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The Unfaithful Wife

The word of Adonai that came to Hosea son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash, king of Israel. When Adonai first spoke with Hosea, Adonai said to Hosea:

“Go, get yourself a prostitute as a wife
    and children with a prostitute!
For the land is an unfaithful prostitute,
    far from following after Adonai.”

So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Diblaim, and she conceived and bore him a son. Then Adonai said to him:

“Name him Jezreel[a] for in yet a little while
I will visit the blood of Jezreel upon the house of Jehu,
and I will destroy the kingdom of the house of Israel.
In that day I will break the bow of Israel in the valley of Jezreel.”

Then she conceived again, and bore a daughter. And He said to him:

“Name her Lo-ruhamah[b]
    for no longer will I have compassion on the house of Israel
    that I should ever pardon them.
But on the house of Judah I will have compassion
    and deliver them by Adonai, their God,
    yet not by bow, sword or battle,
        nor by horses and horsemen.”

After she weaned Lo-ruhamah, she conceived and bore a son. Then He said:

“Name him Lo-ammi[c],
    for you are not My people
    and I am not yours.”[d]

Restoring the Covenant Promises

“Yet the number of Bnei-Yisrael will be like the sand of the sea,
    which cannot be measured or counted.[e]
Instead of ‘You are not My people’ being said to them,
they will be called ‘Children of the living God.’
Then the descendants of Judah and descendants of Israel will be gathered together.
They will appoint themselves one head
    And they will go up from the land.
For the day of Jezreel will be great.
Say you to your brothers, ‘Ammi’[f]
and to your sisters, ‘Ruhamah’[g].
Contend with your mother, contend!
For she is not My wife nor I her husband.
Let her put away her fornications from her face
and her adulteries from between her breasts.
Or else I will strip her naked
and expose her as on the day she was born.
Then I will make her like a wilderness.
Yes, I will make her like desert land,
and I will let her die of thirst.
I will have no compassion for her children,
for they are children of prostitution.
For their mother has practiced prostitution.
She who conceived them has been shameful.
For she said, ‘Let me go after my lovers,
    who are giving me my bread and my water,
    my wool and my flax, my oil and my drink.’
Therefore see, I will hedge her in with thorns,
and I will build a wall around her
so she cannot find her paths.
Then she will chase after her lovers,
but she will not overtake them.
She will seek them, but not find.
Then she will say:
‘Let me go and return to my first husband,
for was it better for me then, than now.’
10 But she did not realize that I Myself
gave her the grain, the wine and the fresh oil.
I lavished on her silver, also gold—
    which they made into Baal.
11 Therefore I will return
    and take back My grain in its season,
and My new wine at its appointed time,
and I will snatch away My wool and My linen
    for covering her nakedness.
12 So now I will uncover her lewdness
    to the eyes of her lovers,
and no one will rescue her from My hand.
13 I will also put an end to all her rejoicing—
    her feasts, her New Moon,
    her Shabbat, and all her moadim.
14 I will also devastate her vines and her fig trees,
of which she said: ‘These are my payment
    that my lovers have given to me.’
But I will turn them into a thicket
and beasts of the field will devour them.
15 Then I will punish her for the days of the Baalim[h]
to whom she would burn incense—
adorning herself with her rings and jewelry,
going after her lovers—
    but Me she forgot.”
It is a declaration of Adonai.

Compassion and Covenant Love

16 “So then, I Myself will entice her,
I will bring her into the wilderness
    and speak to her heart.
17 I will give her back her vineyards from there
and make the valley of Achor a door of hope.
She will respond there—
    as in the days of her youth,
    as in the day she came up out of the land of Egypt.
18 In that day—it is a declaration of Adonai
you will proclaim, ‘My husband,’
and never again call Me, ‘My Baal.’
19 Then I will remove the names of the Baalim out of her mouth,
no longer to be mentioned by their name.
20 In that day I will make a covenant for them
with the beasts of the field, the flying creatures in the sky,
    and the creeping things on the ground.
I will break into pieces the bow and sword
    and warfare from the land,
and I will cause them to lie down securely.
21 Then I will betroth you to Me forever—
yes, I will betroth you to Me with righteousness,
    justice, covenant loyalty and compassion.
22 I will betroth you to Me with faithfulness,
and you will know Adonai.
23 So it will be in that day, I will respond
—it is a declaration of Adonai
I will respond to the skies,
and they will respond to the earth,
24 and the earth will respond
        with grain, new wine, and fresh oil—
and they will respond with ‘Jezreel!’[i]
25 I will sow her in the land for Myself.
I will have compassion on Lo-ruhamah.
I will say to Lo-ammi, ‘You are My people!’[j]
and they will say, ‘My God!’”

Buying Back His Wife

Then Adonai said to me: “Go again! Love a woman who is loved by a companion and committing adultery—just as Adonai has loved the Bnei-Yisrael, while they were turning to other gods and loving raisin cakes.”

