18; Neh 7:5; 13:14.
  5. 56:7 This verse continues the theme of universalism found in Is 49:6. As Israel was to be “a light to the nations” so that God’s “salvation may reach to the ends of the earth,” so now does that come to pass as foreigners, faithful to the divine commands, are brought to the Temple by God and joined to the covenant community of Israel.
  6. 56:8 For the gathering of the dispersed people of Israel, cf. Jer 23:3; 31:8–9; Ez 11:17. Here the Lord not only gathers the displaced of Israel, but also unites other peoples to them. Cf. Is 60:3–10; 66:18–21.
  7. 56:9–57:21 This section is made up of two pronouncements of judgment (56:9–57:2; 57:3–13) and an oracle of salvation (57:14–21), each of which ends with a reversal of imagery and language. While there are harsh indictments against the corrupt leaders of Israel (56:9–12), a promise of peace is offered to those who are just (57:1–2). Then the judgment and its subsequent punishment for idolaters (57:3–13a) change to an announcement of reward for those who place their trust in God (57:13c). And the promises of salvation (57:14–19) then shift to a word of warning to the wicked (57:20–21).
  8. 56:9 Beasts of the field: foreign nations, which are invited to come and ravage Israel.
  9. 56:10–11 These shepherds of Israel are without “knowledge,” a theme developed earlier in the Isaian corpus; cf. 1:3; 6:9–10. Ezekiel 34 has similar condemnatory words against the unfaithful shepherds of Israel.
  10. 57:2 Despite their sad fate, the just will ultimately attain peace (most likely in this world); cf. v. 13.
  11. 57:3–13 In this courtroom imagery, the idolaters are summoned before the judge (v. 3), their crimes are graphically described (vv. 4–11), their guilt is established, and condemnation is carried out (vv. 12–13b). In contrast to this, v. 13c describes the inheritance of God’s land and holy mountain given to those who place their confidence in God instead of in idols.
  12. 57:3 Language of sexual infidelity is often used in a figurative way to describe idolatry. Cf. Ez 16:15–22; Hos 2:4–7; Col 3:5.
  13. 57:5 Child sacrifice is also attested in 2 Kgs 23:10; Jer 7:31; Ez 16:20; 20:28, 31; 23:37–39.
  14. 57:6 Smooth stones: the Hebrew word for this expression has the same consonants as the word for “portion”; instead of making the Lord their portion (cf. Ps 16:5), the people adored slabs of stone which they took from the streambeds in valleys and set up as idols; cf. Jer 3:9. Therefore, it is implied, they will be swept away as by a sudden torrent of waters carrying them down the rocky-bottomed gorge to destruction and death without burial.
  15. 57:8 Nakedness: literally in Hebrew, “hand.” In this context, it may euphemistically refer to a phallus.
  16. 57:9 The king: in Hebrew, the word for king is melek, similar in sound to the Canaanite god Molech, to whom children were offered as a sacrifice in pagan ritual. The expression “your ambassadors” could be a figurative expression for the children whose death served as an offering to this deity.
  17. 57:12 Justice: here used sarcastically. The activity described in these verses is far from the justice which God demands of those who are aligned with the covenant (cf. 56:1, 4, 6). In the larger context of Third Isaiah and the whole of the Isaian tradition, justice is a key theological motif. The justice to which God calls Israel will eventually come to its fulfillment in an act of divine intervention (cf. 60:21; 61:3c). Until then, the people of God must strive to live in the ways of justice and right judgment (56:1).
  18. 57:13 In v. 6, the smooth stones of the valley are the portion which the unfaithful will receive as their due reward (cf. note on v. 6); while in v. 13c, an inheritance of the land and possession of God’s holy mountain will be the portion of the upright.
  19. 57:14 The way…my people’s way: the language and imagery are reminiscent of 40:1–2, but in this context, when the people have already returned, the physical road through the desert is replaced by the spiritual way that leads to redemption.
  20. 57:15 The God of Israel is presented in both a transcendent and an immanent manner. God’s holiness is the transcendent quality; the immanence is shown in the choice of dwelling among the downtrodden and humble.
  21. 57:19 Creating words of comfort: lit., “fruit of the lips,” perhaps referring to praise and thanksgiving for the divine healing; cf. Hos 14:3.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Ben Sira 6:1-22 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 6

    Do not be a foe instead of a friend.
A bad name, disgrace, and dishonor you will inherit.
    Thus the wicked, the double-tongued![a]

Unruly Passions

Do not fall into the grip of your passion,
    lest like fire it consume your strength.
It will eat your leaves and destroy your fruits,
    and you will be left like a dry tree.
For fierce passion destroys its owner
    and makes him the sport of his enemies.

