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[a]Ephraim shepherds the wind,
    and pursues the east wind all day long.
He multiplies lies and violence:
    They make a covenant with Assyria,
    and oil is carried to Egypt.

The Lord has a dispute with Judah,
    and will punish Jacob[b] for his conduct,
    and repay him for his deeds.
In the womb he supplanted his brother,(A)
    and in his vigor he contended with a divine being;

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Footnotes

  1. 12:2 Hosea frequently condemns the alliances with Assyria and Egypt, the two world powers (7:8–16).
  2. 12:3 Jacob: whose name was changed to Israel (Gn 35:10).

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