So I bought her for myself for fifteen shekels of silver and an omer and a half of barley. Then I said to her: “For many days you must stay with me. You must not practice prostitution. You must not have a man, and I will be the same toward you.”

For Bnei-Yisrael will remain for many days without king, without prince, without sacrifice, without sacred pillar, and without ephod or teraphim. [k] Afterwards, Bnei-Yisrael will return, and they will seek Adonai their God and David their king. Then they will turn in awe to Adonai and to His goodness in the last days.

Destroyed For Lack of Knowledge

Hear the word of Adonai, Bnei-Yisrael!
For Adonai has a dispute with the inhabitants of the land,
    because there is no truth,
    no covenant loyalty,
    and no knowledge of God in the land.
Curse, deceive, murder,
    steal, commit adultery!
They practice violence,
    and bloodshed follows bloodshed.
Therefore the land will mourn,
and everyone dwelling in it will languish
along with the beasts of the field and the flying creatures of the sky—
    even the fish of the sea will be removed.
Yet let no one dispute
    and let no one argue.
Your people are like a kohen
    who makes quarrels.
So you will stumble by day.
Also a prophet will stumble with you by night,
when I destroy your mother.
My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge.
Since you rejected knowledge,
    I will also reject you from being My kohen.
Since you forgot the Torah of your God,
    just so I will forget your children.
The more they multiplied,
the more they sinned against Me.
I will change their glory into disgrace.
They feed on the sin of My people
and relish their iniquity.
But it will be like people, like kohen.
So I will punish them for their ways,
and repay them for their deeds.
10 They have eaten but will not be satisfied.
They have fornicated but will not increase.
For they stopped giving heed to Adonai.
11 Prostitution and wine—even new wine—
it takes away understanding.
12 My people consult their wooden idol
and their divining rod informs them.
For a spirit of prostitution
    leads them astray
and they have been a prostitute—
    out from under their God.
13 They sacrifice on the mountaintops
and on the high places they burn incense
    under oak poplar, and terebinth—
    for its shade is good.
Therefore your daughters are prostitutes
and your daughters-in-law commit adultery.
14 Will I not punish your daughters for prostitution
    or your daughters-in-law for adultery?
For they consort with prostitutes,
    and they sacrifice with cult prostitutes.
A people without understanding
    will be thrust down.

15 Though you, Israel, are a prostitute,
let Judah not become guilty.
But do not come to Gilgal
    or go up to Beth-aven,[l]
and do not swear: ‘As Adonai lives!’
16 For Israel is stubborn like a stubborn cow.
Now Adonai will pasture them
    like a lamb in the open field.
17 Ephraim is joined to idols;
let him alone!
18 Their liquor has come to an end.
They surely have practiced prostitution.
Her rulers have deeply loved disgrace.
19 A wind will wrap her up in its wings.
They will be ashamed of their sacrifices.

Judgment for Betrayal

Hear this, O priests!
Pay attention, O house of Israel!
Give ear, O house of the king!
For the judgment applies to you:
For you were a snare at Mizpah
    and a net spread on Tabor.
Rebels were deep in slaughter,
so I am a chastisement for them all.
I myself have known Ephraim,
and Israel is not hidden from Me.
For now, Ephraim, you are a prostitute—
    Israel is defiled!
They will not give up their evil deeds
    to return to their God.
For a spirit of prostitution is in them,
    and Adonai they have not known.
The Pride of Israel will answer to his face:
Israel and Ephraim will stagger in their iniquity,
Judah also will stumble with them.
With their flocks and with their herds
they will go to seek Adonai,
but they will not find Him—
He has withdrawn from them.
They have betrayed Adonai,
for they have begotten foreign children.
Now the New Moon will devour them,
    with their portions.

Blow a shofar in Gibeah,
a trumpet in Ramah!
Sound an alarm at Beth-aven:
“Behind you, Benjamin!”
Ephraim will be become desolate
    in the day of rebuke.
Among the tribes of Israel
    I made known what is certain.
10 The princes of Judah were like those who move a boundary mark.
I pour out My fury on them like water.
11 Oppressed is Ephraim,
    crushed by judgment,
for he willingly followed a worthless thing.
12 So, I will be like a moth to Ephraim
and like decay to the house of Judah.
13 When Ephraim saw his sickness
    and Judah his wound,
Ephraim went to Assyria
    and sent envoys to a warring king.
But he cannot heal you
    nor will he cure your wound.
14 For I will be like a lion to Ephraim,
and like a young lion to the house of Judah.
I, even I, will tear and go away.
I will carry off, and nobody will rescue.
15 I will go and return to My place
    until they admit their guilt.
Then they will seek My face.
In their distress they will seek Me earnestly:

Prayer of Teshuvah

Come, let us return to Adonai.
For He has torn, but He will heal us.
He has smitten, but He will bind us up.
After two days He will revive us.
On the third day He will raise us up,
and we will live in His presence.[m]
So let us know, let us strive to know Adonai.
Like dawn His going forth is certain.
He will come to us like the rain,
    like the latter rain watering the earth.