True Friendship[b]

Pleasant speech multiplies friends,
    and gracious lips, friendly greetings.
Let those who are friendly to you be many,
    but one in a thousand your confidant.
When you gain friends, gain them through testing,
    and do not be quick to trust them.
For there are friends when it suits them,
    but they will not be around in time of trouble.
Another is a friend who turns into an enemy,
    and tells of the quarrel to your disgrace.
10 Others are friends, table companions,
    but they cannot be found in time of affliction.
11 When things go well, they are your other self,
    and lord it over your servants.
12 If disaster comes upon you, they turn against you
    and hide themselves.
13 Stay away from your enemies,
    and be on guard with your friends.
14 Faithful friends are a sturdy shelter;
    whoever finds one finds a treasure.
15 Faithful friends are beyond price,
    no amount can balance their worth.
16 Faithful friends are life-saving medicine;
    those who fear God will find them.
17 Those who fear the Lord enjoy stable friendship,
    for as they are, so will their neighbors be.

Blessings of Wisdom[c]

18 My child, from your youth choose discipline;
    and when you have gray hair you will find wisdom.
19 As though plowing and sowing, draw close to her;
    then wait for her bountiful crops.
For in cultivating her you will work but little,
    and soon you will eat her fruit.

20 She is rough ground to the fool!
    The stupid cannot abide her.
21 She will be like a burdensome stone to them,
    and they will not delay in casting her aside.
22 For discipline[d] is like her name,
    she is not accessible to many.


  1. 6:1 Thus…double-tongued!: people will say this against those disgraced by lying and double-talk.
  2. 6:5–17 One of several poems Ben Sira wrote on friendship; see also 9:10–16; 12:8–18; 13:1–23; 19:13–17; 22:19–26; 27:16–21. True friends are discerned not by prosperity (v. 11), but through the trials of adversity: distress, quarrels (v. 9), sorrow (v. 10) and misfortune (v. 12). Such friends are rare, a gift from God (vv. 14–17).
  3. 6:18–37 The various figures in each of the eight stanzas urge the search for wisdom through patience (vv. 18–19), persistence (vv. 20–22), docility and perseverance (vv. 23–28). Wisdom bestows rich rewards (vv. 29–31) on those who apply themselves and learn from the wise (vv. 32–36). Although one must strive for wisdom, it is God who grants it (v. 37). Cf. 4:11–19.
  4. 6:22 Discipline: musar (in the sense of wisdom) is a perfect homonym for musar, “removed, withdrawn”; thus the path of discipline is not accessible to many.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.

Hebrews 9 New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Chapter 9

The Worship of the First Covenant.[a] Now [even] the first covenant had regulations for worship and an earthly sanctuary. For a tabernacle was constructed, the outer one,[b] in which were the lampstand, the table, and the bread of offering; this is called the Holy Place. [c]Behind the second veil was the tabernacle called the Holy of Holies, in which were the gold altar of incense[d] and the ark of the covenant entirely covered with gold. In it were the gold jar containing the manna, the staff of Aaron that had sprouted, and the tablets of the covenant. [e]Above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the place of expiation. Now is not the time to speak of these in detail.

With these arrangements for worship, the priests, in performing their service,[f] go into the outer tabernacle repeatedly, but the high priest alone goes into the inner one once a year, not without blood[g] that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people. In this way the holy Spirit shows that the way into the sanctuary had not yet been revealed while the outer tabernacle still had its place. This is a symbol of the present time,[h] in which gifts and sacrifices are offered that cannot perfect the worshiper in conscience 10 but only in matters of food and drink and various ritual washings: regulations concerning the flesh, imposed until the time of the new order.