Covenant Loyalty More Than Sacrifice

“O Ephraim, what shall I do for you?
O Judah, what will I do for you?
For your loyalty is like a morning cloud
    or like dew rising early, vanishing.
Therefore I cut them down by the prophets.
I slew them by the words of My mouth.
Now the judgments pronounced against you:
    light will go forth.
For I delight in loyalty[n] and not sacrifice,
knowledge of God more than burnt offerings.
But like Adam, they transgressed a covenant.
There they dealt treacherously with Me.
Gilead is a city of evildoers,
tracked with bloody footprints.
Like marauding bands waiting for a man,
so a company of priests murders
    on the way toward Shechem.
For they have committed crime.
10 In the house of Israel
I have seen a horrible thing:
Ephraim’s prostitution is there,
Israel has become unclean.
11 Also, Judah, there is a harvest for you,
when I return My people from captivity.”

Iniquity of Senseless Ephraim

“When I would have healed Israel,
the iniquity of Ephraim was uncovered,
    even the wickedness of Samaria,
    for they practice fraud.
So a thief breaks in;
    a marauding band will raid outside.
But they never admit in their heart
that I remember all their evil.
Now their deeds are all around them.
They are right before My face.
They gladden the king with their evil
and the princes with their lies.
All of them are practicing adultery,
as an oven heated by a baker who stops stirring
    or kneading dough when it is leavened.
On the day of our king,
princes become sick from wine.
His hand drags scorners along.
For their hearts are like an oven,
as they wait in ambush.
All night their anger smolders.
In the morning it burns like a blazing fire.
All of them are hot like an oven,
and they devour their rulers.
All of their kings have fallen.
None among them calls on Me.
Ephraim mixes himself with the peoples.
Ephraim has become a pancake
    that never gets turned over.
Strangers devoured his strength—
    yet he does not know it.
Gray hairs have spread on him—
    and he does not know it.
10 Though the Pride of Israel
has answered him to his face,
yet they did not return
    to Adonai their God,
nor seek Him about all this.
11 Ephraim is like a senseless silly dove,
they call to Egypt; they go to Assyria.
12 As they are going,
I will spread out My net over them,
I will bring them down like a bird from the sky.
I will chasten them as in the report
    that comes to their assembly.
13 Oy to them!
    For they strayed from Me.
Devastation to them!
    For they rebelled against Me.
Should I redeem them
    after they spoke lies about Me?
14 Nor did they not cry to Me in their heart
when they were wailing on their beds.
For the sake of grain and new wine
    they slash themselves—
    they keep turning away from Me.
15 I trained and strengthened their arms,
yet they kept planning evil against Me.
16 They will turn back—only not upwards.
They are like a treacherous bow.
Their princes will fall by the sword
    because of the insolence with their tongues.
This will be for their ridicule in the land of Egypt.

Idols Thrown Down

“Put a shofar to your mouth!
Like a vulture he comes
    against the house of Adonai.
For they overstepped My covenant
    and transgressed My Torah.
Will they cry out to Me,
‘My God, we—Israel—knew You’?[o]
Israel has rejected goodness—
an adversary will pursue him.
They crowned kings, but not by Me.
They appointed princes
    I did not approve.
Their silver and gold they made into idols—
    just so they would be cut down.
Samaria! Your calf is thrown down!
My anger is kindled against them!
How long will they be incapable of innocence?
For a craftsman from Israel made it,
so it is no god.
For the calf of Samaria will be splinters.

“For they sow wind, and reap a whirlwind.
There is no mature grain—
    the sprout yields no meal.
Should it produce anything,
    strangers would swallow it up.
Israel has been swallowed up!
Now they are among the nations,
    like an ornament with no delight in it.
For they have gone up to Assyria,
    like a wild donkey alone by itself.
Ephraim has hired lovers.
10 Although they hire among the nations,
I will now round them up.
So they will begin to decrease
under the burden of king and princes.
11 “When Ephraim multiplied altars
    for making sin offerings,
they became his altars for sinning.
12 Though I were to write out for him
ten thousand things from My Torah,
they are regarded as something strange.
13 Sacrifices are gifts for Me—
should they sacrifice meat and then eat it?
Adonai will not accept them.
Now He will remember their iniquity
    and punish their sin—
    they will return to Egypt.
14 For Israel has forgotten his Maker and built temples,
while Judah has multiplied fortified cities.
So I will send fire upon its cities
    that will consume their citadels.”

Days of Desolation Are Coming

Do not rejoice, O Israel,
do not celebrate like the peoples—
for so you have gone whoring away from your God.
You have loved a prostitute’s pay,
    on every grain-threshing-floor.
Threshing-floor and wine-press will not sustain them,
and new wine will fail her.
They will not dwell in Adonai’s land.
Instead Ephraim will return to Egypt,
and eat unclean food in Assyria.
They will pour no wine-offerings to Adonai
    they would not be pleasing to Him.
Their sacrifices will be like
    the bread of mourners for them.
All that eat it will be defiled,
    for their bread is for their appetite,
    not coming into the House of Adonai.
What will you do for a moed
or for the day of Adonai’s feast?

Look, even if they escape the desolation,
Egypt will gather them up;
    Memphis will bury them.
And their precious silver treasures?
    Weeds will possess them.
Thorns will be in their tents.
The days of punishment have come;
the days of retribution have come.
Let Israel know! The prophet is a fool;
    the man of the spirit is mad!
For great is your iniquity
    and great the hostility.
Ephraim is a watchman with my God,
    a prophet.
A bird catcher’s trap is on all his paths.
Hostility is in the House of his God.
They have deeply corrupted themselves
    as in the days of Gibeah.
He will remember their iniquity,
He will punish their sin.

10 “Like grapes in the wilderness
    I found Israel.
Like early fruit on a fig tree in its first season
    I saw your fathers.
They came to Baal-peor
    and devoted themselves to shame.
So they became as detestable
    as the thing they loved.
11 Ephraim’s glory flies away like a bird—
no birth, no pregnancy, no conception!
12 For if they should raise their children,
I would make them childless to the last man.
Yes, woe to them
    when I depart from them!
13 Ephraim, as I have seen,
is like Tyre, planted in a meadow,
but Ephraim will bring his children out to the slayer.”

14 Give them, Adonai, what will You give?
Give them a miscarrying womb
    and dried up breasts.

15 “All their wickedness is at Gilgal,
for there I despised them.
Because of their wicked practices,
    I will drive them out of My House.
I will love them no more.
All their princes are rebellious.
16 Ephraim is blighted;
their root is withered;
they bear no fruit.
Even if they bring forth children,
    I will slay the cherished ones in their wombs.”
17 My God will cast them off,
since they did not listen to Him.
So they will become wanderers among the nations.

Israel to be Shamed in Captivity

10 A luxuriant vine is Israel,
who produces fruit for himself.
Like the abundance of his fruit
    he has multiplied his altars.
Like the goodness of his land,
    they made beautiful sacred pillars.
Their heart became smooth[p].
Now they will bear their guilt.
He will break down their altars.
He will destroy their sacred pillars.
Surely now they will say: “We have no king,
    for we have not feared Adonai.
The king—what can he do for us?”
They spoke words—
empty oaths to make a covenant.
But judgment springs up as hemlock
    in the furrows of the field.
The inhabitants of Samaria will quarrel
    over the calves of Beth-aven.
Indeed its people will mourn over it,
    but its priests will tremble over it.
For its glory will surely depart from it.
It also will be carried to Assyria
    as tribute to a warring king.
Ephraim will receive shame
    and Israel will be put to shame by its own counsel.
Samaria is being cut off.
Her king is like a splinter on the surface of the water.
The high places of Aven,
the sin of Israel will be destroyed.
Thorns and thistles will come up on their altars.
And they will say to the mountains: “Cover us!”
And to the hills: “Fall on us!”[q]
“From the days of Gibeah,
you have sinned, O Israel.
There they took their stand.
Will not war over sons of iniquity
    overtake them in Gibeah?
10 When I desire,
I will chasten them,
and peoples will gather against them
when they are yoked to their two sins.
11 Though Ephraim is a trained heifer
    that loves to thresh,
    I put a yoke
    over her fair neck.
I will make Ephraim pull;
    Judah will plow;
    Jacob will drag a harrow by himself.”

Plow Up Your Ground

12 Sow for yourselves righteousness.[r]
Reap in accord with covenant love.
Break up your unplowed ground.
For it is time to seek Adonai,
    until He comes
    and showers righteousness on you.
13 You have plowed up wickedness,
you have reaped iniquity.
You have eaten the fruit of delusion,
    for you have trusted in your own way,
    in the multitude of your mighty men.
14 A tumult will arise among your people.
All your strongholds will be demolished,
as Shalman destroyed Beth-arbel in the day of battle,
when a mother was dashed in pieces with her children.
15 Just so has Bethel done to you
    because of your great wickedness.
At dawn the king of Israel
    will be utterly cut off.