Sacrifice of Jesus. 11 [i]But when Christ came as high priest of the good things that have come to be,[j] passing through the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made by hands, that is, not belonging to this creation, 12 he entered once for all into the sanctuary, not with the blood of goats and calves but with his own blood, thus obtaining eternal redemption. 13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the sprinkling of a heifer’s ashes[k] can sanctify those who are defiled so that their flesh is cleansed, 14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal spirit[l] offered himself unblemished to God, cleanse our consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

15 [m]For this reason he is mediator of a new covenant: since a death has taken place for deliverance from transgressions under the first covenant, those who are called may receive the promised eternal inheritance. 16 [n]Now where there is a will, the death of the testator must be established. 17 For a will takes effect only at death; it has no force while the testator is alive. 18 Thus not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood. 19 [o]When every commandment had been proclaimed by Moses to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves [and goats], together with water and crimson wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20 saying, “This is ‘the blood of the covenant which God has enjoined upon you.’” 21 In the same way, he sprinkled also the tabernacle[p] and all the vessels of worship with blood. 22 [q]According to the law almost everything is purified by blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.

23 [r]Therefore, it was necessary for the copies of the heavenly things to be purified by these rites, but the heavenly things themselves by better sacrifices than these. 24 For Christ did not enter into a sanctuary made by hands, a copy of the true one, but heaven itself, that he might now appear before God on our behalf. 25 Not that he might offer himself repeatedly, as the high priest enters each year into the sanctuary with blood that is not his own; 26 if that were so, he would have had to suffer repeatedly from the foundation of the world. But now once for all he has appeared at the end of the ages[s] to take away sin by his sacrifice. 27 Just as it is appointed that human beings die once, and after this the judgment, 28 so also Christ, offered once to take away the sins of many,[t] will appear a second time, not to take away sin but to bring salvation to those who eagerly await him.