My Son Called Out

11 “When Israel was a youth I loved him,
and out of Egypt I called My son.[s]
They called out to them
but they departed from their presence.
They kept sacrificing to the Baalim
    and burning incense up to idols.
Yet it was I who taught Ephraim to walk.
I took them on My arms.
But they never acknowledged
    that I had healed them.
With human cords I was drawing them,
with bonds of love,
and I became to them as One lifting a yoke from their jaws.
I bent down to them and fed them.
He will not return to the land of Egypt,
but the Assyrian will be his king—
because they refused to return.
So a sword will fall on his cities,
and destroy and devour his gate bars
because of their own counsels.
So My people are bent on turning from Me.
Although they are being called upwards,
    none will rise up.

“How can I give you up, Ephraim?
How can I surrender you, Israel?
How can I make you like Admah?
How can I set you as Zeboim?
My heart is turning over within Me.
My compassions are kindled.
I will not vent My fierce anger.
I will not again destroy Ephraim.
For I am God—not a man—
    the Holy One in the midst of you,
    and I will not come in fury.”

10 They will walk after Adonai.
He will roar like a lion.
Indeed, He will roar
and the children will come trembling from the west.

11 “They will come trembling
like a bird out of Egypt,
like a dove out of the land of Assyria,
and I will settle them in their houses.”
It is a declaration of Adonai.

Ephraim Multiplies Lies

12 “Ephraim surrounded Me with lies[t]
and the house of Israel with deceit.”
Though Judah roams restlessly with God,
yet he is faithful with holy things.[u]
Ephraim is grazing on wind
and pursuing the east wind.
All day he multiplies lies and ruin:
    making[v] a pact with Assyria,
    while carrying oil to Egypt.
Adonai also has a dispute with Judah:
He will punish Jacob for his ways,
    repaying him for his deeds.
In the womb he grasped his brother’s heel,
and in his vigor he strove with God.
Yes, he wrestled with the angel and won;
he wept and sought his favor.
At Bethel he will find us,
    and there He will speak with us.
Even Adonai Elohei-Tzva’ot
Adonai is His memorial-Name.
So you should return to your God,
keep covenant loyalty and justice,
and wait for your God continually.
A merchant loves to extort,
with deceptive balances in his hand.

Now Ephraim has said:
“How rich I have become! I found wealth by myself.
I won’t be guilty of any sin with any of my property.”

10 “Yet I have been Adonai your God,
    since the land of Egypt.
I will yet again make you dwell in tents,
    as in the days of the moed.
11 I also spoke through the prophets
    and I multiplied visions.
Now through the prophets
    I will make parables.
12 Since Gilead is full of iniquity,
they are utterly worthless.
In Gilgal they sacrifice bulls—
even their altars will become heaps of rocks
    along the furrows of My field.”

13 Now Jacob fled to the field of Aram,
when Israel served for a wife—
yes, he kept watch for a wife.
14 So by a prophet Adonai brought Israel up out of Egypt,
and by a prophet he was kept.
15 Ephraim has provoked bitter anger,
so his bloodguilt will remain on him—
his Lord will repay him for his contempt.

No Other Savior

13 When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling.
He exalted himself in Israel,
but he became guilty through Baal, and died.
But now, they sin more and more.
They made themselves molten images,
    idols skillfully made from their silver,
    all of them the work of the craftsmen.
They say about them:
    “Let those who sacrifice kiss the calves.”
Therefore they will be like morning clouds,
like dew passing away early,
like chaff blown from the threshing-floor,
or like smoke from a chimney.

“Yet I have been Adonai your God
    since the land of Egypt.
You should know no God but Me,
and there is no Savior apart from Me.[w]
I Myself knew you in the wilderness,
    in a land of terrible drought.
While they were fed, they were satisfied.
Filled, their hearts became haughty.
Therefore they forgot Me.
So I became like a lion to them—
like a leopard lying in wait by the way.
I will meet them like a bear robbed of her cubs,
and I will tear open their chests.
There I will devour them like a lioness.
A beast of the field will rip them to shreds.
It has corrupted you, O Israel,
for you are against Me—against your Helper!
10 Where then is your king?
So, will he save you in all your cities?
Or your judges, to whom you said:
    ‘Give me a king and princes!’
11 I give you a king in My anger,
and take him away in My wrath.
12 Ephraim is bound by iniquity;
his sin is treasured up.
13 Pains of birth come on him.
He is not a wise son.
When the time comes,
    he should not delay at the opening of the womb.
14 Should I ransom them from the hand of Sheol?
Should I redeem them from death?
O death, where are your plagues?
O Sheol, where is your sting?[x]
Comfort is hidden from My eyes.”

15 Because he is the son of kinsmen,
he should have been fruitful.
An east wind will come—the wind from Adonai,
    coming up from the wilderness.
His spring will become dry,
    and his fountain will dry up.
He will plunder the treasury
    of every precious vessel.

Salvation Like Dew for Israel

14 Samaria will bear her guilt,[y]
for she has rebelled against her God.
They will fall by the sword,
    their infants dashed to pieces,
    their pregnant women ripped open.
Return O Israel, to Adonai your God,
for you have stumbled in your iniquity.
Take words with you and return to Adonai.
Say to Him: “Take away all iniquity,
    and accept what is good,
so we may repay with offerings[z] of our lips:
‘Assyria will not save us.
We will not ride on horses,
and we will never again say, “Our god,”
    to the work of our hands,
    for with You, orphans find mercy.’”

“I will heal their backsliding,
I will love them freely,
for My anger will turn away from him.
I will be like dew for Israel.
He will blossom like a lily,
and thrust out his roots like Lebanon.
His tender shoots will spread out.
His beauty will be like an olive tree
and his fragrance will be like Lebanon.
Those dwelling in his shadow will return.
They will grow grain and bud like a vine.
His renown will be like the wine of Lebanon.

Ephraim: “What more are idols to me?
I have responded and observed Him.
I will be like a luxuriant cypress tree.
From me will be found Your fruit.”

10 Who is wise? Let him discern these things.
Who is intelligent? Let him know them.[aa]
For the ways of Adonai are straight,
    and the just walk in them,
    but the wicked stumble in them.

The word of Adonai that came to Joel the son of Pethuel:

Mourn the Land’s Destruction

Hear this, elders!
Give ear, all inhabitants of the land.
Has this ever happened in your days,
or even in the days of your fathers?
Tell your children about it—
your children to their children,
their children to another generation.
What the locust left,
    the swarming locust has eaten,
and what the swarming locust left,
    the canker-worm has eaten,
and what the canker-worm left,
    the caterpillar has eaten.
Awake, drunkards, and weep!
Wail, all you drinkers of wine—
on account of sweet wine,
for it is denied to your mouth!
For a nation has invaded my land.
Vast—yes, without number!
Its teeth are lion’s teeth,
    with jaw-teeth of a lioness.[ab]
He has turned my vine to waste
and my fig tree to splinters.
He has stripped off all the bark
    and flung it down—
its branches are left white.
Wail like a virgin dressed in sackcloth
for the husband of her youth!
Grain offering and drink offering
are cut off from the House of Adonai.
Kohanim—ministers of Adonai—mourn.
10 The field is ruined, the land grieves,
for the grain has been devastated,
new wine is dried up, oil languishes.
11 Be ashamed, O ploughmen;
wail, O vinedressers,
    over wheat and over barley,
for the harvest of the field is lost.
12 The vine withered, the fig tree wilted.
Pomegranate, palm and apple tree
—all trees of the field—are withered,
for joy has withered away
    from the children of men.
13 Gird yourselves and weep, kohanim!
Howl, ministers of the altar!
Come, lie in sackcloth all night,
        ministers of my God.
For grain and drink offering are withheld
    from the House of your God.

The Day is Near!

14 Consecrate a fast.
Proclaim a solemn assembly.
Gather elders and all living in the land
to the House of Adonai your God,
    and cry to Adonai.
15 Ah, the day!
The day of Adonai is near!
As havoc from Shaddai it will come.
16 Is food not cut off before our eyes—
joy and gladness from God’s House?
17 Seed has shriveled under the dirt clod.
Storehouses are desolate,
    granaries are torn down,
    for the grain has withered.
18 How the animals groan!
The herds of cattle are perplexed,
    because they have no pasture.
The flocks of sheep also suffer.
19 To You, Adonai, I cry!
For fire has devoured the pastures of the wilderness,
and flame has set ablaze all the trees of the field.
20 Also beasts of the field pant toward You.
For the water of wadis are dried up,
and fire has devoured the pastures of the wilderness.
Blow the shofar in Zion!
Sound an alarm on My holy mountain!
Let all living in the land tremble—
for the day of Adonai is coming—
surely it is near![ac]
A day of darkness and gloominess,
a day of clouds and thick darkness,
as blackness spreads over the mountains.
A great and mighty people—
from antiquity there was never anything like it,
nor after it ever again from generation to generation.[ad]
A fire devours before them
and behind them flame blazes up.
Like the Garden of Eden is the land before them,
    and behind them a desolate wilderness.
Nothing at all ever escapes them.
Their appearance is like the appearance of horses—
they gallop like war horses.[ae]
Like the clatter of chariots,[af]
they leap on the tops of mountains,
like crackling flame of fire devouring stubble,
like a mighty horde in battle array.
Before them peoples are in anguish.
All faces become ashen gray.
They run like mighty men.
They climb a wall like men of war.
They each march in line,
    never deviating from their ways.
One does not crowd another.
Each one marches on his own highway.
They plunge through the weapons,
    never breaking off.
They rush on the city,
they run on the wall,
they climb up into the houses,
    coming through the windows like a thief.
10 Before them land quakes,
heaven trembles,
sun and moon become dark,
stars withdraw their brightness.[ag]
11 Adonai utters His voice before His army.
For His camp is very vast—
    for mighty is it that carries out His word.
For great is the day of Adonai[ah] very terrifying!
    Who can endure it?