  1. 9:1–10 The regulations for worship under the old covenant permitted all the priests to enter the Holy Place (Hb 2:6), but only the high priest to enter the Holy of Holies and then only once a year (Hb 9:3–5, 7). The description of the sanctuary and its furnishings is taken essentially from Ex 25–26. This exclusion of the people from the Holy of Holies signified that they were not allowed to stand in God’s presence (Hb 9:8) because their offerings and sacrifices, which were merely symbols of their need of spiritual renewal (Hb 9:10), could not obtain forgiveness of sins (Hb 9:9).
  2. 9:2 The outer one: the author speaks of the outer tabernacle (Hb 9:6) and the inner one (Hb 9:7) rather than of one Mosaic tabernacle divided into two parts or sections.
  3. 9:3 The second veil: what is meant is the veil that divided the Holy Place from the Holy of Holies. It is here called the second, because there was another veil at the entrance to the Holy Place, or “outer tabernacle” (Ex 26:36).
  4. 9:4 The gold altar of incense: Ex 30:6 locates this altar in the Holy Place, i.e., the first tabernacle, rather than in the Holy of Holies. Neither is there any Old Testament support for the assertion that the jar of manna and the staff of Aaron were in the ark of the covenant. For the tablets of the covenant, see Ex 25:16.
  5. 9:5 The place of expiation: the gold “mercy seat” (Greek hilastērion, as in Rom 3:25), where the blood of the sacrificial animals was sprinkled on the Day of Atonement (Lv 16:14–15). This rite achieved “expiation” or atonement for the sins of the preceding year.
  6. 9:6 In performing their service: the priestly services that had to be performed regularly in the Holy Place or outer tabernacle included burning incense on the incense altar twice each day (Ex 30:7), replacing the loaves on the table of the bread of offering once each week (Lv 24:8), and constantly caring for the lamps on the lampstand (Ex 27:21).
  7. 9:7 Not without blood: blood was essential to Old Testament sacrifice because it was believed that life was located in the blood. Hence blood was especially sacred, and its outpouring functioned as a meaningful symbol of cleansing from sin and reconciliation with God. Unlike Hebrews, the Old Testament never says that the blood is “offered.” The author is perhaps retrojecting into his description of Mosaic ritual a concept that belongs to the New Testament antitype, as Paul does when he speaks of the Israelites’ passage through the sea as a “baptism” (1 Cor 10:2).
  8. 9:9 The present time: this expression is equivalent to the “present age,” used in contradistinction to the “age to come.”
  9. 9:11–14 Christ, the high priest of the spiritual blessings foreshadowed in the Old Testament sanctuary, has actually entered the true sanctuary of heaven that is not of human making (Hb 9:11). His place there is permanent, and his offering is his own blood that won eternal redemption (Hb 9:12). If the sacrifice of animals could bestow legal purification (Hb 9:13), how much more effective is the blood of the sinless, divine Christ who spontaneously offered himself to purge the human race of sin and render it fit for the service of God (Hb 9:14).
  10. 9:11 The good things that have come to be: the majority of later manuscripts here read “the good things to come”; cf. Hb 10:1.
  11. 9:13 A heifer’s ashes: ashes from a red heifer that had been burned were mixed with water and used for the cleansing of those who had become ritually defiled by touching a corpse; see Nm 19:9, 14–21.
  12. 9:14 Through the eternal spirit: this expression does not refer either to the holy Spirit or to the divine nature of Jesus but to the life of the risen Christ, “a life that cannot be destroyed” (Hb 7:16).
  13. 9:15–22 Jesus’ role as mediator of the new covenant is based upon his sacrificial death (cf. Hb 8:6). His death has effected deliverance from transgressions, i.e., deliverance from sins committed under the old covenant, which the Mosaic sacrifices were incapable of effacing. Until this happened, the eternal inheritance promised by God could not be obtained (Hb 9:15). This effect of his work follows the human pattern by which a last will and testament becomes effective only with the death of the testator (Hb 9:16–17). The Mosaic covenant was also associated with death, for Moses made use of blood to seal the pact between God and the people (Hb 9:18–21). In Old Testament tradition, guilt could normally not be remitted without the use of blood (Hb 9:22; cf. Lv 17:11).
  14. 9:16–17 A will…death of the testator: the same Greek word diathēkē, meaning “covenant” in Hb 9:15, 18, is used here with the meaning will. The new covenant, unlike the old, is at the same time a will that requires the death of the testator. Jesus as eternal Son is the one who established the new covenant together with his Father, author of both covenants; at the same time he is the testator whose death puts his will into effect.
  15. 9:19–20 A number of details here are different from the description of this covenant rite in Ex 24:5–8. Exodus mentions only calves (“young bulls,” NAB), not goats (but this addition in Hebrews is of doubtful authenticity), says nothing of the use of water and crimson wool and hyssop (these features probably came from a different rite; cf. Lv 14:3–7; Nm 19:6–18), and describes Moses as splashing blood on the altar, whereas Hebrews says he sprinkled it on the book (but both book and altar are meant to symbolize the agreement of God). The words of Moses are also slightly different from those in Exodus and are closer to the words of Jesus at the Last Supper in Mk 14:24 // Mt 26:28.
  16. 9:21 According to Exodus, the tabernacle did not yet exist at the time of the covenant rite. Moreover, nothing is said of sprinkling it with blood at its subsequent dedication (Ex 40:9–11).
  17. 9:22 Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness: in fact, ancient Israel did envisage other means of obtaining forgiveness; the Old Testament mentions contrition of heart (Ps 51:17), fasting (Jl 2:12), and almsgiving (Sir 3:29). The author is limiting his horizon to the sacrificial cult, which did always involve the shedding of blood for its expiatory and unitive value.
  18. 9:23–28 Since the blood of animals became a cleansing symbol among Old Testament prefigurements, it was necessary that the realities foreshadowed be brought into being by a shedding of blood that was infinitely more effective by reason of its worth (Hb 9:23). Christ did not simply prefigure the heavenly realities (Hb 9:24) by performing an annual sacrifice with a blood not his own (Hb 9:25); he offered the single sacrifice of himself as the final annulment of sin (Hb 9:26). Just as death is the unrepeatable act that ends a person’s life, so Christ’s offering of himself for all is the unrepeatable sacrifice that has once for all achieved redemption (Hb 9:27–28).
  19. 9:26 At the end of the ages: the use of expressions such as this shows that the author of Hebrews, despite his interest in the Platonic concept of an eternal world above superior to temporal reality here below, nevertheless still clings to the Jewish Christian eschatology with its sequence of “the present age” and “the age to come.”
  20. 9:28 To take away the sins of many: the reference is to Is 53:12. Since the Greek verb anapherō can mean both “to take away” and “to bear,” the author no doubt intended to play upon both senses: Jesus took away sin by bearing it himself. See the similar wordplay in Jn 1:29. Many is used in the Semitic meaning of “all” in the inclusive sense, as in Mk 14:24. To those who eagerly await him: Jesus will appear a second time at the parousia, as the high priest reappeared on the Day of Atonement, emerging from the Holy of Holies, which he had entered to take away sin. This dramatic scene is described in Sir 50:5–11.
New American Bible (Revised Edition) (NABRE)

Scripture texts, prefaces, introductions, footnotes and cross references used in this work are taken from the New American Bible, revised edition © 2010, 1991, 1986, 1970 Confraternity of Christian Doctrine, Inc., Washington, DC All Rights Reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the copyright owner.


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