Call for Teshuvah

12 “Yet even now”
—it is a declaration of Adonai
“turn to Me with all your heart,
with fasting, weeping and lamenting.”
13 Rend your heart, not your garments,
and turn to Adonai, your God.
For He is gracious and compassionate,
    slow to anger, abundant in mercy,
    and relenting about the calamity due.
14 Who knows? He may turn and relent,
and may leave a blessing behind Him
—so there may be a grain offering
and a drink offering for Adonai, your God.

Blow the Shofar

15 Blow the shofar in Zion!
Sanctify a fast;
proclaim an assembly.
16 Gather the people;
sanctify the congregation;
assemble the elders;
gather the children,
    even those nursing at breasts.
Let the bridegroom come out from his bedroom
and the bride from her chamber.
17 Between the porch and the altar
let the kohanim, ministers of Adonai,
    weep, and let them say:
    “Have pity, Adonai, on Your people.
    Don’t make Your heritage a scorn,
        a byword among the nations.
Why should the peoples say,
    ‘Where is their God?’”[ai]
18 Adonai will be zealous for His land,
and have compassion on His people.
19 Adonai will answer and say to His people:
“Behold, I will send you the grain,
    the new wine, and the fresh oil,
    and you will be satisfied with it.
I will no longer make you a mockery among the nations.
20 “But I will remove the northern invader far from you—
    yes, I will banish him to a dry and desolate land—
his vanguard into the Eastern Sea
and his rearguard into the Western Sea.
His odor will go up—
        Yes, his stench will rise.”
    For He[aj] has done great things!

Rain and Restoration

21 Do not fear, O land. Be glad! Rejoice!
For Adonai has done great things.
22 Do not be afraid, beasts of the field,
for the desert pastures have sprouted,
for the tree bears its fruit.
Fig tree and vine yield their strength.
23 So be glad, children of Zion,
and rejoice in Adonai, your God.
For He gives you the early rain[ak] for prosperity,
Yes, He will bring down rain for you,
    the early and latter rain as before.
24 The threshing floors will be full of grain
and the vats will overflow with new wine and fresh oil.

25 “I shall restore to you the years
that the locust, the swarming locust,
the canker-worm and the caterpillar have eaten—
My great army that I sent among you.”
26 “You will surely eat and be satisfied,
and praise the Name of Adonai your God,
    who has dealt wondrously with you.
Never again will My people be shamed
27 You will know that I am within Israel.
Yes, I am Adonai your God—there is no other—
Never again will My people be shamed.”

Promise of the Ruach Adonai

“So it will be afterward,[al]
I will pour out My Ruach on all flesh:[am]
your sons and daughters will prophesy,
your old men will dream dreams,
your young men will see visions.
“Also on the male and the female servants
will I pour out My spirit in those days.[an]
I will show wonders in the heavens and on the earth—
blood, fire and pillars of smoke.[ao]
The sun will be turned into darkness
and the moon into blood, before the great and awesome day of Adonai comes.
Then all who call on Adonai’s Name[ap] will escape,
for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem
there will be rescue, as Adonai has said,
    among the survivors whom Adonai is calling.”

Valley of Jehoshaphat

“For behold, in those days and at that time,
    when I restore Judah and Jerusalem from exile,
I will gather all nations
and bring them down to the valley of Jehoshaphat.
I will plead[aq] with them there on behalf of My people,
    even My inheritance, Israel,
whom they scattered among the nations
    and they divided up My land.
They cast lots for My people,
traded a boy for a prostitute,
    and sold a girl for wine, which they drank.”

“Moreover, what are you to Me, Tyre and Sidon[ar] and all regions of Philistia? Did you render retribution for Me? Even if you were rendering retribution for Me, swiftly, speedily, will I return your retribution back on your own head. For you took My silver and My gold, and you carried My valuable treasures into your temples.

“The children of Judah and of Jerusalem you sold to the Greeks in order to remove them far from their own territory.

“Behold, I am rousing them from the place where you sold them, and I will return your retribution on your own head. I will sell your sons and your daughters into the hand of the children of Judah, and they will sell them to the men of Sheba[as], to a nation far off—for Adonai has spoken.”

Proclaim this among the nations:
Prepare for war.
Stir up the mighty men.
Let the warriors advance and attack.
10 Beat your plowshares into swords,
and your pruning knives into spears.
Let the weak say, “I am strong.”
11 Rouse yourselves and come,
all nations around, and gather there.
    Adonai, bring Your mighty ones down!
12 “Let the nations rouse themselves
and go up to the valley of Jehoshaphat.
For there will I sit
    to judge all the surrounding nations.”
13 Swing the sickle,
for the harvest is ripe.
Come, tread, for the winepress is full
—the vats overflow—
for their wickedness is great![at]
14 Multitudes, multitudes,
    in the valley of decision!
For the day of Adonai is near
    in the valley of decision.
15 The sun and the moon become dark,
the stars withdraw their brightness.
16 Adonai will roar from Zion
and give His voice from Jerusalem.
Heaven and earth will shudder,

Shalom in Zion

but Adonai will be a refuge for His people,
    and a safe place for the children of Israel.
17 So you will know that I am Adonai, your God,
dwelling in Zion, My holy mountain.
Then will Jerusalem be holy,
and foreigners will cross through her no more.
18 It will be in that day,
the mountains will drip sweet wine,
the hills will flow with milk,
and all the wadis of Judah will flow with water.[au]
A spring will flow out from the House of Adonai
    and water the valley of Shittim.
19 Egypt will become a desolation
and Edom a desert wasteland,
because of the violence against the children of Judah,
because they shed innocent blood in their land.
20 But Judah will be inhabited forever—
Jerusalem from generation to generation.
21 I will acquit their bloodguilt that I had not acquitted,[av]
for Adonai dwells in Zion.


  1. Hosea 1:4 Meaning, God will sow or God will scatter.
  2. Hosea 1:6 Meaning, Shown no compassion.
  3. Hosea 1:9 Meaning, Not my people.
  4. Hosea 1:9 Traditional texts number as 11:8-11 to 2:23.
  5. Hosea 2:1 cf. Rom. 9:26.
  6. Hosea 2:3 Meaning, My people.
  7. Hosea 2:3 Meaning, Shown compassion.
  8. Hosea 2:15 Heb. gods.
  9. Hosea 2:24 Meaning, God sows.
  10. Hosea 2:25 cf. Rom. 9:25; 1 Pet. 2:10.
  11. Hosea 3:5 Meaning, sacred vest or household idols.
  12. Hosea 4:15 Meaning, House of Iniquity.
  13. Hosea 6:2 Cf. Matt. 16:21; 1 Cor. 15:4.
  14. Hosea 6:6 Or, covenant love or mercy; cf. Matt. 9:3; 12:7; Mark 12:33.
  15. Hosea 8:2 Cf. Ps. 78:34; Hos. 7:14; Matt. 7:23; Titus 1:16.
  16. Hosea 10:2 Or, faithless or divided.
  17. Hosea 10:8 Cf. Isa. 2:19; Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16.
  18. Hosea 10:12 cf. Gal. 6:7-8.
  19. Hosea 11:1 cf. Matt. 2:15.
  20. Hosea 12:1 Traditional Christian text numbers as 11:12 to 12:14.
  21. Hosea 12:1 Or, to the Holy One.
  22. Hosea 12:2 Lit. they are making.
  23. Hosea 13:4 Cf. Acts 4:12; 1 Tim. 2:3-6.
  24. Hosea 13:14 cf. 1 Cor. 15:55.
  25. Hosea 14:1 Traditional Christian text numbers as 12:16 to 14:9.
  26. Hosea 14:3 Lit. bulls, or perhaps fruit.
  27. Hosea 14:10 cf. Jacob 3:13.
  28. Joel 1:6 cf. Rev. 9:7-8.
  29. Joel 2:1 cf. 2 Pet. 3:10; Rev. 1:10.
  30. Joel 2:2 cf. Matt. 24:21.
  31. Joel 2:4 cf. Rev. 9:7.
  32. Joel 2:5 cf. Rev. 9:9.
  33. Joel 2:10 cf. Matt. 24:29; Rev. 8:12.
  34. Joel 2:11 cf. Rev. 6:17.
  35. Joel 2:17 cf. Matt. 23:35.
  36. Joel 2:20 Deity pronoun referring to Adonai.
  37. Joel 2:23 i.e., autumn and spring rain; cf. Jacob 5:7.
  38. Joel 3:1 Traditional Christian texts are numbered 2:28-3:21.
  39. Joel 3:1 cf. Mark 1:8; Acts 2:17-21; Gal. 3:14.
  40. Joel 3:2 cf. 1 Cor. 12:13; Gal. 3:28.
  41. Joel 3:3 Cf. Matt. 24:29; Mark 13:24-25; Luke 21:11; Acts 2:19; Rev. 8:7.
  42. Joel 3:5 Heb. deliver, save; cf. Acts 2:17-21; Rom. 10:13.
  43. Joel 4:2 Or, enter into judgment.
  44. Joel 4:4 cf. Matt. 11:21-22.
  45. Joel 4:8 Or, into captivity.
  46. Joel 4:13 cf. Matt. 13:39; Rev. 14:15-20.
  47. Joel 4:18 cf. Rev. 22:1-2.
  48. Joel 4:21 cf. Heb. 9:14; 10:22.